Science Quiz / Final Exam

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Can you name the Final Exam?

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The dimer auto-phosphorylates each dimer subunit once they are activated
When an allergen binds to the _____ on the mast cell, it induces the cell to degranulate releasing histamine
B-Lymphocytes work to make ______
_______ is activated by the binding of antibodies to a pathogen and is a very effective way of clearing pathogens from our tissues or blood
______, anchor PKAs at different locations in the cell
_____ enzymes possess SH2 domains and are signaled directly or indirectly by the receptor tyrosine kinase
______ is a monomer of two heavy chains and two light chains
______ proteins act to link one or more proteins together into a signaling complex
Steroids are transported into the body by ______
Most T-cells have alpha and beta T cell receptors, a few T-cells have ______ receptors
The SH2 domain for _____ kinase recognizes pTyr-Met-X-Met (where X is any amino acid)
The substances released by the conjugation in the intercellular space are a bunch of enzymes, called ________, and proteins called perforins
______ is mostly found on the surface of our mast cells in our tissues
______ is the fluid in your blood vessels that contains cells and clotting factors
Humans have roughly ____ different tyrosine kinase receptors, collectively called “Receptor protein-tyrosine kinases” or RTKs
A protein called _____ is activated when DNA damage occurs
_______ stem cells are self-renewing cells and reproduce very slowly and are guided in differentiation by cytokines
Ras-G protein is activated by the _____, through the adaptor protein Grb2 which binds Sos
All cells can present antigen molecules attached to a ______ molecule
______ T Cells control the other lymphocytes through production of specific cell signaling molecules
There are two specific binding domains on signaling molecules mentioned: SH2 and the ____
PLC has two different isomers, _____ (activated by Ca+2 ions) and PLCe (activated by Ras-GTP pathway)
As ______ rises, p21 rises and the cell is inhibited from dividing
The intrinsic pathway is mediated by a family of proteins called ______
Cancer occurs in ______ tissues
______ bind to inactive G-proteins and stimulate disassociation of GDP and GTP rapidly takes its place
______ hydrolyze the Ras protein in order to regulate it
The ________ activate the caspase cascade leading to apoptosis in the target and it dies
The pieces of the broken virus are shuttled to the lumen of the ____ where they are bound to Class I molecules
The enzyme which cleaves PIP2 into DAG and IP3
Induced from the MAP kinase pathway
______ inhibits the production of cyclin-dependant kinase which signals the division of the cell
______ regions occur when the cell is undergoing apoptosis
The adaptor protein _____ has one SH2 domain and two SH3 domains which bind to other proteins
MDM2 and p53 complex is bound to several molecule of ________ which attaches to condemned proteins by enzymes called _______ ligases
Firmly bound to the plasma membranes of both CD4 and CD8 T Cells
______ is secreted in the lumen of the gut to combat bacteria
_______ has two end caps, two alpha subunits and two beta subunits
______ occurs in blood and interstitial fluid and can be secreted into the intestine and other mucous membranes
______ of the membrane-bound antibodies by antigen is Signal #1 for B cell activation
Dilation of blood vessels, flashing of fireflies, anticoagulants, nerve impulse transmission, smooth muscle relaxation, visual reception and in the immune response to pathogens
_____ foods are detected by the presence of acidic food
TP53 is a tumor repressor gene whose protein acts as a transcription factor which regulates the gene produces ______
Rearrangement of gene and differentiation of T cells occurs in the _______
Grb2 adaptor proteins bind _____ which is a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor
______ is an important antibody in milk.
______ converts membrane lipids to PIP2 and PIP3
Ras G-protein can be connected through the adaptor protein _____
Mitochondria membrane permeability induced by Bax leads to the releasing of __________
Made of two chains, an alpha and a beta chain and was much smaller than an antibody receptor on B cells
________ is a tumor repressor gene whose protein acts as a transcription factor which regulates the gene produces p21
_____ gene is the first gene affected in colorectal cancer
Many different ligands can bind ______, such as EGF, PDGF, and insulin
B cells, when activated, begin dividing, but also begin producing antibodies and are then called ______ cells
________ are parts of the antigen molecule which induce antibody production and tell what the anitbodies are against
_______ subfamily is activated and expresses SH2 domains that then can bind to the activated RTK receptor and can then cleave PIP2
The genes which produce the rearrangement in the B and T lymphocytes’ variable gene segments are called ____
In phagocytes the engulfed antigens are broken in lysosomes containing _____ molecules which bind to pieces of the antigen
An antibody, regardless of class will have ____ identical kappa chain(s) and _____ identical lambda chain(s)
The most prominent phagocyte in our blood is the ______
Proenzymes in the apoptosis pathway are also called ________
Examples of the Bcl-2 family are Bad and _____
_____ foods are detected via the process of Na+ ions
Very hard to isolate, unlike antibodies, the ______ is not secreted and exists only as an integral membrane protein
All of the cells of a tissue a stem cell creates are called _______ cells
A mutation in ______ leads to cancerous cell types
Raf activates _____ which activates ERK Which moves to the nucleus and turns on genes
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The proteases of the ______ subunits in the proteasome digest the threaded condemned protein
______ inhibit the disassociation of GDP, maintaining the protein in its inactive state
_____ is found in neural tissues
______ cleave protein kinases, lamins, structural elements of the cytoplasm, and activates and endonuclease
_______ signals receptor-mediated endocytosis and engulfs the antigen
Some viruses in the cells are recognized and are ______ and marks them for destruction in the proteasome
_______ agents manipulate normal cells into becoming cancerous
PLC has two different isomers, PLCd (activated by Ca+2 ions) and ______ (activated by Ras-GTP pathway)
Events leading to apoptosis can be from the inside of the cell (_______) or by extracellular signals (extrinsic)
Transcription factors that have SH2 domains with tyrosine phosphorylation sites
______ is rarely found in blood except in myeloma patients
Hepatitis B virus is correlated with ______ cancer
When an antigen binds to an antibody the ______ region of the heavy chain goes through a conformational change
________ receptors exist on the smooth ER and are signaled by calcium, which in turn releases more calcium into the cell
The binding of TNF to TNFR initiates a conformation change in the death domains, allowing the binding of two adaptor proteins called _____ and TRADD
There are only two classes of light chains, called kappa and
The alpha and beta subunits of the insulin RTK were encoded by the same gene, but they undergo _______ processing to produce two different polypeptides
Its complex allows for binding of SH2 domains on the ______ part
______ is blood that lacks cells but retains the clotting factors
Two _______ molecules bind to the FADD domains and form multi-protein complex termed the “death effector domain”
Neutrophils create ________ which are toxic to the engulfed pathogen
Class I molecules can only present antigen molecules to _____ T cells
Events leading to apoptosis can be from the inside of the cell (intrinsic) or by extracellular signals (______)
_______ bind Fc regions of antibodies on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane
When two procaspase-8 molecule are assembled into the complex, they cleave each other to become activated and form a single _______ molecule containing four polypeptides
______ proteins are antibodies secreted by cancerous B Cells from patients with multiple myeloma
______ is a foreign substance to which the immune system responds
______ , the making of glucose
______ is in extremely low concentrations in the blood
______ and IgE have an extra immunoglobulin domain in their heavy chains
The APC mutation is found on 60% of the non-cancerous adenomas also known as _______
The pieces of the broken virus are shuttled to the lumen of the ER where they are bound to _____ molecules
Raf activates MEK which activates _____Which moves to the nucleus and turns on genes
A cytokine, binds to a membrane spanning receptor ______ Receptor (TNFR)
______ is the antibody class responsible for allergies
______ is the most common antibody found in our body and interstitial fluids
Signaling proteins bind to the cytoplasmic ______ of the phosphorylated RTK dimers that provide a docking site on the receptor
The pathway is involved with inducing DNA synthesis and cell division
One particular T cell can only respond to one particular antigen because they can only express a single _______
_______ binds to p53 in the nucleus and escorts it to the cytosol
The object of these formation is to activate Ras which activates _____ and the formation of DAG and IP3
The activated insulin RTK also phosphorylates tyrosine _____ which creates a binding PTB domain
Associated with neurons in the nasal epithelium and activated by odorants
Epstein-Barr virus is known to cause
Each domain of the TNFR has about 70 amino acids called _______
CD4 and CD8 are proteins on the surface of T ________ distinguishing these cells from one another
_______ defenses are the epithelial membranes and physiological barriers such as enzymes, the compliment system, and oils
______ Cells need the help of helper T cells to become activated
In the event of an intrinsic apoptotic pathway, _____ translocates to the mitochondrial outer membrane inducing a permeability change
_______ is produced during the first few days of the immune response and is made of five monomers of the basic form of the antibody
The vesicle containing _____ molecules bound with pieces of the antigen fuses with the plasma membrane and presents the pieces on the outside of the cell
______ is called the secretory antibody and is found as a monomer, a dimer, and sometimes a tetramer held together by a J-Chain
Two animals of different species are ______
Protein-tyrosine kinases must form _______ to be activated
The binding molecules include signaling molecule PI3K, adaptor protein ______, and protein-tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 which all bind through SH2 domains
Ras-GTP activates ______ (a kinase) and ______binds to the plasma membrane
Auto-phosphorylation results in regulation of kinase activity or provides docking sites for other molecules
Examples of the Bcl-2 family are _____ and Bax
______ pathways lead to signaling cell division, therefore when GTP is no hydrolyzed the cells divide without regulation
_____ binds to this PTB domain on the receptor, and provides SH2 binding sites for signaling molecules
________ are very small molecules that, by themselves, will not induce an antibody response
______ proteins bind to the phosphorylated receptor and have SH2 or PTB domains which are phosphorylated by the receptor
Binding sites for calcium are low affinity, therefore cytosolic calcium needs to be increased in order for the sites to bind calcium
Two genetically similar animals are _______
A condition when there is not enough blood supply to the heart
_____ is found in endothelial cells
________ is made up of the Class I or Class II molecule, the antigenic fragment, and the associated T cell receptor
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The ________ proteins float around the cytoplasm and when the receptor auto-phosphorylates, the _______ protein binds to the receptor and any attached proteins can be acted upon by
Receptors are involved in ‘Calcium induced-calcium release”
______ proteins have and SH2 domain and one or more protein-protein interaction domains
Only _____ T cells can recognize the antigen pieces displayed on phagocytes
_______ is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation, malignant transformation and metastasis
IgM and _____ have an extra immunoglobulin domain in their heavy chains
The binding of TNF to TNFR initiates a conformation change in the death domains, allowing the binding of two adaptor proteins called FADD and ______
Phagocytes recognize ______ on the pathogen
Protein-tyrosine kinases phosphorylate ________residues
As p53 rises, ______rises and the cell is inhibited from dividing
______ monomers are held together to form the pentamer by disulfide bonds and a protein called a J-Chain
The enzymes leading to apoptosis are called ________ because they need to be activated to become functional enzymes
Phagocytes and natural killer cells (do/ do not) get better with time
_____-T cells are made in the bone marrow and migrate to the Thymus
______ antigens come from outside the cells and are engulfed
The Apoptosome activates the _________ leading to cell death
_______ is a calcium binding protein with four binding sites to calcium
_______ T cells are the killer cells of the immune system
_______, when attached to a condemned protein, binds to the caps and threads the protein into the proteasome
In starfish eggs the sperm provides the PLC to produce ____
______ is blood which lacks the clotting factors and the cells
The pathway involved in apoptosis is called _______ cascade
There are two specific binding domains on signaling molecules mentioned: ___ and the PTB
The insulin receptor is a _____ and is made of 2 sets of and alpha and beta dimer
The substances released by the conjugation in the intercellular space are a bunch of enzymes, called granzymes, and proteins called _________
Lymphocytes and mononuclear phagocytes are important in the ________ immune system
________ produce proteins which increase the speed at which cancer cells proliferate
____ neuron(s) can only detect a ____ odorant(s)
The binding molecules include signaling molecule _____, adaptor protein Grb2, and protein-tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 which all bind through SH2 domains
“inducible NO synthase” and is important in immunity
On the surface of the B cell a molecule called _____ binds to CD40L on the helper T-Cell
The ______ bind to the phosphorylated tails of the beta chains by a PTB domain
______ is the ability of a pathogen to cause disease
Cytochrome c binds to various cytoplasmic proteins and procaspase-9 forming a large multi-protein complex knows as the ________
After signals 1 and 2, will be induced from the MAP kinase pathway commonly interleukin 2 (autocrine)
(Signal#) CD28 on the helper T-Cell must bind to B7 on the surface of the Antigen-presenting cell
________ genes produce proteins which slow down the cell proliferation of cancer cells
On the surface of the B cell a molecule called CD40 binds to _____ on the helper T-Cell
An overexpression of ______ leads to metastasis of the cancerous cells
All cells which play a role in immunity are _____ blood cells
______ is mostly found in naïve B cells as a receptor
Is important in nervous system processes such as memory and learning
Human Herpes virus-8 is thought to cause
After we eat ______ cells in the pancreas secrete insulin, cells with the insulin receptor bind insulin
______ bind PKA and the substrate so both the PKA and the substrate are within the local environment
______ is the clumping of cells by antibodies made against cells
The CTL expresses some adhesion molecules that pull the two surfaces of the cells together forming what is known as a __________
_____ foods induce multiple different GPCR responses in the T2R Receptors depending on the ligand
The SH2 domain of the _____-protein tyrosine kinase recognizes pTyr-Glu-Glu-Ile
______ is a small, single sub-unit polypeptide that has GTPase activity
______ means to treat a pathogen in some way to make in none pathogenic
_______ phosphorylates p53 in order to prevent binding by MDM2, which can no longer export the protein out of the nucleus
______ antigens are formed inside of our cells
The _______ has six extracellular domains
The _______ immune system is characterized by getting better over time and have specificity and memory
Two animals that are of the same species but are not genetically identical are ______
_______ is known to be a tumor inducing virus in non-human primates
The binding molecules include signaling molecule PI3K, adaptor protein Grb2, and protein-tyrosine phosphatase _______ which all bind through SH2 domains
Some viruses in the cells are recognized and are ubiquinated and marks them for destruction in the _______
_____ foods are detected by one taste receptor, T1R2-T1R3 heterodimer
Most T-cells have _______ T cell receptors, a few T-cells have gamma and delta receptors
There are only two classes of light chains, called ___ and lamda
______ is a pentamer and has ten binding sites for antigenic determinants
______ are proteins that are produced in response to an antigen and are found in the blood and lymph of the body
(Signal#) CD 4 helper T cells with a T cell receptor specific for the antigen fragments displayed must form the trimolecular complex
______ T Cells are responsible for much of our immunity against viruses and cancer cells. They are also responsible for the rejection of transplants

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