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Can you name the Biology Exam 3-7?

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HintAnswer
Receptor Protein Kinases phosphorlate _____ residue on target proteins
There are about ___ different membrane bound RTK
There are also soulbe RTK in the ___
RTK can be binded by epidermal and ____derived growth factors
RTK must form ___ to be activated
To form dimers, if the ligand has similar of identical binding domains, it can ___ between two subunits of the receptor
Or, two ligands can bind to ___ subinits and change their confomraitons to form the ___
The two subunits of the dimer ____ each other
Dimer RTK - regulate __ activites, act as ______ sites for other molecules
When RTK are actived the phosphorlyated ___ become ___ sites for other proteins
____ sites are domains on the signaling proteins (bind to cytoplamsic tails of RTKS) that recofnise the __site on the receptor
Two binding domains are ___ and __.
Both are about ___ amino acids long and have a binding pocket for ____tyorsine residue
In humane genome, about ___ SH2 domains
Specific tyorsone resides are emdiated by the ____ sequences surround the _____ tyosine on the recepotr
The SH2 domain of the ___protein tyrosine kinase recognizes pTyr-__-__-__
The SH2 domain for ___ kinase recognizes pTyr-__-___-__
The PTB domin can someitmes dock without haveing a phosphorylated ___ to recognize
For RTK, adaptor proteins are linkers that bind oe or more proteins as a ___complex. They have an ___ and 1< interaction domains
The adaptor proetien ___ has one SH2 domian and 2 __ domians, binds to receptor, which binds to other proteins
The adaptor proteins are floating around in the __- with proteins
When receptor is activated by _____, the adaptor protein binds to the ____ and the attached proteins can be acted upon by other nearby enzymes like ___proteins
Docking proteins bind to the Phosphroylated recrot and have ____ or ___ domains which are then ___ by the activated receptor
Some things on docking proteins are transcription factors like _______
STATs have ___ domains with tyrosine phosphorylation sites
The cytoplasmic domains of the receptors phosphorylate the ___ when they bind and then the STATs form ___ and become ______
Signaling enzymes have __ dominas and associte with RTK
To end the response, activated receptors bind a _______ that induces the receptor to be ____ and degraded
RTK - low glucose levels cause the pancreas to secrete____
Glucagon stimulates ___ to start a cascadeleading to the acitivation of _____ phosphorylase that breaks down glycogen to glucose
Glycogen turns into glucose __ phosphate to glcuose __ phosphate to glucose
Eat, our glucose levels increase the __ cells in the pancrease secrete ___-
The insulin recptor is a ___ made of two __ and two ___, encoded by the same gene, but undergo ___ processing to make them different
Insulin receptors bind insulin and cells take up glucose from blood or make ___ and shut down ____
The alpha and beat are bound to each other by ____ bonds
Insulin causes the two beta chains to _____anactivate the RTK
The activated phosphorylated receptor __ chains have docking proteins called ____ which bind to the phosphorylated tails of the ___ by a PTB domain.
Activated __ then provide binding sites for ___ domains on signaling proteins
Receptor binds insulin, the ___ subunit autophosphorylates ____resiudes on beta cahins as well as ___
The RTK also phosphorylates tyrosine __ that creates a ___ domain, the domain bnds the IRS to the receptor through its __ domain
The IRS provide docking sites for the ___ containg signaling prteins
The IRS have ___ on their N-terminus that binds to the phosphatidylinositides on the palsma membrane
Sites on the IRS are _____
Other signaling proteins bind to the IRSs, ___ , the adaptor protein ___ and protein-tyroisne phosphatase___
PI3K and ___ are actiavted, PI3 has two ___ domains which attach it to the ___ and catalytic site
HintAnswer
PI3K covert memrane lipids to PIP2 and ___ - which becoe bidning sites for __ domain-containg proteins like kinases PKB and ___ which are activated
____ phosphorylates and activates PKB which wil detach and move to nculeus
Activated PKB is incolved in ___ transport and ___ synthesis
PKB causes ____ to fuse with the plasma membrane
All of these Receptors when activated by their respective ligans can express ____ binding sites for the ___ domain of the adapotr protein, ___ whichbinds to Sos
All of these recepors can activates ___, leading to formation of PLC --> DAG and ___
The receptors can _____ to accomplish same things
___, GPCR, RTK can all act as docking sites for ___
About 30% of human cancers contain mutant versions of oncogenses nown as ___ genes
Ras oncogenes produce prtoeins known as ___ proteins
Ras protiens are a large family of ___ small g-proteins
Ras is a small, single polpypeptide that has ___ activty.
Ras is similar to the heterotrimeric G-proteins, when ___ bound to it, it is off
Ras is bound to the inner leaflet of the ____ membrane by a lipid tail
Ras-GTP are improtant in stumulating ___ division
If GTP on the ___is not hydrolyzed, the pathway divides in a uncontrolled manner
Ras proteins is aided by ___ proteins that regulate its acitvity
GTPase activating proteins (GAP) accelerate ___ hydorylsis and shorten the G-protien''s activity
Guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEF) bind to inactive ____ and stiumlate diassociation of ___
Guanine nucelotide-dosassocaiton inhibitors (GDI) inhbit disasscaiton of ___ and the protein remains ___
Ras-MAP kinase has a ligand bound to ___
RTK is autophosphorylated, and cytoplamsic domains are activated, ____residues are phosphorylated
Signaling proteins called adaptor proteins have ___ domains which bind to the phosphorylated RTK
Grb2 will have GEF on it that will acitvate __-
RTK binds a ligand and is ____
Grb2 binds to RTK and binds ___
Sos is a ___ and interacts with Ras-GDP and incduces release of ___ which is replaced by ___
Ras-GTP activates ___(kinase) which binds to plasma membrane
Raf activated MEK (____ ERK kinase)
MEK activates ERK (____)
ERK moves into unucleus and activates a ____ which turns on genes
Gene MKP-1 dephosphorlyates ___ and cascade stops
MAP is very important for cellular ____ and ____ pathways
Mitogens bind to surface of clel and induce the cells to undergo ____ and cell divison
MAP stands for ___
Mitogens are referred to as ____ acitvators
Map Kinases very involved in ____ and DNA synthesis
The RasMap occurs in ____ respond to mating hormones
Fruit flies -_____ of receptors in eye
Flowering plants - ____ mechanisms against pathogens
All events involve a cascade of ____, MAPKK, ___ with varitons in substrate of different kinases
Under extreme stress, the Ras-MAP kinase pathwaywas can be ___ down, so damaged cells can repair themselves
Some MAP kinases are bound to ____ proteins in specifc areas of cell and in a spatial oritentaiton that allows them to interact with nearby kinases and usbtrates
Cross over of receptors: Beta-andrenergic receptor stimulates by _, adneyly cyclase is acitvated, ___ is acitvaed which inhibits _ blocking the MAP kinase pathway and PKA activates
Steroid are transproted in blood by _ and serum albumin
HintAnswer
SHBG receptors are outside of cell, receptors for ____are inside cell
Nitric oxide, smallest molecule, dilation of blood vessles, ____, nerve __ transmission,smooth muscle relaxation, ___reception, immune response
NO is an __ gas, works as both extracellular and ____ second messanger
NO is formed by breakdown of terminal amino group of ____, and requires ____, NADPH and ___-
nNosS is found in____ tissues and participates in cell comm
eNOS is found in ___ cells and funcitons in vasodilation
iNOS is _____ and important in immunity
Vasodilation occurs by _____ binds to receptor on endothelial cells
Causes an icrease in intracellular __ which binds to ___
The Ca-calmodulin can then bind to activate nitric oxide synthase which produces ___
___ diffuses quickly from the endothelial cell into nearby smooth muscles of blood vessel to relax
NO acticates guanyly cyclase that coverts ___ into ___
cGMP activates a ___-dependent protein kinase which phosphorylates additional siganling molecules that induces relaxation of the vessel
Angina -insufficent blood suply to heart, ___ helps with cornary arties to relax
Viagra acts to inhibit ___which breaks down cGMP to inactive GMP, so prolonged dilation of blood vessels
Cells kill thesleves because they are ____
Cells recieve a signal that turns on ____
Proeznymes are activated by function enzymes by having a peice of ___ cleaved off or an inhibitor removed
In apoptisis pathways these proenzyemes are called
The pathay involved with apoptosis is called the ____ cascade
Caspase stands for ___,___,___ that is a cysteine protease that cleaves after an ___ residue
____cleave and destrory and inactivate other critical prtoeins
Targeted - Focal adhesion kinases (lose contact with cells), PKB, PKC and ___ are also tragets
Lamins are protein that line the nuclear envelope and when target, the nucleus ___
Strucutral elements of the cytoplasm are cleaved, changing the ___ of cell
Endonuclease (___ activated DNase) is activated and moves inot the ____ and breaks down DNA
The events leading to apoptosis are __ (damaged DNA) or by ____(extracellualr signlas)
The extrinsic pathway can also activate the ____ pathway
____ is a extracellualr signal
TNF binds to its membrane spanninf receptor (TNG) which has ___ intracellualr domains of ___ aminos acids called ___ domains
Binding of TNF to its receptor induces a conformational change in the ___ domains and causes protei-protein inetactions
Two adaptor proteins bind to activated death domains ___ and ___
FADD stands for ___
TRADD stands for ___
Two ____-8 molecules bind to the ___ domains and form a complex called ____domains
When the two procaspase__moleucles are assmebled into the complex, they cleave each to become activated and forma a singe ___-8 molecule containing ___ polypeptides
Caspase __ ititates down-stream activation of exectuioner ___
Any severe physiologic pertubration insde the cell could cause the ____ pathway
Intrinsic is mediated by ____
Some Bcl-2 induce apotosis (Bad and __), ohter act to prevent apoptosis
The expresion of some Bcl-2 memrbanes cause inhbition of ___
Bax translocates to the ___ outer memebrane, binds and incudes a peremability chainge in the memb cause realse of ___ proteins, expecially ____
Cytochome c binds to cytoplasmic proteins and ____ forming a large multi-proten complex known as the ____ which activates the executioner procaspases

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