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Can you name the Biology Exam 3-6?

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HintAnswer
Cyclic AMP, by activation of a single _____, a massive response by the ce can occur through the production of this
_____________derived second messengers are made form ______bound phospholipids
Enzymes such as ____, phospholipid kinases and phospholipid ____ convery phospholipids into _______
Phospholipases will ______ phospholipids
Phospholipases ___ will cleave the head off a lipid
Phospholipases ___ will cleave the head and phosphate off
Phospholipases __ will cleave one of the fatty acids off
Phospholipases ___ will cleave another one of the fatty acids off
Phospholipases important for the production of _________ or PIP2
When the GPCR is activated, the ___ chain of the g-protein detaches, activates the enzyme called ______
PLCbeta uses ____ as a substrate and cleaves it into _____ which remains in the membrane and ______, which is soulubel and diffues into the cyto
DAG recruits and activates ____ which is a serine-threonine kinase and can phosphorylate a wide range of proteins
Diacylglyercol - two fatty acids on the _____ bound by double bond O groups
__ binds to Ca channels on the SER and induces a release a lot of ___
DAG and IP3 are __-
So phosphatidylinositol has kinases add ____ phosphates to it to make ___
Adenylyl cyclase (converts ATP to ___) is huge and has an enzymatic site bound by ____ strands
Productionof glucose - ____ or epinephrine bind to ____
The ___ chain of the G-protein is activated by binding a GTP and moves away from the ___ and ___ chain
Adenylyl cyclase is activated and produces __
cAMP activates ___
PKA does two things, activates phosphorylase kinase and goes to the____ and phosphorylates ___
CREB is a _____ response element binding protein which as a dimer becomes as ____factor
____binds to a sequence on the DNA called the cAMP ___ element and helps turn on a set of genes
The genes work together to make glucose from intemediates of _____, process ___
___ inactivates glycogen synthase inhibiting production of ___ from glucose
______ activates glycogen phosphorylase which begins breakdown of ____ to glucose, goes to blood stream
Calcium ions are controlled by pumps and ____ and ____ channels
Calcium conc in cytosol is about 10-7 but in extracellular enviroment it is ____ as concentrated
HintAnswer
Ca cannels in the plasma membrane and ER are normally kept ___
Energy driven Ca2 pumps in the plamsa membrane and the ER pump s___ out of the cytosol, these pumps are __ dependent
___ which is the ligand for calcium channels ir produced by catalytic clevade of ___
With receptor tyosine kinase receptors, the PLCgamma family is activated and expresses ___ domians that bind to activated __ receptor and cleave PIP2
Isomers of PLC are ___, actiavted by Ca and ___ activated by ____ pathway
All the forms of PLC produce ___ and induce an icnrease of ___ concentration
____ are involved in everwhere, _____ reach the reinta, they activate the receptors
Different receptors for different odorants and ___ neuron recepot rhta cna only detct one of these odorants
____ and sour tastes results from detection of __ ions, and protons but don't involve ___
Bitter stuff induces ____ response, lots of them
Sweet, only ___sweet-taste recepotor
When calcium ions are lacking in the ___, areas of the cell don't flouresce
Sperm provided the ___ to produce the IP3 that reeased the Ca ions into the ____
In a muscle cell, opening of a voltage gate allows a small amount of ___ to enter the cell
The calcium ions interact with a receptor on the ___, the ____ receptor and then the ER releases a lot of calcium
___ is removed from the cytosol by a ___/___ exchanger and ATP-dependent pump moves __ back into SER
release of calcium from the ER as a result of small inlfux of extracellular calim ermed ____
Ca is required for activationof ___ and ____ transport systems, membrane fusion and ____ structure
Calcium binds a lot to _____, low concentration in eukaryotes
Calmodulin has ___ binding sites for calcium, with __ affinity, therefore need a lot of calcium to acitvate
Calmoudlin has a ___ affinity fot specific proteins and can activates them
cAMP activates ___ which is important for memory, learning and _____
In liver,____ iportant for glyocgen breakdown into glucose
In kidney, when receptor is sumated with vasopressin, the tubules become ____ to water
In thyroid, hormone activates the formation of ___ and leades to secretion of thyroxin and _____ which affects metaolic rates
Different PKAs bind to strucutreal proteins in cyto, _____
How PKA know what to phosphorylate?____ bind the PKA and a substrate so that the PKA acts on that nearby substrate
 

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