Biology Exam 3-5

Can you name the Biology Exam 3-5?

Forced Order Answers have to be entered in order
Cell signaling is by cell-cell _ and _ chemical signals
Chemical signals that act on cells are calle d__________. They can be short or ____ distance
A___ are signaling molecules produced by a cell and act on that cell becuase the producing cell has receptors on its surface for signaling molecule
autocrines function at ___ distance and have a ____ life. They also act on like cells in vicinity with receptor for the_____
_____ messages act over a ____ distance and ____ half-lfe. They act on cells tthat are ___ than the cell that produced the signal
Endocrine messages have ____ half lives and travel via the ____ to distant cells
The signaling message is the ____
Binding of a __to its receptor, its receptor creates a conformational _in the receptor that exends to the cytoplamsic_ of the receptor allowing the cytoplamsic _ to interact
One route is cytoplamsic domain of receprot activates an ____ assocaited with cytoplasmic tail, enzyme is a ____ and genereates a ___.
Second messengars are usually ____ and will activate or _____ specific proteins
Second route is cytoplasmic domain acts as a ____ for other proteins to bind to it
Both routes induce _____ reactions in cell
Once the first intracellaur action occurs, there is a ____ of reactions
At the intiaiton of each step, the conformation of the protein that will enter the ______ is altered by a ____ or phosphatase
Kinases and phosphatases are ___ in cyto, exist as integral membrane and add or remove ____ on different proteins or single _______ residues
At the end of a signaling pathway there is a _______
To sotp a cascade, ______ enzymes can degarde the intial _____ or in its soluble form before it binds to the _____
The receptor-ligand complex can be ____ and degraded by _____ enzymes and someitmes the ____ is recycled to plasma memrbane
Target proteins act to change - gene expression, __acitivties, __, cell _, ion __, DNA synthesis, cell death
Signal receptors - G-protein coupled receptors, receptor protein-__kinases, ___-gated channels, ____hormone receptors
G-proteins bind GDP or ____ and are integral membrane proteins
G-prtoeins are made of ____ subunits, an alpha, ____, gamma
G-proteins are bound to ___ membrane side by lipids that are bound to the -__ and ___ chains
Binding site for GDP or GTP is on ___ chain
G-protein coupled receptors have _ membrane spannng hydrophobic ___ helices that bind G-proteins. also known as ____
GPCR found everywwhere and tons of things can bind to them such as steriods, ____ and ____
The amino terminus of the receptor is _____
The carboxyl terminus is ______
Three outside loops of ______ join the transmembrane domains and these loops form the _____ for bidning the ligand
Three inside loops of ______ also join the _______ domains
These inside loops form the -____ site for prtoeins for signal _____ and particularly the ____ intracellualr loop binds g-proteins
The _____terminus tail binds other proteins that form a scaffold to tlink the recepor to ____ proteins
Binding of a ligand to GPCR causes a _ change in transmembrane ___ helices which causes a change in the third____ loop making it high ____ for the g-protein
This forms a receptor/G-protein complex and a change in conformation of the ___ subunit of the g-protein, when this occurs the bound ___ is released
With GDP bound, GPCR is ___, with ___ bound, GPCR is _____
One acitvated GPCR can activate a number of ____ amplyifying the response
GPCR conf changes, the __ chain of the G-protein binds to the _loop of the receptor. Binding of the __ chain changes the _chain and the _ is replaced with GTP
The binding reduces the affinity f the alpha chain to the ___ and ___ chains of the g-protein and the alpha chain detaches
The free ____ chain with its bound GTP then activates an _____protein like adenylyl cyclse which breaks down ATP to ____ (second messenger)
In time, the ___ on the alpha chain is hydrolyzed to GDP, because it has _____

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