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HintAnswer
Cytoskeleton - __are long, _, unbranched tubules made of subunits of tubulin
Cytoskeleton - _ are smaller _ strucutres often branched, made of subunits of actin
Cytoskeleton-_____are ropelike structures which are very ____ and made up of various proteins
The molecules of cyto are held together by _____ ___- bonds which allow them assemble and disassemble rapidly.
The cyto-structural support for cells, intrnal _to hold organelles in place, __to carry materials, cell __, moving __
Microtubules are found in diverse array of structures including __and cilia and __ spindles of diving cells
Microtubules are hollow, __ of about ___ nM in dameter with a wall thickness of __ nM,
Microtbules have _ rows of subunit proteins, one row called a _
A protofilament is made of alternating ___ and ___ tubulin subunits. Always __ subunit on one end and an __ subunit on other
When protofilments bound togethe form a microtubule, the structure bec ____ with a plus end of ___ tubulin and a _ end of alpha tubulin
__ protofilaments per microtbules, protofilaments slightly staggered by__ nM to form an ___ array, where they meet is a seam
microtubule-associated proteins (MAP)have __ domain attached to the microtuble, a ___ that extends away from the microtubules which is bridge connecting microtubules
____ also increase the stability of the microtbules and assist in their assembly
____ aid in the structural integrity and shape of the cell
Motor proteins covert ____ energy into ____ energy and move large cargo around cell
Specialized types of molecualr motors are _____, kinesins and _____
Kinesins and dyneins move along ______ and myosins move along ______
Molecular motors do not use ______ which are non-polar and have no directionality
Molecular motors move stepwise from one ______ site to antoher powered by catalytic site which provides energy
ATP binds to ____, it is hydrolyzed to ADP,P with the release of ____, the ADP and P are released and a new ___ binds to complete the cycle as it makes a stepwise move
Kinesin is a tetramer consisting of two identical ____ chains and two _identical ____ chains.
There is a _____ head that binds to the microtubule which represents the ____domain
______ has a neck, a rod-like stalk and fan shaped ____ that binds to the cargo vesiicle or macromolecule
Kinesin moves toward the ____ end o the microtuble and is termed a __ end-directed microtubule motor
Kinesin light chains are specific to different ___ vesicles provding specificity of transport
Kinesins move about ___ nM per second which is one __/___ tubulin dimer, a hand over hand movement, one gobular head remains tightly bound as the other detaches
There is a large family of 45____-like proteins have different tails reflecting different cargos and a few specialized kinesins move towards the ___ end
One small family of kinesins don't move stuff but instead bind to one end or the other of the microtuble and act to bring about its _______
Cytoplasmic dyenin is ____ million daltons found in the ____kingdom
Unlike kinesins there are only ___ cytoplasmic dyneins and only ___ which is responsible for most transport
_____ has _ heavy chians and smaller proteins. The complex has two large _in the heavy chains, a ___ and a ____ connecting the head to various lighter chains
The motor protein of dyneins consists of a number of distinct modules oritented as a ____
HintAnswer
Unlike kinesins, ____ move from the plus end of the tube toward the ____ end
Dyneins perform two major functions, moving ______ during mitosis and positing ______, golgi complex and moving organelles, ____ and particles
The head of dynein contains the _____ protein
The stalk of dynein binds to the microtubules and the intermediate and _____ chains and provide specficity and binding to transported materials
Both ____ and kinesins can be bound to same cargo, and can transport to the ____ end or ___end alternatively
Cytoplamsic dynein does not interact doirectly with the cargo vesivle but requires an intervening adaptor called ______
In vitro, mictoruvles form in two phases, slow phase called ____ and fast phase called ____
In vivo, they just form really ___ in assocaiton with a __ center suxh as the _
The ______ consists of two barrel shaped centrioles that are each ____ microns in diatmet and twice that long. Microtubles are ______ by the ______
Centrioles are made of nine evenly spaced ______designated __,B,C
Only ___ is a complete mictrobule and the nine __ componets are connected to the center of the structure by radial spokes
Centrioles are almost always found in pairs, ______ to each other
Each centriole is surrounded by an _dense, fibrous material, _ material, Microtuvule formation is initiated (nucleated) in the _ -not the centriole itself
Once nucleation occurs at the ___, elongation occurs on the growing end of the microtubule away from the ____
A bnch of tiny short mictotubles are associated by their _____ ends ot the PCM
Some cells lack ______ but can still form functional microtubules. P_____ cells lack centrioles and therefore the microtbules orginate at the _____ and cortical areas of the cell
___ bodies which are found in cilia and flagella at the point where microtubules originate are essentialy centrioles.
MTOCs control a) ______ b) polarity c) number of protofilaments per microtubule d) ____ of formation and e) site of ______
An important molecule associated with nucleation is _____-tubulin which is extremely low concentrations in cells
Antibodies to gamma-tubulin stain all types of _____ including the pericentriolar materials of ____, so may play critical role in microtubule ____
Alpha tubulin of the alpha beta tibulin dimer binds to the ___ tubulin and starts the nucletion followed by the ____ of the microtbule
Microtbules are stabalized by the group of micotuble-associated _____ , cytoskeletal and ____ spindles are highly labile whereas those of the ___ and flagella are highly ____
Microtubles are disassembled by ___ temps, increased _____ and different drugs
Taxol, is an anti ____ drug that binds to the polymers of microtubules and _____ their disassmebly so alpha beta dimers can not form new ______, stoping drug division
The labile nature of microtbules is due to the non___linkages that hold the tubulin _____ to each other so they can polymerize and depolymerize rapidly
Microtubles can be studied with ____ of ce;;s
___- arre the machinary of cells
You can induce microtuble formation if you have appropiate concentrations of ______, GTP and a chelator for ____ ions (EGTA) at 37 degree. by raising the temperature you can get __
Assembly of microtules requires that ___ be bound to the alpha/beta tubulin dimers
Hydrolysis of the GTP is not necessary for a/b subunit to be added to the growing _____.
The a/b suninit is added to the growing microtbule and then hydrolysis occurs and the ____ remains bound to the a/b subunit after incorporation into the polymer
After disassembly, the GDP is repalced by ___ and the dimers are ready for re-assemby as needed
HintAnswer
The presence of GTP dimers at the ___ end of a microtbule is though to indicate the addition of more ____ to grow the microtubule
Some microtubules have ___ ends containing mostly GTP dimers
The open ends then rapidly close with spontaneous _____ of GTP
GDP dimers have a less ____ configuration unless microtubule-associated porteins hep stabilization
If there are principally ___ dimers an few or no ___ the conformation of the dimers change and there is disassembly of the microtuble
Microtubles ten to ___ slowly, then shrink ___. They then re___ from the centrosome and the cycle is repated. The rapid change is __________ and is normal to allow cells to remodel
Cilia is found in some _____ and vertebrate lungs
Flagella are found in some ___, bacteria, ___, sperm
The flagellum or cilium is covered by a memrbrane that is ____ with the plasma membrane
The heart of the cilium or flagellum is the ____ which consists of microtubules arranged in an array of ___ doublets surrounding a central pair of microtubules, 9+2 array
The polarity of the axoneme is ___ toward the end and minus toward the ___
The A microtubule of each on the periphery of the axoneme is complete while the B microtuble is ____ wiht only 10 or 11 ____ instead of 13
Nexin is the ____ between the doublets of the microtubles of flagellum or cliar
____ are the motor molecule of cilia and flagellum
______ body are where cilia and flagella originate
Dynein must bind ____, then hydrolyze it to ___ and P and then get to ____
The dynein stems are anchored to _ tubule with stalks attached to binding sites on ___ tubule
The dynein undergoes a change providing a power stroke that cause the __ tubule to slide forward toward the ___ end
The dynein ___ then detach allowing the __ tubule to move back
Intermediate filaments are solid _____ filaments about ___ nM in diameter and only found in ___ cells
____ are strong, ropelike, provde mechanical ____ to cells
There are ___ genes thta encode different forms of intermeidat eiflaments
Intermediate filaments are connected to other filaments by _____
Structurally, long,fibrious with an ___ helical doman and ____ domains at each end. The individula molecuels can interact and bind to other strands, overlaping to give rise to a mu
Unlke microtubules, intermediate filaments assemble and disassemble as a result of ______ and _____
Formation of bundles - monomers form dimers with anoher __ anthen dimers will bind to another dimer in ________ fashion, mutiple ____ will combine to form bundles
Microfilaments does movement of _____, phagocytosis and _____
Microfilaments are ___ nM in diameter and made of ____ subunits of actin
Actin filaments are two strandded strucutres with two ___ grooves running along the length of the filament
Microfil can be organized as highly ordered arrays, ____ networks, tightly anchored ____, and actin is major ____protein in muscle

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