Biology Exam 3-1

Can you name the Biology Exam 3-1?

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The Endomembrane system encompasses subcellular structures that are ________ bound and participate in production and delivery of materials within the cell and to the _____ of the c
Some structures in the endomembrane system include the ______ complex, ________, lysosomes, ______ and the ER
In the endomembrane system, a ______ vesicle moves to an _______ vesicle, fuses with it and transfers its ______
The main intracellular pathyway in cells include the _____ pathway and the _______ pathway
The biosynthetic pathway is associated with the production of _____, carbohydrates, and ______
The biosynthetic pathway is also associated with various pathyways taking materials to the ______ membrane and to the ______ complex, lysomsomes and ______
The _______ pathway is known as the secretory pathway
The two types of secretory pathways are called _______ and _______
Constitutive secretion happens _______, taking molecules to the plasma membrane (the _______, for example)
_______ secretion occurs when molecules are placed in vesiceles and discharged from the cell only when the cell receives a specific _______
For regulated secretion, the molecules could be _______ or made as a result of the signal
The _______ pathway moves stuff out of the cell
The endocytic pathway moves stuff _____ the cell to various compartments
Secreting things from the cell is called ______
Bringing things into the cell is called ______
Movements of vesicles in the cytoplasm are _____ to go to specific sites like secreted proteins, lysosomal _____ and membrane proteins
Movements of vesicles are targeted because transport vesicles have _____ and receive sorting _____ that are located in the membranes of the vesicles
The addresses usually move along the a _______ inside the cell
The Endoplasmic Reticulum exists in two forms ______ ER and ____ ER
The ER are both _____ tubular networks
The lumen of the ER is seperated from the _______ by the ER membranes and contains very different materials than in the _______
The RER and SER are _______ with each other so stuff can flow from one to the other
The RER and SER share some common membrane ______ but also have some _____ in one form of the ER but not the other
The _____ is characterized by having ribosomes on its surface
The SER does not have ______ on its surface
RER is a network of flattened sacs (_______) and is continuous with the ____________ which also has ribosomes on its cytoplasmic side
Highly secretory cels have much more _____than non-secretory cells
_____ is really important in the detoxification of organic chemicals, production of sterioid hormones, and sequesteration of _______
Nuclear membrane has an _____ and outer________ and innermembrane spcae
Nuclear outer membrane has ______ on its surface
There are very specialized _______ on the nuclear membrane
There are no ______ ends to any of the RER or SER
The _____ is highly curved and ______ and traverses the cytoplasm
The SER is extensively developed in muscle, ____ and steroid-producing _______ glands
The ______ functions for synthesis of steroid hormones in _____, and adreanl glands
The RER is especially well developed in cells that are _______ secretory and the ______ in these cells results in a __________ of the cell.
The polarization of the cell by the RER results in the RER at a ______ level near the blood supply and the secretory vesicles at the ____ end where they can release their contents
Integral membrane proteins, _______ proteins and proteins that stay in the endomembrane compartments are made in the _____
_______ cells in the colon secrete mucus and have an apical end and a _____ end
Cytosolic proeteins are made on free ________ floating around in the _______
Cytosolic proteins are _________ enzymes, peripheral proteins, ________ proteins, proteins transported to the ______, proteins transported to the _______, chlorpoplasts, peroxisome
About ____% of proteins in the cell are made on free ribosomes in the cytsol
Cytosolic enzymes are used for _______
All ribosomes are essentially _______ and can be used to make cytosolic proteins or proteins made on the _____
It is determined where proteins will be made by the first few _________ being made from the mRNA
There is a sequenceof amino acids called the _________ sequences that when being made as a ______ polypeptide, direct the ribosome to attach to the ____
The signal sequence contains ___ hydrophobic amino acids
Once attached, the signal sequences pass through the _____ into the lumen of the RER through a small channel
Most of the time the _______ sequence is at the ___-terminus of the ______ peptide,
Polypeptides are made from N-terminus to the ____-terminus
Proteins that are made for the RER are either going to end up on the _________ or the ______ of the RER
The _______ amino acids allow proteins to go through the RER membrane
Nascent polypeptide means a _______ polypeptide
The first amino acid that is on a polypeptide is called the ____ terminal
When the signal sequence is produced it is recognized by a _____________ which is made up of ___ distinct polypeptides and a small____ molecule of RNA
This SRP binds to the signal sequence of the ______ polypeptide and to the ______
The SRP binding to the signal sequence and the _______, temporarily stops any further __________
The ______ then binds to a SRP ____ and the ribosome binds to a ______
A translocon is a protein-lined ______ in the ___ membrane through which the _____ peptide can pass
In the ______ are six ______ amino acids located at its narrowest point
When the translocon is inactive there is a small ______ helix plugging it. This inhibits the passafe of ______ and other ions between the cytosol and the lumen of the ER
The SRP floats around in the _______
___ is a measure of size, Svedburg units.
Once the complex of SRP-ribosome-nascent peptide binds to the ___, the SRP detaches from the ________. The signal sequence of the nascent peptide then inserts into the ______ and t
When the polypeptide formation of the ER is ocmplete and the polyppetide is in the lumen of the RER, the pore is _____ and plugged
When the ____-terminus of the nascent peptide enters the lumen of the RER, the signal sequence is removed by the enzyme __ and oligosaccharides are added to the polypeptide by ____
In the lumen of the RER there are numerous _______ and ______
Also in the lumen, disulfide bonds are made between the cysteines by the enzyme_______________
Folding of the polypeptide and formation of _______ bonds through cysteine residues completes the ______ strucutre of the polypeptide
Only those proteins that are going to be _______ membrane proteins or _______ proteins are going to be made on the _____ and enter into the lumen of the _____
Integral proteins will incoporate into the lipid bilayer of the ER because ot be an integral membrane protein it has to have a ____________, _______, region
The way the transmembrane region happens is because as the integral membrane protein is made, itpasses into the ______, and it can the move laterally in the _______ through a later
Generally, the orientation of transmembrane proteins is for the more _____ end of the polypeptide to be exposed to the cytosol
For the transmembrane protein, If the ____ terminus is most positive, it will orient to be in the cytosol or if the C-terminus is most ____- it will orient to be in the ______
For multi-spanning proteins, the first hydrophobic ________ section will determine how it is oreinted and subsequent transmembrane sections willl orient at _____ degree angles
All membranes are created from ____________

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