Science Quiz / Biology Exam 2-14

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Can you name the Biology Exam 2-14?

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The intergral membrane proteins and glycolipids have sugars attached and are projected into the extracellular space, the sugar boundary is called _____
The gycolcalyx is part of the _____ plasma membrane
The gylcocalyx helps _______ cell-cell interactions
The glycocalyx functions to cell ______ interactions
The glycalyx provides _______ prtoection for the cell
The glycocalyx acts a a ______ for stuff moving toward the plasma membrane
The glycocalyx binds _______ factors that act on the cell, act as receptors
The basement membrane is an Extracelluar matrix provides a means of binding ____ together and a _______ role that helps maintain the shape and activities of the cell
The basement membrane provides _________ support for attached cells
The basement membrane provides ______ to maintain cell survial
The basement membrane is a ______ for cell migration
The basement membrane seperates _____ within an organ
The basement membrane acts as a ______ to the passage of macromolecules
Most macromolecules of the ECM are _______ proteins
The molecules that make up the ECM act as trail markers, _______, wire, _____
________ is made in the cell and then transported out and is the scaffolding
Collagens are fibrous proteins only found in the _____
The glycoprotein ______ has very high tensile strength and is the most abundant protein in the human body
Collagen is made up of ______, but also muscle and epithelial cells
All collagen has _____ of three polypeptides, each termed as an _____ chain.
All collagen are intertwined to form a rod-like ______ helix
Where mixtures of collagens are found ina single triple helix it is called a ______ trimer
The indivudual chains of collagen contain large amounts of _____ and _____
after collage is made, the proline and lysine residues are _______ and hydrogen bonds are formed iwth other chains to stabilize the triple helix
For Type I collagen, the triple helix is _____ nanometers long and these trimers are in staggered fashion that overlaps the gaps
In the cornea, the fibers are arranged to optimize structual integrity and _____
Type IV collagen is not a ____ form and is found only in the _______ membrane
Type IV collagen rimers contain non-helical regions and _______ domains at each end of the molecule
Type IV, the non-helical regions allow the molecule to be _______ and the ________ ends interact with each other to form a lattice structure
________ are found in the basement membrane and in the ECM and consist of a protein core to which chains of _______ are covalently attached
_______ are highly acidic polysaccharides containing two different sugars taht are arranged as A-B-A-B
Proteogylcans are formed by the linkage of their protein cores to another polysaccharie called _______ which is not sulfunated but is a ______
Proteoglycans are highly negative so they binds lots of _____ that bind lots of _____ moleucles
The proteoglycans create a hydrated gel that acts like a cushion and resists crushing of the ____
Fibronectin consists of two very similar but not identical ______ chains bound to each other by two _____ linkages
Fibronectin's have 30 ___ modules along each chain
Fibronectin modules form 5-6 _____ on each polypeptide
Each of the two polypeptides of fibronectin have ______ sites for ECM compontents and aid in forming networks of moleucle and binding sites for _____ on the cell surface
One of the modules contains the amino acid sequence, arg-gly-asp which binds to cell surface receptors called ______, a heterodimer foundon almost all cells
arg-gly-asp is equal to ____
Fibronectin acts as a very specific in _____ to the substratum
Laminins are a family of extracellular glycoproteins made up of 3 different polypetide chains bound by ______ linkages
_____ different laminins have been identified
Laminins affect _______, growth, and differentiation of____
______ form pathways like fibronectin
Laminins can bind to _____ molecules and proteoglycans
Laminin and _______ can form seperate but interconnected networks
Laminin is a _____ made up of alpha, ____, gamma chain
Integrins consist of an ____ and beta chains and are only found in___-
There are 18 different alpha chains and ___ different beta chains, making ___ combinations functional
In inactive state, ______ appear to be bent
Integrins to become activated, signals frm within the cell causes a conformational chane in the cytoplasmic ____ and this transmists a confomrational change to the extracellular __
Because the signal for integrins originates inside the cell, it is called an _______ signal
Integrins tails close together means _____
____ binds to cytoplasmic tails
If integrins are activated they aggregate in clusters in the plasma membrane, bringing lots of ______ molecules in contact with ECM
Integrins are important for ______ of cells to substratum and transmission of _______to inside of cell
Binding of molecules for outside-in signaling results in cytoplasmic tails activating other molecule in cytoplasm like ______ and phosphatases
Integrins are important for maintaining ______ inhibtion
As with fibronectin, laminin and proteoglycans, extracellular proteins that have the ____ module bind to integrins
Platelets express _____ that bind to fibrinogen, a protein in the blood that coverts to fibrin which strengthens the clot.
Fibrinogen has the _________ module.
A drug used for blood clots competes to bind to the arg-gly-asp module and competes for the binding of ________
________ are the anchors that hold integrins in place
When attachment is not unifrom but in seperate points it is called ____adhesion
Points of focal adhesion represent where a cluster of _____ are found
The tails of the integrin subunits bound to actin filaments by _____ proteins
Focal adhesion is also involved in cell ______
In hemidesmosome, associated with epithelial ells, on the cytoplasmic side there are numerous ______ that are bound to the plasma membrane
Filamens to the hemidesmosome are made of ______
The keratin-containing filaments are bound to the plasma membrane by a plaque contiang the protein, _____
Plectin is anchored by integrins and ______
On the outside of cell, integrin and BP180 bind to ______ and collagen
Cell-cell interactions are accomplished by ______, Immunoglobilin superfamily molecules, certain integrins, ______-
Selectins bind to _____ projecting into the extracelluar space from glycoproteins
The binding of selectins to polysaccharides is _______ dependent
Selectins are improtnat _____ cells
Selectins have very short cytoplasmic ___,____ transmembrane domain and modules in the extracelluar strucutre terminating with a ____ domain
_____ are molecules or dominas that bind to to specific oligosaccharides
E-selectins are found on ____ cells
P-selectins are found on ______
L-selectins are found on _______ cells
Immunoglobulin super family is not dependent on _______ for binding
Antibodies are ______
Immunoglobulins are made of two _____ chains and two _____ chains bound together by ______ bonds
Cadherins are ______ dependent glycoprotiens and are involved in transmitting signals from the ____ to the cytoplasm
_____ bind like cels together
E-cadherins on ______ cells
N-cadherins on _____ cells
P-cadherins on _______ cells
Cadherins have five large extracellular _____ of similar size
Cadherins have a single _______ domain and a small cytoplasmic domain
Cadherins have calcium ions that form bridges between the _________ domains, making the cells tightly held together
Cadherins are expressed as _____
The cytoplasmic domain is often associated with a protien called ______ that anchors the cadherin and transmits signals to the ______
Gap junctions are found in _________ cells and allow two adjacent cells to pass materials from the cytoplasm of one cell into the _____ of anthoer cell
Gap junctions consists if a ______, which is six connexins formed in a circle with a small pore calle dthe _____
Two opposing connexons are bound tightly together by strong ________ bonds
The channel, the ________, to interconnect the cytoplasm of the two cells
The connexons can open and close by altering their confirmations by _______
Things like ATP can get through the hydrophilic annulus - True of False
Plants don't have adhesive molecules but they do have ________
Plasmodesmata connect plant cells, they have channels lined with the __________ with a tube down the middle composed of membranes from the smooth ___________
The annulus of the plasmosdemata can be narrowed or widened by a particualr ________
The cell wall functions to provide _______ for the cells, act as structural elements, protects against infection and is involved in celll _______
The cell wall is composed of fibrous elements embedded in a non-______, ____-like matrix.
The cell wall's fibrous component is cellulose and the matrix is composed of ________ and pectin
The cell wall is organized into rod-like _____ that are about 5nM in diameter and contain 36 c6 molecuels of _______ which are oriented parallel to each other and held together by
The cellulose molecule is synthesized on the extracellualr side of the plasma membrane by the enzyme _________
Cellulose synthase contains six subunits arranged in a ______ formation
Hemicelluose is a branched polysaccharide, with a backbone of one _____ and a side branch of other sugars
Hemicellulose binds to cellulose ______ and cross-links them into a structuralnetwork
Pectins in the matrix are a hetergenous class of _______ charged polysaccharides containing ________ acid
ike GAGs hold large amounts of water forming a hydrated gell that fills in the spaces of the fbirous elements
Proteins in the matrix are essential for _______ and elognation og cell wall. It also functions in cell signaling from cell wall to ________
Tightly held cells are held together by calcium dependent _____ junctions and _____
________ bind cells via extracellular cadherins
For Adherin junctions, tje cytoplasmic domians are linked by _____ and beta _____ to actin filaments of the cytoskleten, which causes tight adhesion and signaling
Desmosomes are dis-shaped ______ junctions
The cadherins in desmosomes are different from those in adherin and care called____________ and _________
For the cytoplasmic side of desmosomes, there are dense plaques that bind looping intermediate filaments forming a rope-like ______
Tight junctions consist of two type of integral membrane proteins like _____ and ______
Tight junctions differ between different cell types with the combination of _____ being the difference in permeability
Tight junctions are extremely importnat to inhibit ____ loss
Cells of te immune system can get through the tight junctions and allow the _______ cells to pass through

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