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Can you name the Biology Exam 2-12?

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HintAnswer
Plants are ________ because they make their own organic compounds from CO2 during photosynthesis
Animal, fungi and some bacteria are _______ because they have to obtain their energy by consuming organic compounds
_________ convert CO2 to organic compounds using energy stored iin ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, or nitrites which provide reducing power to reduce CO2 to carbohydrates
_________ are prokaryotes and have played a minor role in terms of biomass on the earth
___________ absorb and use radiant energy to utilize CO2 to make organic compounds using the process of photosynthesis
During photosynthesis, _______ energy electrons are converted to ______ energy electrons
Earliest organisms to use photosynthesis were the _________
At some point, _________ were engulfed by eukaryotic cells and established a symbiotic relaitonship
As time went on, the cyanobacteria evolved to be
Chloroplasts are found in the _________ of the upper leaf just under the cuticle, in ______cells
Chloroplasts reproduce by ______
Chloroplasts have an ______ and _____ envelope membranes
Internally there are a series of membranes that form flattend sacs called
Stacks of thylakoids are called
The space surrounding the thylakoids is called the
The enzymes required to produce carbohydrates are found in the ______
Thylakoid membranes have a very _______ protein content and very _____ phospholipids
Thylakoid membranes have a high percentage of galactose-contaiining ________ that are not ________ and are hihgly fluid
One of the glycolipds that is really rich in the thylakoid membrane is is mongalactosyl ________
Overiview:____ CO2 + _____H2O--> 1 glucose + __H2O + __O2
There are two types of reactions in photosynthesis ______________ and _________
Light-dependent reactions during which light energy is absorbed and as energy in ____ and in the reduced conezyme, _____
Light-independent reactions during which carbohydrates are synthesized using ______ and _______ from the light-dependent reactions as a source of energy
NADPH is similar to _______ but contains a ______ group on the 2 prime hydroxyl of one of the ribose sugars
The oxidized form of NADP+ is produced from ______
NADPH can then be formed from the reduction of ______
An acceptor molecule in an anabolic pathway can receive the electrons from __________, become more reduced and more energetic
Enzymes that have a reductive role in anabolic pathways use ____
Enzymes acting as dehydrogenases in catabolic pathways (glycolysis, TCA cycle, Fatty acid cycle) use _____
NADH + _____ --> NAD+ + _____ (using the enzyme)
When energy is abundant, ______ is favored for making macromolecules
When energy is scarce, _____ is favored to produce ATP but enough NADPH is around minimal biosynthetic requirements
Light is made up of ______
When light hits it, electrons is moved from ______ to _______
When light hits a chloroplast, the absorbed energy of the chlorophyll raises energy of electrons and these electrons are passed to an _________ molecule
Chlorophyll absorbs in the _____ and _____ wavelengths, but not the _______ light is reflected
Chlorophyll - _________ ring which has mutiple, alternating single and double bonds
The porphyrin has a central _________ ion
Attached to the porphrin ring is a hydrophobic ______ chain that keeps the chlorophyll anchored to the photosynthetic membrane
A minor subtitutions on the porphyrin ring, chlorophyll ___ is found in all oxygen-producing photosynthetic organisms
HintAnswer
Chlorophyll __ is found in all higher plants and gree algae
The conjugated structure of the porphyrin ring broadens the _________ peaks allowing the molecules to absorb light over a range of wavelengths
The porphyrin ring has a __________ structure which allows it to absorb over a range of light
The hydrophobic phytol tail acts as the______ of the chlorphyll
In terrestrial plants, there are other light-absorbing pigments________
Carotenoids have a linear system of _______bonds and absorb light in the blue-green region and reflect light yellow, ______, and red regions
________ acts as secondary light collecters, they draw away excess energy from excited chlorophyll molecules and disspiate the energy as heat
The _____________ compares the relative rate of photosynthesis produced by light of various wavelengths
The mass of pigment molecules acts as an antenna to collect light energy and transfer the energy to a central __________
The central reaction center will take an excited electron and pass it to the___ molecule
Energy is transfered from one ______ molecle to another _____ molecule
Photosynthesis that produces oxygen is called _________ photosynthesis
The resultant energy from splitting water comes from ______ during the oxidation of water and this energy will be transffered to ______
The two pathwayys of light absorbing reactions are _______ I and photosystem __
Photosystem II boosts ______ from an ebergy level below that of water to a midway point of energy
Photosystem I than takes these electrons and raises their energy level above that of ____--
The reaction center of PSII is a dimer of chlorophyll __ that absorbs light most strongly at wavelength of _____
The reaction center of PSI is adimer of chlorphyll a and absorbs most at wavelength of ______
When are electrons are transferred to PSII and PSI, P680 and P700 become _______ charged and revert back to positive when they pass the electrons to an ________ molecule
When reaction centers are ______, they will attract electrons passed to them by the antennae
Oncw the acceptor molecule becomes negtively charged, we have the conversion of ______ energy to _______ energy
One of the steps is the electrons are passed from water to _____
Second step is the electrons are passed from PSII to _____
The third step is electrons are passed from PSI to ______
The electron carriers, as in the mito, are found in the ___________ as large proteins in the thylakoid and these electrons will be used to form a proton gradient
The _________ will drive an ATP synthase to make ATP
In the chloroplast, the ATP produced will be used to make _________
The ATP needed to support the cell's other activities, outside the chlorplast, will be produced by the _____
PSII has two functions: getting electrons from _____ and producing a _______gradient
PSII has twenty polypeptide, most of which are in ______ membrane, two proteins are ____ and ____ which bind the chlorophyll __ dimer and the cofactors for transport of electrons f
Most pigments in antennae are in a pigment protein complex called a ______________, which is loacted outside the core of photosystem II which is located just outside the core of ph
Light harvesting complex II proteins bind both ______ and ________
PSII splits water in a process called _______
Photolysis require ____ water molecules to be split at the same time
PSII can only generate ___ positive charges at a time and you need four to pull off four electrons from two molecules of water
PSII has five metal ions 4 _______ ions and 1 _______ which can store the four oxidiing equivalents needed to split two molecules of water
The five metal ions and the proteins that hold them in place are called the ___________ complex
The electrons from water are harvested in the oxygen-evolving complex, transferred to a _____ residue and then to P680+
Oxidation of two molecules of water results in oxygen plus 4 _____ and 4 ____, the oxygen is waste product for the plant
P680 then transfers a single photo-excoted electron to a chlorphyll-like moleculase called ______, which is a chlorophyll molecule without the ______ ion
HintAnswer
Pheophytin quickly transfer its electrion to ________near the outer membrane of the thylakoid and associated with the protein ____
Plastoquinone will accpet the electron and pass it to PQb which becomes known as ______ that remains firmly attached to ____ and close to the stromal side of the thylakoid membrane
P680 transfers another electron through pheophytin which further reduces ________ to PQb-
The reducded molecule PQb2- comibne with two protons from the stroma to form ______ reudcing the concentration of protons in the stroma and adding to the ______ gradient
PQb2- detaches from ____ and moves through the bilayer. It is replaced by ____ from a pool in the bilayer
The transfer of electrons from PSII to PSI The production of a single oxygen molecule requires absorption of four _____ by PSII and produces two moles of reduced ________ (so PSII
Plastoquinol moves through the bilayer and binds to cytochome_____, which is a large multiprotein complex
The movement of ___________ to cythochrome b6f translocates four _____ to the lumen from the _____ to add to the proton gradient as the electrons pass through the complex
Electrons from cytochome b6f are transferred to a soluble copper-containing peripheral protein called__________ on the lumenl side of the thylakoid
Plastocyanin passes the electrons to ____
PSI produces ______ and consists of polypetides plus a peripheral complex of protein bound pigments that make up 'light harvesting complex I'
LHCI transfers light energy to the ______ reaction center which is a dimer of chlorphyll ___
Excited P700 transfers an electron to a sperate monmoeric chlorphyll ___, as a primary electron accept
A positively charged P700 and a negatively charged ____, _______ quickly neutralized P700+ by donating an electron
Ao- is a powerful _______ agent
The electron from Ao passes to a molecule called __________ then through three _______ centers
Two ferrodoxin molecules accept the electrons and with these two electrons allows ____________ reductase to produce NADPH
Remember ______ is used to make stuff, ______ is used to breakdown stuff
The production of NADPH results in the removal of a ______ from the stroma and provides more of a ________ gradient
PSII generates high energy electrons from the splitting of ____
PSI takes the electrons from water to produce____
In the process of photosynthesis, a gradient of ______ develops
The removal of four electrons from water requires four ____
Production of one NADPH requires two ______
__water + ___ NADP+ -->(eightprotons)--> one____ + __ NADPH
During the photosyntehsis, protons are being moved from the _____ to lumen
Prtons come from splitting _______ in the lumen
Translocation of __________ from the stromal side to the luminal side with its oxidation by cytochrome b6f releasing protons
Reduction of ________in the stroma these protons are not translocated but are removed from the pool of protons in the ______
During Photophosphorylation, to make glucose requires 3____ and 2 ____
Making ATP in the thylakoid is similar to the process in_____
There is no ______ gradient across the membrane of the thylakoid
There is a cyclical pathway that involves only ____
Cyclica - light excites PSI and en electron is passed to _____, then to cytochrome b6f and then back to the ____, instead of to NADP+
In photosynthesis, each molecule of O2 is derived from _____ not the CO2
The absorption spectrum is the intenstiy of ______ absorbed relative to its ______
The water is split during a process called ______ and the result that goes to the photosystem II is two _______
There is a huge ______ gradient across the thylakoid membrane involved to make the ATP and drive the ATP synthase

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