Science Quiz / 'W', 'X', 'Y', and 'Z' in Geology

Random Science or Geology Quiz

Can you name the answers to these Geology questions where all of the answers begin with 'W', 'X', 'Y', or 'Z'?

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A level beneath the Earth's surface, below which all pore spaces are filled with water
This mostly submerged mass of continental crust in the southern Pacific Ocean may qualify as a continent
A pre-existing rock that has been incorporated into magma without being melted (#4 above)
A technique used to identify minerals and other crystalline materials by bombarding them with X-rays*
The breakdown of rocks, soil, and minerals by interactions with Earth's atmosphere, waters, and organisms
Prefix used to describe coal or opal that maintains the original wood grain structure
A crystal that does not have uniform color or composition (e.g., the tourmaline in #1 above)
This gemstone forms during regional metamorphism and hydrothermal alteration; tanzanite is one variety
A group of hydrous aluminosilicates that are similar to the feldspars; they fuse and swell when heated
A tributary that parallels the main channel of a stream for a considerable distance
The world's first national park; famous for hot springs, geysers, forested mountains, and wildlife
Greenland warmed 10°C in a decade at the end of this famous near-glacial period about 11,500 years ago
The father of biogeography, independently developed the theory of natural selection - no beagles needed
Removal of surface water or groundwater for human use
A hard and durable nesosilicate mineral commonly used to date rocks that are billions of years old (#2 above)
The sulfide mineral sphalerite is the most common ore for this element
A stream bed (often in a steep-sided valley) that is dry except during the rainy season (#3 above)
His theory of Continental Drift was the forerunner to the modern theory of Plate Tectonics

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