Science Quiz / GU MNE Lectures 16 and 17

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Can you name the GU MNE Lectures 16 and 17?

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QuestionAnswer
Glycerophospholipid Biosynthesis (iii) addition of a ______ ______ group joined to the backbone molecule via a ______ bond
In healthy people, the largest quantity of galactocerebroside is found in the _____
Sphingolipid with a phosphate group
________ is used to make Glycerol-3-phosphate in ALL tissues
For ganglioside nomenclature: # = __ - moieties (But do NOT count ___)
Sphingolipids: Step 2: Attachment of a _____ _____ via an amide bond
Platelet activating factor is a 1-_____-2-_____ ether analog of phosphatidylcholine.
with the addition of the sulfate, the monosaccharide has a _______ charge, so sulfatides are not neutral sphingoglycolipid
Galactocerebrosides are an end product but they can be modified by energy activated ________ which adds ______ group
A _______ is a type of glycosphingolipid with more than one sugar as the side chain
Impaired ________ of sphingolipids results in accumulation of membrane lipids
sphinganine is an ___ carbon ______ ______
Glycerophospholipid Biosynthesis (iv) (sometimes) alteration or exchange of the __________ to yield the final phospholipid product.
simplest of neutral sugars are _________, which contain only ONE sugar residue, either ______ or _______
_________ is the only membrane phospholipid not derived from glycerol.
CDP-diacylglycerol + Serine =
____________ are synthesized from different pathway and building blocks than ESTER-linked phospholipids
______ ______ diseases result from defects of the lysosomal hydrolases, which results in accumulation of the hydrolases’ _______ substrates in the lysosome.
Triacylglycerol Synthesis: Using phosphatidic phosphatase to remove a phosphate you get ___________________
More complex _________ have unbranched or branched oligosachharide headgroups, containing up to 10 sugar residues
Sphingolipids: Step 1: Synthesis of ________, an 18 carbon amino alcohol
participate in the cell surface structures associated with blood types
The ________ are paracrine hormones derived from polyunsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, predominantly ________ acid
alveoli needs surfactant (________) to reduce surface tension
___________ (from C__)inactivates Platelet activating factor
________-__-________ is a precursor for triacylglycerols and glycerophospholipids
Cardiolipin (high levels in Cardiac tissues) is a combination of 2 ______________
anionic phospholipids
Some of the _______ _________ are found on the surface of red blood cells and participate in giving them blood-group specificity.
Glycerophospholipid Biosynthesis (i) synthesis of the ________ molecule
QuestionAnswer
Glycerophospholipid Biosynthesis (ii) attachment of ______ ______ to the backbone in ______ or _____ linkages
A glycerophospholipid consists of a glycerol backbone, two fatty acid chains, and a ________ ________
an ester linkage is formed when a _____ group reacts with a _____ _____ in a ______ reaction, which liberates a water molecule
In bacteria, phospholipid biosynthesis occurs at the plasma membrane; in eukaryotic cells, it occurs primarily at the surface of the ______ _____
Cerebroside biosynthesis occurs through the use of ______ ______
Sphingolipid defects are ________ early in embryonic development
PC and PE are both synthesized using energy activated _________
________ is used
Use energy activated head group (activated with ______) to react with OH of ___________
Addition of sugars carried out by a series of _______ ______ (in Golgi) ______ at a time
______ ______ ______ promotes aggregation of platelets and the release of the vasoconstrictor, serotonin, from platelets
Synthesis occurs in the Golgi, unlike ceramide and other phospholipids
simplest glycerophospholipid (2 FA ,1 phosphate) is called _________ _______ or __________ __ -__________
Synthesis of Eukaryotic phospholipids uses _____-__________
Use energy activated Diacylglycerol (activated with ______) to react with the _____ of a head group
diacylglycerol + ________ =
DPPC = 2 ______ ______ attached to ________
A cereamide attached to a Gal and a Glc is called a ________ _________
Sphingolipids: Step 3: ________of the alkane chain of acylsphinganine (results in ________)
The synthesis of plasmalogens and other ether-linked phospholipids occurs via _________
Mammals also employ: Activated choline condenses with _______ to form PC.
_______ leads to diversity in gangliosides
_______ phospholipids are glycerophospholipids in which the fatty acid at position ___ of glycerol is attached with an ether linkage
Mammals synthesize PS via a ______ _______ with PE or PC
Mammals synthesize ________ via a headgroup exchange with PE (or PC) NOT from directly from CDP-diacylglycerol, and ________ of PE only occurs in the liver
Phosphatidylglycerol is a _______ backbone, __ _____ _____, and a glycerol head group - made through strategy __ using activated ___________
There are two strategies for the attachment of headgroups, via: (i) activated _________, or (ii) an activated __________
Diagnosis of a given sphingolipidosis can be made from a _____ of the involved organ, usually bone marrow, liver, or brain, often looking for morphological changes associated with
Sphingomyelin has an attachment of ____________
Tay-Sachs disease is a defect in the enzyme ___________ ___
QuestionAnswer
Most common lipid storage disease is ________ disease, which cannot remove ________ to make _______
One other class of acidic glycosphingolipids are the sulfatides, also known as _______
Ataxia, Dystonia, Hypotonia are symptoms of ____ ____ diseases
Synthesis of plasmalogens: Occurs in two steps: (i) _________, and (ii) addition of ethanolamine from ____-ethanolamine
______ gets added to phosphatidic acid to form CDP-diacylglycerol
____ is low when premature baby is born so they lack surfactant
the sugar moieties galactose (Gal), galactosamine (GalNAc), and Nacetylneuraminic acid (NANA), which are donated by ____-galactose, UDP-galactosamine, and _____-N-acetylneuraminic
PAPS is transferring Sulfate almost exclusively to the ____ of galactose.
Sphingolipids: Step 4: ________ attachment
The first steps of glycerophospholipid biosynthesis are shared with the pathway for the synthesis of ___________
Platelet activating factor also plays an important role in _________ and the allergic response in a variety of tissues.
Glycerol-3-phosphate then has two ____ ____ ____ chains attached to form ______ ______
Acidic glycosphingolipids, also known as ________ contain one or more residues of______ ______
The amino group of sphingosine can form an amide bond with the carboxylic group of fatty acids, yielding ________
For Tay Sach's diagnosis, use analog of ganglioside that _______ breaks down, and look for fluorescent break-down product
Plasmalogens are abundant in the membranes of _______ ______ tissue, as well as many single cell organisms
Bacteria employ the strategy that uses _____-__________ for synthesis
In glycerophospholipids, the hydroxyl groups at ____ and ____ of glycerol are esterified to the carboxyl groups of two ____ ____ chains
__________ is a precursor to all other sphingolipids
Sulfatide biosynthesis utilizes _____ as the source for an activated sulfate group
__________ is a common lipid in brain, often referred to as “cerebroside”
The phosphate group of phosphatidic acid becomes esterified to the hydroxyl group of
most often in glycolipid storage diseases the biosynthetic rate remains normal, but a mutation exists in a structural gene for a _______
Phospholipids are derived form either ______, a three-carbon alcohol, or ________, a more complex amino-alcohol.
________ is used to make Glycerol-3-phosphate in kidneys and liver via the enzyme _______ ________
_______ has a long hydrocarbon tail and a polar region that includes an amino group
G = _________ and __= 1 SA, ___= 2 SA, ___ = 3 SA, __= 4 SA
Ganglioside ___ is the receptor for ______ toxin in the human intestine
________ are vinyl ether lipids, with an unsaturated double bond between C1 and C2 of the alkene chain.

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