Science Quiz / GU MNE Lectures 16 and 17

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Can you name the GU MNE Lectures 16 and 17?

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simplest glycerophospholipid (2 FA ,1 phosphate) is called _________ _______ or __________ __ -__________
Plasmalogens are abundant in the membranes of _______ ______ tissue, as well as many single cell organisms
__________ is a precursor to all other sphingolipids
Synthesis occurs in the Golgi, unlike ceramide and other phospholipids
Synthesis of Eukaryotic phospholipids uses _____-__________
sphinganine is an ___ carbon ______ ______
________ is used to make Glycerol-3-phosphate in kidneys and liver via the enzyme _______ ________
Addition of sugars carried out by a series of _______ ______ (in Golgi) ______ at a time
Ganglioside ___ is the receptor for ______ toxin in the human intestine
Triacylglycerol Synthesis: Using phosphatidic phosphatase to remove a phosphate you get ___________________
Cardiolipin (high levels in Cardiac tissues) is a combination of 2 ______________
Glycerophospholipid Biosynthesis (ii) attachment of ______ ______ to the backbone in ______ or _____ linkages
________ are vinyl ether lipids, with an unsaturated double bond between C1 and C2 of the alkene chain.
Synthesis of plasmalogens: Occurs in two steps: (i) _________, and (ii) addition of ethanolamine from ____-ethanolamine
______ ______ ______ promotes aggregation of platelets and the release of the vasoconstrictor, serotonin, from platelets
________ is used
Sphingolipids: Step 3: ________of the alkane chain of acylsphinganine (results in ________)
Ataxia, Dystonia, Hypotonia are symptoms of ____ ____ diseases
PAPS is transferring Sulfate almost exclusively to the ____ of galactose.
In healthy people, the largest quantity of galactocerebroside is found in the _____
___________ (from C__)inactivates Platelet activating factor
simplest of neutral sugars are _________, which contain only ONE sugar residue, either ______ or _______
Bacteria employ the strategy that uses _____-__________ for synthesis
_________ is the only membrane phospholipid not derived from glycerol.
CDP-diacylglycerol + Serine =
diacylglycerol + ________ =
More complex _________ have unbranched or branched oligosachharide headgroups, containing up to 10 sugar residues
Use energy activated head group (activated with ______) to react with OH of ___________
participate in the cell surface structures associated with blood types
Sphingolipids: Step 1: Synthesis of ________, an 18 carbon amino alcohol
In bacteria, phospholipid biosynthesis occurs at the plasma membrane; in eukaryotic cells, it occurs primarily at the surface of the ______ _____
The phosphate group of phosphatidic acid becomes esterified to the hydroxyl group of
PC and PE are both synthesized using energy activated _________
There are two strategies for the attachment of headgroups, via: (i) activated _________, or (ii) an activated __________
Sphingolipid defects are ________ early in embryonic development
Sphingolipids: Step 4: ________ attachment
________ is used to make Glycerol-3-phosphate in ALL tissues
______ gets added to phosphatidic acid to form CDP-diacylglycerol
__________ is a common lipid in brain, often referred to as “cerebroside”
The ________ are paracrine hormones derived from polyunsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, predominantly ________ acid
Mammals also employ: Activated choline condenses with _______ to form PC.
the sugar moieties galactose (Gal), galactosamine (GalNAc), and Nacetylneuraminic acid (NANA), which are donated by ____-galactose, UDP-galactosamine, and _____-N-acetylneuraminic
The amino group of sphingosine can form an amide bond with the carboxylic group of fatty acids, yielding ________
DPPC = 2 ______ ______ attached to ________
Phosphatidylglycerol is a _______ backbone, __ _____ _____, and a glycerol head group - made through strategy __ using activated ___________
Sphingolipids: Step 2: Attachment of a _____ _____ via an amide bond
Diagnosis of a given sphingolipidosis can be made from a _____ of the involved organ, usually bone marrow, liver, or brain, often looking for morphological changes associated with
Glycerophospholipid Biosynthesis (iii) addition of a ______ ______ group joined to the backbone molecule via a ______ bond
_______ leads to diversity in gangliosides
______ ______ diseases result from defects of the lysosomal hydrolases, which results in accumulation of the hydrolases’ _______ substrates in the lysosome.
A glycerophospholipid consists of a glycerol backbone, two fatty acid chains, and a ________ ________
an ester linkage is formed when a _____ group reacts with a _____ _____ in a ______ reaction, which liberates a water molecule
A cereamide attached to a Gal and a Glc is called a ________ _________
G = _________ and __= 1 SA, ___= 2 SA, ___ = 3 SA, __= 4 SA
Impaired ________ of sphingolipids results in accumulation of membrane lipids
____________ are synthesized from different pathway and building blocks than ESTER-linked phospholipids
Acidic glycosphingolipids, also known as ________ contain one or more residues of______ ______
_______ has a long hydrocarbon tail and a polar region that includes an amino group
A _______ is a type of glycosphingolipid with more than one sugar as the side chain
Mammals synthesize ________ via a headgroup exchange with PE (or PC) NOT from directly from CDP-diacylglycerol, and ________ of PE only occurs in the liver
Glycerophospholipid Biosynthesis (i) synthesis of the ________ molecule
Cerebroside biosynthesis occurs through the use of ______ ______
Platelet activating factor also plays an important role in _________ and the allergic response in a variety of tissues.
Sphingomyelin has an attachment of ____________
One other class of acidic glycosphingolipids are the sulfatides, also known as _______
Platelet activating factor is a 1-_____-2-_____ ether analog of phosphatidylcholine.
Use energy activated Diacylglycerol (activated with ______) to react with the _____ of a head group
anionic phospholipids
Some of the _______ _________ are found on the surface of red blood cells and participate in giving them blood-group specificity.
Sulfatide biosynthesis utilizes _____ as the source for an activated sulfate group
_______ phospholipids are glycerophospholipids in which the fatty acid at position ___ of glycerol is attached with an ether linkage
Mammals synthesize PS via a ______ _______ with PE or PC
with the addition of the sulfate, the monosaccharide has a _______ charge, so sulfatides are not neutral sphingoglycolipid
Glycerophospholipid Biosynthesis (iv) (sometimes) alteration or exchange of the __________ to yield the final phospholipid product.
For Tay Sach's diagnosis, use analog of ganglioside that _______ breaks down, and look for fluorescent break-down product
alveoli needs surfactant (________) to reduce surface tension
Phospholipids are derived form either ______, a three-carbon alcohol, or ________, a more complex amino-alcohol.
Galactocerebrosides are an end product but they can be modified by energy activated ________ which adds ______ group
Most common lipid storage disease is ________ disease, which cannot remove ________ to make _______
For ganglioside nomenclature: # = __ - moieties (But do NOT count ___)
Sphingolipid with a phosphate group
most often in glycolipid storage diseases the biosynthetic rate remains normal, but a mutation exists in a structural gene for a _______
____ is low when premature baby is born so they lack surfactant
________-__-________ is a precursor for triacylglycerols and glycerophospholipids
Glycerol-3-phosphate then has two ____ ____ ____ chains attached to form ______ ______
The first steps of glycerophospholipid biosynthesis are shared with the pathway for the synthesis of ___________
The synthesis of plasmalogens and other ether-linked phospholipids occurs via _________
In glycerophospholipids, the hydroxyl groups at ____ and ____ of glycerol are esterified to the carboxyl groups of two ____ ____ chains
Tay-Sachs disease is a defect in the enzyme ___________ ___

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