World of Chem:Food Midterm 2 #3

Can you name the World of Chem:Food Midterm 2 #3?

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The ocean is ___% salt (by weight)
The water in the Galapagos is about 3.8% salt by weight because water ___ at a higher rate due to the temperature being higher.
The ___ ___ is about 32% salt by weight.
Salts are elements in ___ form.
CaSO4 or calcium sulfate is known as ___.
MgSO4 or magnesium sulfate is known as ___ ___.
Ca(HCO3)2 or calcium bicarbonate, will form calcium carbonate (CaCO3) spontaneously. This compound is known as ___ and is one of the most prevalent minerals available around the wo
___ ___ is a mixture of many salts (mainly sodium chloride)
___ is a mixed mineral fromed from CaCO3 and MgCO3 (contains calcium, magnesium and iron) and may have other elements within the tablets that could be harmful (such as arsenic, mer
First group elements such as sodium are very ___ and will explode/burn when they come in contact with water.
Ionic solids such as KBr (a crystalline solid) has a ___(low/high) melting point.
Most ionic species are soluble in water because water is relatively ___ and can accomodate salts in solution.
___ was once used as a poisonous gas.
Ionic solutions are ___(good/bad) electrical conductors.
The Uyuni Salt Flats are located in ___.
___ ___, Kenya is a 'salted area' that looks nice from aerials because of minerals found in the lake.
1 salt crystal weighs approximately ___ micrograms.
The recommended daily intake of sodium in Canada is ___ grams/day. It is twice this in the US.
Salt is linked with ___ because taking in too much salt causes the body to take in more water.
150(Systolic)/100(Diastolic) is an example of ___(high/low/normal) blood pressure
___/___ balance is very important in the body.
Bananas are full of ___ but potatoes have more.
Potassium is significantly larger than sodium so the two fit into ___ ___ on proteins with cell membranes that allow free ions through) in different ways.
Protein, fat and carboydrates are ___ and are taken at about 400-500g/day
calcium, phosphorus, vanadium, molybdenum and tin are examples of ___ and are taken at about 1-2g/day
___ is found in nuts, canned veggies, bread and cereals and we need about 2mg of it per day
the previous answer is an essential component of certain enzymes including ___ enzymes (which remove uric acid from the body)
___ is needed in quantities of about 10-20mg/day (2-4 grams are found in the body, mostly in blood).
___ is a problem that occurs when there is a deficiency in the previous answer.
___ is a genetic disease where the body absorbs too much iron and it gets stored in the heart, liver, joints and pancreas causing various heart and liver problems and arthritis
___ is a large, complicated organic molecule with an iron atom at its center. It is known as the 'iron-carrying' molecule.
The previous answer allows for the transportation of ___ from the lungs to the rest of the body.
Iron is best absorbed with ___ because it assists with the absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract
Iron has been put in wine as an additive and is now sometimes put in ___.
___ is an iron supplement product (~3mg/ml)
___ __ is a 'slow release' iron supplement that provides more than twice the daily requirement of iron.
___ is an inherited condition in which the body produces too much porphyn, which sequesters a large portion in ingested iron. (can affect the nervous system/skin)
A nickname for the previous answer is '___' syndrome
Aspergillus niger is a black fungus that causes respiratory problems and requires ___ to grow.
Elemental zinc appears silver while ionic zinc appears ___.
Ionic zinc represents ___% of body weight (about 2 grams) and is necessary for the function of insulin.
Zinc is also involved in the healing process and the sens of ___ and ___
It is estimated that around __% of people in the world lack enough zinc in the diet.
___ is a condition in which an individual lacks a proper sense of smell/taste (zinc is involved with this condition)
___ ___ is a circulation disease involving zinc where fingers and toes are purple/blue
___ and the prostate gland are involved with zinc levels in the body.
___ and meat are high in zinc.
We need about __mg/day of zinc
Vegetarians may have low zinc levels since ___ sequesters zinc.
zinc is connected to ___ known enzymes including Alcohol Dehydrogenase, RNA polymerase and tRNA synthetase
Deficiency of ionic ___ causes goiters (a reversible condition).
The thyroid gland needs iodine for ___ ___.
The previous question and answer was discovered by ___ ___ who received the Nobel Prize in 1909.
___ is full of iodine and is the main reason the people living on the coast are not deficient in iodine.
__% of commercial salts have added iodine in the form of KI or potassium iodide (only about 0.01% added).
___ micrograms of iodine are needed per day.
___ was once producing salts without iodine, causing high rates of goiter. they now add KI to their salt.
__% of the world's population have an iodine deficiency.
It costs __ cents per person per year to make iodized salt so as to prevent mental retardation/swarfism and goiter
Selenite Oxide ((SeO3)2-) ion is the form of ___ that the body is exposed to.
Selenium has properties similar to ___.
Selenium functions as an ___ that works with vitamin E.
Selenium is part of ___ ___ that protects cells against oxidative damage.
__ micrograms/day are required for normal function and it can be found in garlic, onion, seaweed, brazil nuts and tuna.
__ contains both sulfur and selenium compounds but also causes flatulance.
___ produces about 12 million metric tons of the previous answer per year (75% of the world supply)
___ is the micronutrient that is ingested the most.
Dr. ___ ___, in 1883, determined that the body needs calcium for nerve impulses to function.
Most calcium that is ingested composes __% of our bones and teeth.
There is about __kg of calcium in bones (along with phosphate).
The other 1% of calcium ingested is used in ___ ___ and blood clotting.
Recommended Calcium intake is about: 800mg/day for ages 0-10 and ages 20+ and ___mg/day for ages 10-20.
low levels of calcium cause ___ in middle-aged people
low levels are linked to mid-life ___ and heart disease
Osteoporosis affects about __% of the population.
For 40-50 year old women, ___ is 1-5% per year (1-5% of bone mass is lost, occurs in men 10-20 years later).
It will take __/(resorption %) years for half the bone mass to be gone.
10% loss in hip mass relates to a ___% increase in hip fractures
In a study of 165,000 hip fractures, about 17% die within 3 months and __% die within a year.
___ are cells taht remove calcium from the bone and from the body.
___ are cells that fix calcium on to bones.
___ is a specific inhibitor of osteoclast-mediated bone resoption (breakdown).
The previous answer can cause improvement in bone mass of up to _% per year.
___ is another reclast product that prevents osteoporosis in postmenopausal women with conveniently less frequent dosing (has some bad side effects).
In absorption, calcium, phosphate and hydroxide in the blood synthesize to form ___ ___.
___ is an example of a calcium supplement that contains calcium in the form of calcium carbonate (limestone).
When in contact with ___, rocks that have CaCO3 will release carbon dioxide (bubbling) by the following equation: 2HCl + CaCO3 --> CaCl2 + H2O + CO2
The acid in the stomach ___(increases/decreases) the absorption of calcium from calcium carbonate.
A meta analysis showed that calcium supplementation may increase the risk of hip fracture by about __% by interfering with phosphate absorption.
Food sources of ___ include meat, fish, poultry, various dairy products and even coca cola
___ are the best source of calcium.
Double-photon absorptiometry (sending photons into the wrist), CT scan, X-ray and blood analysis allow ___ ___ to be detected
___ build-up in the arteries can cause heart-attacks in postmenopausal women
A recent study showed that elderly women taking calcium supplements had a __% higher chance of having a heart attack/stroke compared to those taking the placebo
Calcium uptake is better when ___ is present.
___ is a 32 amino acid peptide that has a role in calcium and phosphorus metabolism.
Bone cells have ___ receptors.
In a 2 year double blind study with ___mg calcium supplements with a placebo/estrogen table, it was shown that the combination of estrogen and calcium increases bone mass
___ used to be the most prescribed drug in the US, usually with Progestin
___ is an estrogen mimic with fewer side effects.
For many years it was believed that estrogen with calcium would prevent ___ and may help prevent heart disease.
It has been shown that taking estrogen can increase risk of uterine cancer and may increase risk of ___ cancer therefore estrogen taken on its own is not good.
Estrogen is now given with ___ (Prempro) to reduce risk of uterine cancer which is why Premarin is so widely used but may increase risk of breast cancer.
___ ion is another therapy for osteoporosis.
fluoride can replace the __ group in bone mass (they are about the same size and charge) to form fluoro appatite.
fluoride has been shown to stimulate ___ cell formation which leads to build up of bone material
___ is another way to build bones (nothing ingested)
___ has been shown to be important for bone formation and can be found in its salt form, Sodium Borate
Sodium Borate comes from the ___ ___ in California
Vitamin D maintains Calcium levels and you need ___IU/day and UV-B light.

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