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Can you name the Biochem Test?

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QuestionAnswer
Biochemistry is the study of the ____ of ____
Metabolism is the combination of reactions that build up or break down ____
Two sub-levels are ____ and ____
Catabolism is accompanied by a gain of ____
The two purposes of metabolism are to convert ____ ____ into ____, and to make all ____ necessary for ____
Animals are ____
The four types of foods are ____, ____, ____, and ____ and ____
Plants are ____
Plants use ____, ____ and ____ to make their own food
____ is the precursor to all biological molecules
____ and ____ are taken up from the soil
Proteins are broken down into amino acids and then converted to ____, ____, ____, and ____
Glucose is broken down to G6P and is then converted to ____
Pyruvate can be converted into ____, ____, ____ ____, or ____
Acetyl-CoA can be converted into ____ ____, ____ ____, ____ ____, or ____
Triacylglycerols are broken down to fatty acids with are converted into ____
The two processes that yield ATP in glucose breakdown are ____ and ____ ____
Processes that require ATP are ____ and ____ ____ ____
After nutrients are digested, ____ of the ____ secrete ____ in response to the nutrients
Insulin stimulates ____ and ____ in the liver, ____ ____ in muscle, and ____ in adipocytes.
At a meal blood glucose is about ____ mM
Between meals, when blood glucose decreases, ____ is secreted by ____ in the ____
Glucagon stimulates ____ and ____ in the liver, and ____ in adipocytes
Brain cells are constantly taking up ____ and muscle cells keep any glucose as ____
The ____ secretes hormones such as insulin and glucagon
The ____ requires constant glucose and cannot digest fats
The ____ store glucose as glycogen
____ Tissues store glucose and fatty acids as triacylglycerols. They also secret ____ and ____
The ____ is the metabolic hub, which stores glycogen and triacylglycerols
____-____ ____ ____ (AMPK) is activated by ____ when the ____/____ ratio is ____
AMPK activates/inhibits pathways in order to ____ ____ for vital processes
AMPK generally activates ____ and ____ uptake, and inhibits ____ ____
____ increases AMPK activity; nonetheless, increased ____ ____ decreases ____levels, which are associated with ____ ____
Diabetes Mellitues means ____ ____
Type I is caused by inactive ____ in the ____ which are often destroyed by the ____ ____
Type II is caused by ____ ____ in muscle and gradual decrease in the ability of ____ to keep up with the demand for ____
____ ____ precedes T2D and is characterized by ____
HEMMO stands for: ____, ____ ____, ____ ____, ____ ____ ____, and ____
Sources of chemical energy are ____ and ____ (abbreviations)
The oxidation of carbon is ____
Free energy is converted to ____ and ____ ____ ____
Most high energy compounds contain ____
The oxidation state is for ____, and the oxidation number is for ____
High energy molecules are ____
TAP1PA stands for ____, ____, ____, ____, ____, and ____
Breaking phosphate bonds releases ____ ____ because the products have a higher ____ than the reactants
(Compounds) ____ and ____ are used for short-term energy whereas (processes) ____ and ____ ____ are used for long-term energy
Enzymes do not change the ____ ____ of a reaction, they only increase the ____
Enzymes stabilize the ____ ____ in reactions
____ is the rate of ____ of a reaction pathway
Most metabolic pathways are ____ and ____
Carbon oxidation is coupled to ____ ____
Reactions proceed in steps so that ____ can be ____
____ are electron carriers (NOT ____)
____ ____ (G) is the energy that can be used for work. The change in free energy reflects how far the reaction is from ____
G= ____ + ____ ____ ln (____ / ____)
Standard free energy is measured at ____ C, ____ atm, pH ____, ____ M reactants, and ____ M of each product
If the free energy equals the standard free energy, K equals ____
Many electron carriers are ____ such as ____, ____, and ____
QuestionAnswer
NAD+/NADP + MUST receive ____ electrons, whereas FAD+ can receive ____ or ____ electrons
The ____ ____converts the standard reduction potential (E`) into the true reduction potential (E) and tells us the ____ force of a reaction
G = -____ ____ ____
E = ____ - (____ ____ / ____ ____)
F stands for the ____ constant
The ____ ____ (E) is an ____ property; thus, it does not depend on the number of ____, and is given in units of ____
Tables with reduction potentials give you ____; you need to use the ____ ____ to find ____ before you can find G
A positive E means a ____ reaction
Glycolysis has ____ stages: energy ____ and energy ____
In glycolysis phosphorylated ____ (low energy) is converted into ____ ____ ____
In glycolysis energy is gained from the ____ of carbon
Each NADH produced in glycolyisis yields ____ ATP in ____ ____
In aerobes, glycolysis produces ____ ATP (____ from ATP synthesis and ____ from NADH oxidation)
The enzymes that require ATP investment are ____, ____ and ____ ____
____ is required to coordinate phosphate groups and is required by the following enzymes: ____, ____, ____ ____, ____, and ____ ____
ATP is needed for phosphorylations and is required by ____ and ____
K+ is required by ____
NAD+ is required by ____ ____
ADP is required by ____ ____ and ____ ____
Pi is required by ____ ____
In Step 1, ____ catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose at ____ under ____ condition, thus the ____ of ATP is coupled with the ____ of C
Without hexokinase ATP would ____ by itself
Magnesium ____ ____ to allow for nucleophilic attack of the glucose to the ATP and is common for ____ ____ ____
____ (Enzyme) change the molecule itself
In Step 2, ____ ____ converts a pyranose to a furanose by kicking ____ out of the ring in order the make the later-cleaved product ____
The standard free energy for the reaction is ____ because the bonds ____ equal the bonds ____
____ (Enzyme) transfer phosphates from ATP to substrates
In Step 3, ____ phosphorylates the reactant at ____
Step 3 is the ____ ____ step. It is driven by ____ and it is inhibited by ____ and activated by ____
In Step 4, ____ breaks a C-C bond below ____through an inverse aldol reaction, thus the products are an ____ and an ____
Aldolase reactions always break ____ carbon below the carbonyl
The aldolase reaction can be carried out through ____ ____ catalysis or ____ catalysis with the aid of two key aa: ____ and ____
The general base reaction produces an ____ with a ____ ____ that is stabilized by ____
The aldolase provides a ____ ____ (Asp) and a ____ ____ (Lys)
The aldolase reaction has 5 steps: The A1st steps is the binding of the ____ in the ____ ____
In the A2nd step, the enzymatic reaction forms a ____ ____ with the Lys through a nucleophilic attack from ____ to the ____, which reduces the ____ ____ and has an ____ ____ ____ a
Due to the schiff base in the enzymatic reaction, an ____ intermediate is formed instead of an enolate, which is more stable because it lack the ____ ____ of the enolate
The schiff base makes the catalysis more ____
In step A3 ____ is released first after an aldol cleavage. The ____ donates a proton to ____
In step A4, the tautomerization and protonation of the substrate occurs through a ____ reaction, although the final product is not ____
In step A5, the schiff base is ____ and ____ is releaase
In Step 5____ ____ ____, the perfect enzyme, catalyzes the conversion of ____ (a/an ____) to ____ (a/an ____) at positions ____ and ____
TIM makes DHAP and GAP go through an ____ intermediate
A perfect enzyme has a pseudo ____ order ____ ____, which tells us how likely a reaction is when ____ and ____ collide
A perfect enzyme has a catalytic efficiency (Kcat/Km) of
Although catalysis occurs ____ time, the products can ____ to ____ before release
The ____ ____ is the speed of a reaction
The rate constant (K) for tim is: [____]/[____] and it equals ____. This means that in the products there is ____% of GAP and ____% of DHAP
In Step 6, after GAP is formed, ____ ____ (GAPDH) both ____ and ____ in one reaction
____ is not required for this phosphorylation (an ____ reaction) because it's ____ with the following reaction. Nonetheless, ____ is needed for the oxidation of ____
In Step 7, ____ ____ cleaves off the phosphate from ____ of the bisphosphate which is extremely ____
This reaction is so exergonic that it drives step ____ and the synthesis of ____
____ transfer groups between different molecules within the same compound
In Step 8, ____ ____ catalyzes the ____ of a ____ from ____ to ____. This moves the ____ to a carbon with a higher ____ ____; thus the bond becomes higher energy
Moving the phosphate is a high ____ reaction because you're moving the ____ closer to a ____ charge. Nonetheless, this is driven by energy from the ____ ____
In Step 9, ____ dehydrates ____, causing the oxidation number of ____ to decrease, but the oxidation of ____ increases due to the ____ ____ formed
Step 9 is a ____ reaction and does not change the ____ ____ of the metabolite
In Step 10, ____ ____ dephosphorylates ____ and the energy given of this is coupled to the synthesis of ____, This causes ____ to become more oxidized
TCA depends on ____ ____, which shuts down under ____ conditions
QuestionAnswer
Under aerobic conditions, pyruvate goes into ____. In anaerobic conditions, TCA goes into ____ fermentation in mammals or ____ fermentation in yeast.
Pyruvate has 3 fates: ____ and ____ via TCA, ____ via homolactic fermentation, or ____ and ____ via alcoholic fermentation
Lactate can also be converted to ____ in the ____
Efficiency is the ____ ____ divided by ____ ____
Less than 100% ____ is needed to maintain ____
In the lactate dehydrogenase mechanism, the amino acids make the C more ____ by pulling off ____ ____
In the LDH mechanism, the ____ acts as a general acid donating its H to the pyruvate. Two ____ pull off ____ ____ from ____ in order to allow the ____ from ____ to attack the carbo
In the LDH mechanism, the ____ pulls the H of the ____
Other carbohydrates that feed into glycolysis are:, ____, ____ and ____
Fructose is made into ____ in the liver because there's no ____, only ____
There's two different pathways to make fructose; this allows the body to make ____ depending on energy needs
____ is what traps glucose inside the cell
____ is an alternate fate for G6P
The purpose of the PPP is to regenerate ____ and to make intermediates for ____
Although ____ carbons enter PPP, only ____ come out as products for glycolysis and the other ____ come out as ____
____ oxidation is coupled to ____ reduction
____ is oxidated to ____, leaving a ____
The ending products of PPP are ____ and ____
The P in G6P is there to ____ the glucose, and because it already comes as G6P from ____
NADPH is used for ____ ____ and for keeping ____ in its ____ state
The regulation step is the ____ of ____ by ____ ____
3 molecules of G6P start, and 1 glucose goes to ____, and the other two to ____
In PPP only the first 3 steps can be ____. In general we regulate the ____ through the pathway
After that, the intermediates are in ____, where as the first three steps are in ____ ____
____ is regulated in PPP. Deficiency of the enzyme leads to a lack of ability to maintain ____ ____ (Antioxidant regeneration) due to low ____. One of the symptoms is ____.
The first step in PPP is regulated because otherwise G6P could not go back to ____
The 3 regulatory points of glycolysis are at ____, ____, and ____ ____
The major regulatory point of glycolysis is ____, which has 2 forms of regulation: ____ regulation and ____ ____
____ regulation means that a coenzyme is bound somewhere other than the ____ ____
In PFK, ____ is bound at the regulatory site
Allosteric binding regulates ____/____ transition.
The T (sense) state has a ____ substrate ability
The R (relaxed) state has a ____ substrate affinity
____ and ____ favor the R state leading to ____ activity
____ favors the T state leading to ____ activity
The binding of the substrate changes the ____ but not the ____ ____
____ is the rate constant of the reaction also known as ____ ____
____ is the binding affinity of the ____ for the ____
A ____ affinity equals a ____ Km
Therefore, if ATP binds to the enzyme, the reaction will have a ____ Km and a ____ affinity
Kcat/Km is a measure of the ____ of the enzyme
PKF is a ____ and shifts from T to R as a unit
Each monomer of PFK has an ____ and an ____ site
All 3 molecules ____, ____ and ____ bind to allosteric sites
____ ratios don't matter as much as ____, which is the major regulator
In ____ ____ both enzymes of PFK are active at the same time, thus you're using up ____ to make ____ (aka ____ ____)
The two enzymes involved are ____ and ____
Substrate cycling maintains enzyme activity even at low ____
____ in any direction can be quickly increased by turning on one enzyme and turning off the other
PFK is controlled because it allows the body to regulate the levels of ____ and ____
____ can't be regulated. Furthermore, it bypasses ____ and lowers ____ production
Sources of glucose are ____ and ____
Sources of both fructose and glucose are ____, ____, and ____
Low levels of Pyruvate Kinase can lead to ____ ____ of intermediates and lowered ____ production
____ ATP are made from PPP. ____ are lost to Glucose phosphorylation and ____ are lost to fructose phosphorylation. However, ____ ATP are made from the PPP intermediates and produc
Do we generate ATP through fermentation?
The reduction potentials give us the ____ ____ given out by the reaction. A negative value means ____ energy.
What's the difference between free energy and standard free energy?

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