Science Quiz / Biochem Chapter 22 - Metabolism

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Can you name the Chapter 22 - Biochem?

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Glycolysis is the degradation of _____ to ____ _____ and ____ ____
Gluconeogenesis is the synthesis of _____ from _____
Glycogen synthesis is catalyzed by _____ _____
Glycogen degradation is catalyzed by _____ _____
B-Oxidation breaks down _____ _____ to _____
Acetyl-CoA is converted to _____ as a substrate for _____ _____
The TCA oxidizes _____ to _____ and _____
The main purpose of TCA is _____ _____
Oxidative phosphorylation couples the oxidation of _____ and _____ produced by _____, _____, and _____ to the phosphorylation of _____
Excess amino acids are degraded to metabolic intermediates to go through these two processes: _________ and _____
The amino group is disposed of through _____ _____
The degradation of Glucose is called ____
The synthesis of Glucose is called ____
The break down of fatty acids is called ____
The process that oxidizes Acetyl-CoA is the ____ ____ ____
The process that couples the oxidation of NADH and FADH2 is called ____ ____
The two major compounds of metabolism are _____ and _____
Acetyl-CoA is the common degradation product of _____, _____ ______, and _____ _____ _____ (coumpounds, not processes)
Pyruvate is produced from _____ and the breakdown of _____ _____ _____ (coumpounds, not processes)
One of the few tissues that can carry out all the processes of metabolism is the
The primary fuel of the brain is _____
During an extended fast the brain switches to _____ _____
_____ mM is the normal blood glucose concentration
The muscles' major fuel is _____ from _____
Metabolizing glycogen is cost effective because it can be _____ more rapidly than _____, and because it can be metabolized _____
In muscle, glycogen is converted to _____ for entry into _____
Muscle CANNOT export glucose because it lacks _____
Mucle contraction is ____ under high exertion
At maximum exertion, muscles ATP is initially replenished by ____ and ____
After 4s muscles shifts to ____ production via ____ of ____
Much of G6P is degraded anaerobically to ____
Muscle fatigue is caused by a drop in ____ due to the buildup of lactate
The heart is largely ____
40% of the heart's ctoplasmic space contains ____
The heart can metabolize ____ ____, ____, ____ ____, ____, and ____
____ ____ are the resting heart's fuel of choice
During heavy work the heart increases its consumption of ____ from ____
The fuctions of adipose tissue are to store and release ____ ____, and to secrete ____ involved in regulating ____
Fatty acids are activated by the formation of ____ ____, and then sterified with ____ to form the stored ____
____ converts blood glucose to G6P in the liver
One of the liver's major functions is to act as a blood glucose '____'
Glucokinase is a liver isozyme of ____
Glucokinase is different from hexokinase due to its lower ____ affinity
Due to the above, glucokinase is not inhibited by ____ concentrations of ____
Ergo, the higher the blood glucose, the faster the liver converts ____ to ____
Glucokinase is a ____ enzyme, exhibiting ____ kinetic behavior
The glucokinase regulatory protein is a competitive inhibitor of ____ in the presence of ____
Since ____ is converted to ____, it can be said that glucokinase is inhibited by its product
G6P can be converted to ____, ____, ____, ____, or degraded via the pentose phosphate pathway to generate ____
The liver can synthesize or degrade ____
At high demand of metabolic fuel, ____ ____ are degraded to ____, and then to ____ ____
The liver cannot used ketone bodies because it lacks ____ ____
____ ____ are the liver's major acetyl-CoA source
The liver generates ATP from acetyl-CoA through ____ and ____ ____
At low demand of metabolic fuel, ____ ____ are incorporated into ____, which are secreted into the bloodstream as ____, or incorporated into ____
Fatty acid synthesis in the ____ is separate from b-oxidation in the ____
____ inhibits the transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria
Amino acids are degraded to ____ ____, which can be oxidized to ____ and ____, or converted to ____ or ____ ____
Amino acids provide a significant fraction of metabolic energy after a ____, and during a ____
During a fast amino acids arise from muscle protein degration to ____ and ____
The functions of the kidneys are to filter ____ and maintain ____ ____
The kidneys filter ____ and waste products, and recovers metabolites such as ____
The kidneys maintain blood pH by regenerating depleted blood buffers such as ____ and by excreting excess ____ together with ____ ____, ____ and ____
Protons are excreted in the form of ____, derived from ____ or ____
The only two tissues that can undertake glucose synthesis are the ____ and ____
During starvation the kidneys generate as much as ____% of the body's glucose supply
Blood transports ____ in the interorgan metabolic pathways
The Cori cyle transports ____ and ____
During muscle contraction, ATP is generated through ____ ____ (in ____ -twitch muscle fibers) or through ____ to ____ catabolism (in ____ -twitch muscle fibers)
____ twitch muscle fibers are rich in mitrochondria
The liver and muscle are connected by the ____
The ATP consumed by the liver during the Cori Cycle is regenerated through ____ ____, which takes place in the liver.
After vigorous exercise it takes at least 30 minutes fo O2 consumption to decrease, because the elevated O2 consumption pays off the ____ ____.
The oxygen debt is created by the demand of ____ to drive ____.
The Glucose-Alanine cycle transfers ____ to the ____
The amino group carried by alanine ends up in ____ or ____ and can be used for ____ biosynthesis
The purpose of the glucose-alanine cycle is to transport ____ from muscle to liver
The pyruvate can originate from muscle protein ____, that's how muscle can provide glucose for other tissues although it does not carry gluconeogenesis
Insulin release is triggered by ____
In the ____, glucose enters the B-cells via ____ ____, and its metabolism generates the signal for insulin secretion
The rate-limiting step of glucose metabolism in b-cells is the reaction catalyzed by ____, which is considered the B-cell's ____ sensor
All G6P produced from glucose metabolism in B-cells is degraded to ____, and then converted to ____ for oxidation by ____ into ____ and ____
Insulin is the primary regulator of ____ ____, by promoting fuel storage in ____ and ____ tissue, and by inhibiting hepatic ____ production.
____ and ____tissues express insulin-sensitive glucose transporters.
In contrast, the ____, ____, and ____ have insulin-independent glucose transporters and do not respond to ____ by increasing the amount of glucose transporters.
Insulin stimulates intracellular vesicles containing ____ to fuse to the plasma membrane; this process is mediated by ____.
Since ____ has a low Km for ____, the cells can rapidly uptake glucose, and then are sequestered by _____
In muscle, insulin also activates ____ _____
In adipose tissue, insulin activates the _____ ____ ____ which then activates _____ _____ leading to fatty acid synthase; additionally, it inhibits lipolysis by inhibiting ____ ___
Insulin blocks the following processes in the liver: ____ and ____
In the liver, insulin blocks glycogenolysis by inactivating ____ ____ and activating ____ ____
In the liver, insulin blocks gluconeogenesis by inhibiting transcription of genes that encode ____ enzymes (____ ____, ____, and ____)
Additionally,insulin stimulates the expression of ____ enzymes
In the liver, insulin stimulates fatty acid synthesis by stimulating the expression of ____ enzymes (____ ____ and ____ ____ ____)
Insulin affects ____ and ____ tissues as well as the ____.
In muscle insulin increases ____ uptake and ____ synthesis.
In adipose tissue insulin increases ____ uptake and ____ while inhibiting ___.
In muscle tissue, insulin
____ and ____ counter the effects of insulin
Glucagon affects ____ tissue and the ____.
In adipose tissue glucagon increases ____.
In the liver it decreases ____ synthesis while increasing ____
Since ____ are not affected, they benefit from the glucose released by the liver
The two major catecholamines are ____ and ____
Catecholamines affect ____ and _____ tissues as well as the ____ and the ____.
In muscles, epinephrine stimulates ____ which leads to ____ to produce ____
In adipose tissue, epinephrine leads to ____ and to the mobilization of ____ ____
In the liver, epinephrine leads to ____ and ____ by promoting the release of ____ from the ____
____ ____ ____ is the cell's fuel gauge, thus maintains metabolic homeostasis. It does so by activating ____ pathways that generate ____ while inhibiting ____ pathways.
AMPK mediated activation is usually activated through ____
In ____ (blood starved) cardiac muscle, AMPK stimulates ____.
AMPK stimulates the heart to switch from ____ ____ (produces CO2) to ____ production (anaerobic glycolysis that does NOT produce CO2)
AMPK mediates the switch by phosphorylating the ____/____ enzyme, thus activating ____, which increases ____, thus activating ____ and _____
In the liver, AMPK inhibits ____ and ____ while activating ____ ____ ____
Lipogenesis is blocked by the inhibition of ____ ____ (ACC) (____ ____ synthesis) and ____ (HMG-CoA) ____ (____ synthesis)
Glycogen synthesis is blocked by the inhibition of ____ ____. The sum of the inhibitions allows the organism to conserve ____
In skeletal muscle, AMPK promotes ____ ____ ____ and ____ uptake.
Fatty acid oxidation is promoted by a decrease in ___ (due to the inhibition of ACC in the liver), which inhibits the transport of fatty acids into the _____
Glucose uptake is promoted by an increased expression of ____ and ____ on muscle cell surfaces. Thus, AMPK and _____ have the same effect on muscles
In adipocytes, AMPK inhibits ____ and ____ ____ ____ by inhibiting ____ ____ ____. This lowers the amount of triacylglycerols in the ____.
____ regulates AMPK activity and is secreted by____. Binding of adinopectin to its receptors on liver and muscle cells ____ the activity of AMPK, which is similar to that of ____
Hormones control appetite by regulating the secretion of ____, which is released by the ____ and stimulates ____.
Secretion of the hormone is inhibited by ____, ____, and ____, and ____
____ is the satiety hormone and is produced by ____ and causes ____ energy expenditure. A diminished response to leptin increases the concentration of ____
____ and ____ act as ____-term regulators of appetite
____ fluctuates on the oder of hours after a meal
Energy expenditure can be controlled by ____ ____
During a fast ____ provides glucose
Diabetes ____ is characterized by high blood glucose levels
Insulin-Dependent diabetes is cause by a deficiency of ____ ____
Non-Insulin-Dependent diabetes may be caused by a defficiency in ____ ____ or ____ ____ ____

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