Molecular Biology NST1A Cells

Can you name the Molecular Biology NST1A Cells?

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How many types of proteins are involved in prokaryote DNA replication?
Moving down the replication fork, the first is?
What is the function of this topoisomerase?
The second enzyme is?
The function of this is to
The third protein type is
The function of SSBs is to
Another protein type is
This enzyme
In addition, we have a fifth protein type
This enzyme
Finally, we have DNA polymerase, but which number?
Pol3 and Pol 1 have the same directionality, but which way?
Pol3 and Pol 1 both have exonuclease activity in which direction?
However, which has a 5'-3' exonuclease activity too?
Pol3 replicates the
The lagging strand is replicated by
Okazaki's experiments showed that, as well as being semi-conservaive, DNA synthesis is
The 5'-3' exonuclease activity of Pol1 is referred to as **** *********** and serves to remove the primer.
Okazaki discovered that the lagging strand is synthesised in
Conversely, the leading strand is synthesised
This reflects the processivities of each polymerase: X = Pol3, Y = Pol1
Okazaki's experiment is known as the what and what?
The pulse consisted of what substrate being used by E.coli
After leaving the E.coli in the tritium for one minute, Okazaki removed them, isolated the DNA, and put it in a
What was the ratio of the results?
During the chase experiment, what was different?
The result from the centrifuge showed
How many Origins of Replication are there in prokaryotes?
At the otic, which proteins bind to form the helicase?
What is the collection of proteins at the replication fork known as?
The lagging strand loops round the back of the replisome, which is the origin of the term
What is the shape of bacterial chromosome?
How many subunits of Pol3 are there?
Which is the polymerase bit?
Which part is the exonuclease part?
Why is the processivity of Pol3 so high?
Which subunits have no defined function?
In eukaryotes, DNA is packaged by
Histone proteins contain lots of
Why?Attracted to negative DNA
Histones and DNA makes the substance known as
Histones pack into
Nucleosomes pack into a
The process of DNA replication in eukaryotes is different in how many ways?
The first being
Like prokaryotes, eukaryotic DNA replication is (4 things)
Who discovered DNA replication was semi conservative, using 15N?
The second difference is that DNA replication only occurs in eukaryotes
The third difference is that DNA replication in eukaryotes requires an
Firstly, the ORC binds to the origin of replication in question, then, which protein binds
After this, ********* ******* bind
Then, a **** phosphorylates proteins to begin replication
The fourth difference is the fact that eukaryotes have linear chromosomes, leading to the need for
This is because the *** ****** binds to linear chromosome, but if attached to ***** ***, that code is lost
Telomeres
The RNA primer binds to the 3' non coding nucleotides, and is cleaved by
Leaving nucleotides exposed. The telomerase has an internal
Which ******* to the exposed bases.
Which part of the telomerase adds nucleotides to the 3' end of chromosome?
In adults, the telomerase becomes
The fifth difference is the
How many proteins are the same?
How many are different?
The first being
Pol delta is responsible for the synthesis of the
The second is
Pol epsilon is responsible for synthesis of the
Both have 2 common characteristics:
The third is
Which is used to
The fourth is
Whose job is to
The fifth is
The three same proteins are (in order down fork)
Where does prokaryotic translation start?
Prokaryote promoters are found at
The -10 region is X and the -35 region is Y
RNA polymerase has X types of subunits
Alpha are the
Beta are the
Sigma is the (SSPB)
Collectively, these subunits are known as a
The holoenzyme performs a (fast) ****** **** along the DNA
Sigma factors bind to
Which causes the holoenzyme to
The sigma factor has a
Which binds to the
By means of * ***** from side chains
Different sigma factors are used in different conditions, such as
What is a good example of prokaryotic transcription regulation?
Has three genes:
mRNA is transcribed as a
When lactose is X but glucose is Y
Normally, the repressor protein **** binds at TATATT
This
When lactose is present, X enters the cell
Allolactose binds to LacI and causes a ************** ****** so the sigma factor can bind
In addition, an activator protein must bind where?
Low glucose levels lead to increased
This causes a conformational change in which protein?
Binding of CRP causes DNA to ****, further slowing down the holoenzyme
There are three types of
They are
Transcribed RNA base pairs with itself to form a
Stem loops are rich in
The * H-bonds between these make the stem loop *****
A protein, bound to the holoenzyme, binds to the stem loop structure - what is it?
This causes
Alternatively rho dependent termination relies on a what?
The rho factor does what?
And it uses an
to
Just ******* of the ********** ******,
A **** **** passes the holoenzyme
This slows the holoenzyme, so the rho factor catches up and causes
Another form of transcription termination is called
The *** ****** codes for components in ********** synthesis
This only works because in prokaryotes, there is no
What level of tryptophan is needed for attenuation to occur?
Subsequently, this is an example of
What can happen as there is no nucleus?
In the transcript known as
What can form?
Stem loop X can cause termination
If tryptophan is high, the ribosome
If the ribosome pauses, then the stem loop 3-4
Subsequently, what happens when the ribosome pauses?
What else does tryptophan do?
What is the technique involved with transcription?
How many stages are there to remember?
1.
Then
And
After thatso it only cuts once
Then resolve on
How do we know where the protein was?
What is the same about eukaryotic transcription and prokaryotic transcription?2 things
How many differences?
One is
The second is
The third is
Finally
So firstly, what does RNA polymerase I do?
How
RNAPII
RNAPIII
Which of the eukaryotic polymerases are sensitive to a chemical from the death-cap mushroom?
The name of this chemical is
How many common DNA binding motifs are there?
They are:
And
And
These motifs are likely to be ********** chargedNegative DNA
Which type of transcription factor binds first?
A common one is
Where does it bind?
Then what happens?
What is another type of transcription factor?
Such as
Gene specific enhancers cause what?
This slows down RNAP. Which RNAP needs more before it can start transcription?
This is called the ? and involves basal transcription factors.
How does RNAPI terminate?
RNAPII?
RNAPIII?
What is the first promoter?
How many eukaryotic genes have this as a core promoter?
Then, upstream is
Then
Then, much further away
On each side of mRNA there is a3' UTR/5'UTR
How is eukaryotic transcription controlled other than with transcription factors?Allow access to duplex
In prokaryotes, how many ways of RNA processing are there?
One is
Another
The third is
What are the numbers of the E.coli ribosomal RNA (in Svedberg units)?
These subunits are synthesised as
Which enzyme cleaves the rRNA transcript?
What is added to every E.coli tRNA post-transcriptionally?
What binds here?
What percentage of bases are altered in bacteria?
In eukaryotes, what is the big difference?
What is the name for the RNA transcript before processing?
How many methods of eukaryote processing?
The first
Eukaryotic ribosome subunits5S transcribed by PolIII
Cleaved using
Another method?
The cap is
Why?
Another type of RNA processing?
How long is it?
Why?
What adds it?
Another type of RNA processing?
What is the term for the collective unit that does splicing?
What makes it?small nuclear ribonucleic particles
Cleaves at intron/exon boundary, which can often separate
Depending on the type of muscle, what protein is changed during splicing?
A 5th type of RNA processing?
How?
And finally (number 6)
Which leads to
How many experiments to determine the genetic code?
Who did the first one
Used a gene in
Used reagent to cause insertion or deletion
This occurred in which region?
Made mutation in intolerant region to cause a
Therefore, as 1 and 2 ended badly, but 3 nucleotides led to some wild type, he concluded it must be a
Second experiment was
What did he do?
What reagent
Result (in vitro)Remember that non-polar amino acid!
Which enzyme binds amino acid to tRNA in a process known as charging?
At which end?
Which base is different in tRNA?
What does it cause?Degeneracy of the code
Prokaryotic translation: what is the ribosome size (in Svedberg units)50S + 30S
Has complex
And forms **** ***** to itself
Firstly:Initiation factor
Then
Next, IF2 binds to **** **** and then joins the complexformylated methionine
Then, the ***** ********* ********* binds to the 3' end of the ribosome
The Shine Dalgarno sequence is rich in
The ribosome scans along until it reaches the first codon, a start codon, which is
f-Met tRNA binds to the AUG and then binds to the
Then, the
Which corresponds with what reaction?The GDP product is then rephosphorylated
The next stage of prokaryote translation is
The charged tRNA corresponding to the next codon is moved to where by what?
Ef-Tu is a GTPase, so hydrolyses
Inside the ribosome, a peptide bond is formed by
The next stage of translation is
Stop codons are:
These are recognised by
The protein is released when what bond is hydrolysed
Where?
Prokaryotes can translate multiple genes known as:
This is because between each cistron is a
Subsequently, after each open reading frame, what can happen?
Name two antibiotics
What does chloramphenicol do?
What does puromycin do?
What size are eukaryotic ribosomes?
The main differences between eukaryote and prokaryote translation is in which stage?
How many differences?
The first?
Similarly to prokaryotes, the ribosome scans until it reaches
The second difference is that the initiator tRNA (complementary to AUG codon) hasMet, not F-met (formylated)
How many drugs affect eukaryotic translation?
Name them
What does Ricin do?
Where at?
Which enzyme cleaves this region?(As the bond is N-glycosidic)
What does cycloheximide do?
What does a mitochondrial genome encode?
How does mitochondrial molecular biology support Lynn Margulis' endosymbiotic theory?
Similarly, chloroplasts encode
Chloroplasts divide from
Most proteins are imported from the cytosol to mitochondria and chloroplasts, so have
The protein is unfolded by
It is then threaded through the membrane by translocases:
Inside the matrix, proteases such as *** *** cleave the target sequence
If a protein is to be in the thylakoid/inner membrane, it hascleaved at each membrane
Which other organelles cleave their target sequence?
Which organelle doesn't cleave its target sequence?
Instead, there is a specialised ******* transmembrane protein
This protein has two subunits, what does alpha do?
What does Beta do?
What is the name of the GTPase involved?Determines direction
What does Ran do?
The nuclear membrane in eukaryotes provides
Prokaryotic organisms don't reproduce
Instead, genetic diversity achieved through
A plasmid is a
There are how many types of horizontal gene transfer?
They are (CTT)
Conjugation is initiated by a
This causes a ? to form?
A pilus is a *********** ****** between to bacteria
Then, the plasmid is
What occurs when a plasmid merges with the central bacterial chromosome?
If an F-plasmid recombines with the central chromosome, it is called a High frequency recombination
What can happen to an Hfr strain?
Transformation is
Genetic material can be:
Who did the experiment relying on transformation?
What did this experiment prove?
In the lab, what technique promotes transformation?
Transduction is what?
Can you talk about the T4 phage?
What use do phages and plasmids have?
Conjugation
 
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