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Question Answer % Correct
Glomerular capillary receives blood from ______ arterioleafferent
24%
All materials are readily absorbed in tubules except _______urea
24%
Network of capillaries; performs first step of filtering bloodGlomerulus
20%
Organ moves blood to kidneyRenal artery
16%
Organ that moves urine from kidneys to bladderUreter
16%
Part of the peritubular capillary in the lower portions of loop of henlevasa recta
16%
Proximal tubule: Glucose and amino acid reabsorption percentage100
16%
Ascending Limb is impermeable towater
16%
Distal tubule epithelium is impermeable tourea
16%
Connecting medullary pyramids to minor calyxpapilla
12%
Organ moves blood away from kidneyRenal vein
12%
Functional unit of kidneynephron
12%
Tubular Flow: Filtrate flows from proximal tubule to _______loop of henle
12%
Tubular Flow Filtrate flows from Loop of henle to ______Distal tubule
12%
Blood flows from glomerulus to pertibular capillaries in ______ arterioleefferent
12%
First barrier of glomerular filtrationcapillary endothelial cell
12%
Po - Pob is ________oncotic pressure
12%
Po _______ from afferent arteriole to efferent arterioleincreases
12%
Pob is equal to _______0
12%
Trend: pressure ______ along renal vasculaturedecreases
12%
Glomerulonpehritis causes a _____ in GFRincrease
12%
Angiotensin causes _________ of ______ arteriolesconstriction, efferent
12%
Angiotensin 2 stimulates ______ secretion from the ________aldosterone, adrenal cortex
12%
Substance used to estimate RPFPAH
12%
Diffusion that uses the gradient of another processFacilitated diffusion
12%
A slight increase in solute plasma concentrations results in a ____ increase in excreted solute concentrationlarge
12%
Percentage of all reabsorption that occurs in the proximal tube65
12%
Ascending Limb: Na absorption percentage25
12%
Reabosprtion of Na is controlled byAldosterone
12%
Reduced secretion of aldosterone pathologyAddison's disease
12%
Aldosterone is released due to excitation of ________ cells of the __________zona glomerulosa, adrenal cortex
12%
Ion important in blood coagulation, neurotransmitter relaseCalcium
12%
Daily urine excretion (in liters)1.5
8%
3 regions of kidney (alphabetical order)cortex, medulla, pelvis
8%
Fibrous layer surrounding kidneyRenal capsule
8%
The composition of filtrate is changed by _______ and __________ processesReabsorption, secretion
8%
Tubular Flow: Fluid filters into this capsuleBowman's capsule
8%
Tubular Flow: Filtrate flows from bowman's capsule to _____proximal tubule
8%
High pressure capillary bedGlomerulus
8%
size of pores in basement membrane (nm)16
8%
Type of pores in epithelial cellsslit pores
8%
The ______ of the blood must be higher than that of the bowman's capsulehydrostatic pressure
8%
Average colloid osmotic pressure (Po)32
8%
Normal GFR value125
8%
Pg - Pb is _________hydrostatic pressure difference
8%
Peff is highest in the ________ arterioleafferent
8%
Trend: volume _____ along renal tubular flowdecreases
8%
Ra/RE decreasing will ________GFRincrease
8%
Afferent arteriolar constriction ______ Pgdecreases
8%
Efferent arteriolar constriction increases both ____ and _____ causing a slight _____ in peff/GFRpo, pg, increase
8%
Cells of distal convoluted tubule adjacent to afferent/efferent arteriolesmacula densa
8%
PAH yields _____ venous output0
8%
Active _____ reabsorption causes passive reabsoprtion of _______Na, Cl
8%
This substance controls pHbicarbonate
8%
Type of transport mechanism in reabsoprtionTransepithelial transport
8%
Maximum Tubular capacity abreviationTm
8%
Descending loop diameter (micrometers)15
8%
3 substances secreted in proximal tube (alphabetical order)Ammonia, H, urea
8%
Distal tubule and collecting tubule secrete (2)H, K
8%
Collecting duct: reabsoprtion of ____ and ______water, urea
8%
Collecting duct: secretion of _____H
8%
In ascending limb, Na cotransports with ____ and ____K, 2Cl
8%
In proximal tubule, Na cotransports with ____ and _____amino acids, glucose
8%
Excrete ____ percentage of K20
8%
In the absence of ADH, urine _____ occursdilution
8%
In presence of ADH urine _____ occursconcentration
8%
Smooth muscle forming the bladder walldetrusor muscle
8%
Question Answer % Correct
Inhibition of parasympathetic neurons cause detrusor ______dilation
8%
Failure to secrete ADH; up urine outputDiabetes insipidus
8%
2 hormones that control ECF calciumParathyroid hormone, calcitonin
8%
Calcitonin is produced by ________ cells of the _________-parafollicular, thyroid gland
8%
Calcitonin causes ______ of Ca from _______release, Gi tract
8%
Organ level exchange; ex: urinary system, water absorptionExternal exchanges
4%
Percentage of volume escaping body as urine0.8
4%
Percentage of plasma volume remaining in renal blood vessels80
4%
Percentage of plasma volume filtered into renal tubules20
4%
number of nephrons in one kidney (in millions)1.2
4%
Part of renal tubule close to bowman's capsuleProximal tubule
4%
Type of nephron with glomerulus close to corticomedullary junction;part of tubule penetrates deep into medullaJuxtamedullary nephron
4%
Tubular Flow: Filtrate flows from distal tubule to ______collecting tubule
4%
Collecting ducts become minor calyces at the _____papilla
4%
Low pressure capillary bedperitubular capillaries
4%
second barrier of glomerular filtrationbasement membrane
4%
third barrier of glomerular filtrationepithelial cells
4%
size of pores in epithelial cells (nm)7
4%
Normal Kf value12.5
4%
Peff is lowest in the ______ arterioleefferent
4%
Ra/Re increasing will ___________ GFRdecrease
4%
Peff Pathology: hyper-permeability of glomerular capillariesGlomerulonephritis
4%
The autoregulatory range in mmHg75-160
4%
2 major comonents of JGCmacula densa, juxtaglomerular cells
4%
Afferent arteriolar constriction/dilation: _____ initiates signal to dilate afferent arteriolemacula densa
4%
Converts angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2renin
4%
Substance used to estimate GFRinulin
4%
GFR in ml/min125
4%
PAH estimate of RPF600
4%
____ percent of urea is reabsorbed in all tubules65
4%
Substances requiring active reabsoprtion (alphbetical order, 4)amino acids, glucose, Na, phosphate
4%
Proximal tubule: H2O reabsorption percentage65
4%
Water reabsorption is controlled byADH
4%
Distal tubule and collecting tubule reabsorb (3)Cl, Na, water
4%
In proximal tubule, Na exchanges withH
4%
In collecting tubule, there are Na ______selective channels
4%
Aldosterone only effects the ____ and ____distal tubule, collecting tubule
4%
The Na/K pump is in the _______ membranebasolateral
4%
High osmolarity causes urine ______concentration
4%
normal blood osmolalaity is (mmol/liter)300
4%
Hyperosmolarity occurs in the _____medullary interstitial fluid
4%
Urine concentration: Passive diffusion of urea from the _________ to the ________collecting duct, interstitial fluid
4%
Urine concentration: active transport of Na+ in the _________ and ________Ascending limb, collecting duct
4%
The countercurrent mechanism occurs in the _________loop of henle
4%
Osmolality is ______ in the proximal tubeconstant
4%
Urine concentration range (mmol/liter)65-1200
4%
Elimination of urine from bladderMicturition
4%
DRG neurons inhibit ________ innervating external urethral sphinctersomatic motor neurons
4%
Type of feedback control for blood regulation and potassium regulationnegative
4%
ADH pathophysiology: down urine outputSyndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion
4%
Excessive secretion of aldosterone pathologyPrimary aldosteronism
4%
Sodium is ____ percent of extracellular cations90
4%
Osmoreceptors in _________ of the __________ excite nuclei in pituitary gland to release ADHsupraoptic nuclei, hypothalamus
4%
Three effector sites of Calcium (alphabetical order)Bone, Gi tract, kidney
4%
PTH _________ reabsorption of Ca in ascending limb, DT and CTincreases
4%
Addison's disease, there is destruction of the_______adrenal gland
4%
5 key substances in ECF (alphabetical order)Ca, H, H2O, K, Na
0%
Diffusion of ions, sodium potassium pum; inside cell modification of ECFInternal exchanges
0%
Four sites water is lost to (alphabetical order)GI tract, kidneys, lungs, skin
0%
Percentage of volume reabsorbed by body99.2
0%
Kidneys regulate _________ and __________ of interstitial fluid throughout the bodyosmolarity, solute composition
0%
Bowman's Capsule and Glomerulus complexRenal capsule
0%
Part of renal tubule close to collecting ductDistal tubule
0%
Type of nephron with glomerulus in outer corticla region; parts of tublues don't penetrate deep into medullaCortical nephron
0%
Thick segment of loop of henle ascending back to glomerusJuxtaglomerular complex
0%
Order of kidney artery/vein flow (omit artery and vein)Renal, Interlobular, arcuate, interlobar
0%
name of pores in capillary endothelial cellsfenestrae
0%
Question Answer % Correct
size of pores in capillary endothelial cell (nm)70-100
0%
3 mechanisms of nephronsglomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, tubular secreetion
0%
Filtration criteria: fluid must be ____ freeprotein
0%
Filtration criteria: must contain same concentrations of ____ as in the plasmacrystalloids
0%
Average glomerular pressure (Pg)60
0%
Average pressure in bowman's capsule (Pb)18
0%
Peff factors: Pressure inside capillairesglomerular pressure
0%
Peff factors: osmotic pressure of unfiltered proteins in capillariescolloid osmotic pressure
0%
Peff factors: resistance of the walls of the capsuleBowman's capsule pressure
0%
Peff equation (as written in packet)Peff = pg - (Pb + Po)
0%
GFR equation (as written in packet)GFR = Peff * Kf
0%
The derivation of the filtration equation is from a modified ______Starling Equation
0%
Pg is ________ from afferent arteriole to efferent arterioleconstant
0%
4 Factors affecting GFRRenal flow, afferent and efferent arteriole resistance, sympathetic stimulation, arterial pressure
0%
Factors affecting GFR: increased rate of blood flow increases GFRRenal Flow
0%
Factors affecting GFR: Afferent arterioles are constricted decreasing GFRSympathetic stimulation
0%
Factors affecting GFR: increase in arterial pressure expected GFR increase, but bluntedArterial pressure
0%
Glomerulonephritis causes a ____ to developcapsular osmotic pressure
0%
Peff Pathology: Reduction in general arterial pressure or inflammation causing GFR to decreaseannuria
0%
Modified smooth muscle cells adjacent to afferent/efferent arteriolesJuxtaglomerular cells
0%
Autoregulation: Low GFR due to arterial pressure first causes _____ of Na+ and Cl- in __________ loop of henleover-reabsorption, ascending
0%
Efferent arteriolar constriction/dilation: decreased ionic concentration in macula densa causes ________ to release ______ from granulesjuxtaglomerular cells, renin
0%
Clearance FormulaCs = Eu\\Pa
0%
Renal plasma flow estimation (RPF) in ml/min625
0%
Renal blood flow (RBF) in ml/min1136.4
0%
GRR in liters/day180
0%
Clinical substance uesd to estimate GFRcreatinine
0%
____ percent of potassium is absorbed in all tubules80
0%
Reabsorption pathway: Tubular fluid to ________luminal membrane
0%
Reabsorption pathway: luminal membrane to _________cytoplasm
0%
Reabsorption pathway: cytoplasm to ________basolateral membrane
0%
Reabsorption pathway: basolateral membrane to ___________interstitial fluid
0%
Reabsorption pathway: interstitial fluid to __________capillary membrane
0%
2 types of Transepithelial transportTranscellular, paracellular
0%
Transcellular transport: substance enters luminal side through ________ and leaves basolateral side using ________diffusion, active transport
0%
Term for active transport in one membrane and passive transport at anotherpump-leak
0%
Paracellular transport: transport of substance through _________ to _____________ to basement membranetight junction, intracellular space
0%
Diffusion crossing cell membrane due to concentrationsSimple diffusion
0%
3 steps of transcellular transportcellular entry, transcellular diffusion, cellular exit
0%
Another term for paracellular transport spaceparacellular shunt
0%
From the nernest equation, a negative delta E means passive flux ______ the cell (for cation)into
0%
4 substances notably secreted (alphabetical order)ammonia, creatinine, H, K
0%
Part of tubule: large number of mitchondria, expanded epithelial with brush border, 'un tight' tight junctions, drug detoxificationProximal tubule
0%
Proximal tubule: Na reabsorption percentage67
0%
Proximal tubule: K reabsorption percentage80
0%
Ascending loop diameter (micrometers)30
0%
Water reabsoprtion in Descending limb of the Loop of Henle15
0%
Reabsorption of sodium percentages path: PT -> Ascending loop -> DT -> CD67, 25, 5, 3
0%
Potassium is ________ filterable at glomeruluscompletely
0%
K+ in urine is mainly from _______secretion
0%
2 Factors controlling K+ ion concentrationECF, aldosterone
0%
Low osmolarity causes urine ______dilution
0%
Urine concentration: passive transport of Na+ in the __________descending limb
0%
ADH activates ______ on the ______________adenyl cyclase, basolateral membrane
0%
ADH: ________ diffuses to the __________ membrane increasing water permeabilitycyclic AMP, luminal
0%
circular layer of skeletal muscle, innervated by somatic motor neuronsexternal urethral sphincter muscle
0%
Micturition: _______ of DRG neurons are stimulatedStretch receptors
0%
DRG neurons excite _________ neurons innervating detrusor muscleparasympathetic
0%
Excitation of parasympathetic neurons causes detrusor _______constriction
0%
Voluntary delay of micturition involves ____ of parasympathetic neurons, and ________ of somatic motor neuronsinhibition, stimulation
0%
Lack of voluntary control of micturitionUrinary Incontinence
0%
Pathway of blood volume regulation (4)Blood volume, cardiac output, arterial pressure, urinary output
0%
Control of ECF sodium concentration (2)Osmoreceptor-ADH system, thirst
0%
Excitation of ________ area of the __________ causes thirst sensatoinlateral preoptic, hypothalamus
0%
ion important in cellular pH, and Ap productionPotassium
0%
Reabsorption of Calcium in PT65
0%
Reabsorption of calcium in ascending limb25
0%

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Created May 3, 2012ReportNominate
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