Science Quiz / Urinary System

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Can you name the Urinary System?

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Substance used to estimate GFR
Kidneys regulate _________ and __________ of interstitial fluid throughout the body
The autoregulatory range in mmHg
Angiotensin causes _________ of ______ arterioles
Factors affecting GFR: Afferent arterioles are constricted decreasing GFR
Water reabsoprtion in Descending limb of the Loop of Henle
Angiotensin 2 stimulates ______ secretion from the ________
ADH activates ______ on the ______________
Urine concentration range (mmol/liter)
All materials are readily absorbed in tubules except _______
Percentage of volume escaping body as urine
Term for active transport in one membrane and passive transport at another
Daily urine excretion (in liters)
ADH pathophysiology: down urine output
Collecting ducts become minor calyces at the _____
This substance controls pH
In proximal tubule, Na exchanges with
number of nephrons in one kidney (in millions)
Ascending Limb: Na absorption percentage
Network of capillaries; performs first step of filtering blood
2 hormones that control ECF calcium
Diffusion of ions, sodium potassium pum; inside cell modification of ECF
size of pores in epithelial cells (nm)
Average colloid osmotic pressure (Po)
Transcellular transport: substance enters luminal side through ________ and leaves basolateral side using ________
Trend: volume _____ along renal tubular flow
Excitation of ________ area of the __________ causes thirst sensatoin
Urine concentration: passive transport of Na+ in the __________
Type of nephron with glomerulus close to corticomedullary junction;part of tubule penetrates deep into medulla
Low pressure capillary bed
Diffusion crossing cell membrane due to concentrations
Filtration criteria: fluid must be ____ free
Average glomerular pressure (Pg)
Glomerular capillary receives blood from ______ arteriole
Po _______ from afferent arteriole to efferent arteriole
Urine concentration: Passive diffusion of urea from the _________ to the ________
Organ that moves urine from kidneys to bladder
Urine concentration: active transport of Na+ in the _________ and ________
First barrier of glomerular filtration
Factors affecting GFR: increase in arterial pressure expected GFR increase, but blunted
Type of nephron with glomerulus in outer corticla region; parts of tublues don't penetrate deep into medulla
Part of renal tubule close to collecting duct
Proximal tubule: K reabsorption percentage
Type of pores in epithelial cells
In presence of ADH urine _____ occurs
Ra/RE decreasing will ________GFR
name of pores in capillary endothelial cells
2 major comonents of JGC
Excessive secretion of aldosterone pathology
The Na/K pump is in the _______ membrane
____ percent of urea is reabsorbed in all tubules
Average pressure in bowman's capsule (Pb)
circular layer of skeletal muscle, innervated by somatic motor neurons
Percentage of all reabsorption that occurs in the proximal tube
Fibrous layer surrounding kidney
5 key substances in ECF (alphabetical order)
Blood flows from glomerulus to pertibular capillaries in ______ arteriole
Organ moves blood away from kidney
From the nernest equation, a negative delta E means passive flux ______ the cell (for cation)
In the absence of ADH, urine _____ occurs
In proximal tubule, Na cotransports with ____ and _____
Excitation of parasympathetic neurons causes detrusor _______
High pressure capillary bed
Reabsorption pathway: luminal membrane to _________
Calcitonin causes ______ of Ca from _______
Calcitonin is produced by ________ cells of the _________-
Tubular Flow: Filtrate flows from proximal tubule to _______
4 substances notably secreted (alphabetical order)
Reabsorption of calcium in ascending limb
K+ in urine is mainly from _______
Proximal tubule: H2O reabsorption percentage
Afferent arteriolar constriction/dilation: _____ initiates signal to dilate afferent arteriole
Peff equation (as written in packet)
Reabsorption pathway: cytoplasm to ________
Clearance Formula
Proximal tubule: Na reabsorption percentage
Filtration criteria: must contain same concentrations of ____ as in the plasma
Afferent arteriolar constriction ______ Pg
Efferent arteriolar constriction/dilation: decreased ionic concentration in macula densa causes ________ to release ______ from granules
3 steps of transcellular transport
PAH yields _____ venous output
Substances requiring active reabsoprtion (alphbetical order, 4)
Reabosprtion of Na is controlled by
Aldosterone is released due to excitation of ________ cells of the __________
size of pores in basement membrane (nm)
Type of transport mechanism in reabsoprtion
second barrier of glomerular filtration
Percentage of plasma volume filtered into renal tubules
Another term for paracellular transport space
Peff factors: Pressure inside capillaires
PTH _________ reabsorption of Ca in ascending limb, DT and CT
Organ level exchange; ex: urinary system, water absorption
DRG neurons inhibit ________ innervating external urethral sphincter
Organ moves blood to kidney
Peff Pathology: Reduction in general arterial pressure or inflammation causing GFR to decrease
Peff is lowest in the ______ arteriole
Potassium is ________ filterable at glomerulus
Reabsorption pathway: Tubular fluid to ________
Osmolality is ______ in the proximal tube
GFR equation (as written in packet)
Pob is equal to _______
Renal blood flow (RBF) in ml/min
4 Factors affecting GFR
Micturition: _______ of DRG neurons are stimulated
Bowman's Capsule and Glomerulus complex
A slight increase in solute plasma concentrations results in a ____ increase in excreted solute concentration
Reabsorption pathway: interstitial fluid to __________
Water reabsorption is controlled by
Ascending loop diameter (micrometers)
High osmolarity causes urine ______
Addison's disease, there is destruction of the_______
Efferent arteriolar constriction increases both ____ and _____ causing a slight _____ in peff/GFR
Smooth muscle forming the bladder wall
Three effector sites of Calcium (alphabetical order)
Glomerulonephritis causes a ____ to develop
Part of the peritubular capillary in the lower portions of loop of henle
Control of ECF sodium concentration (2)
Distal tubule epithelium is impermeable to
normal blood osmolalaity is (mmol/liter)
Aldosterone only effects the ____ and ____
Glomerulonpehritis causes a _____ in GFR
PAH estimate of RPF
Lack of voluntary control of micturition
Order of kidney artery/vein flow (omit artery and vein)
Reduced secretion of aldosterone pathology
Collecting duct: secretion of _____
Pathway of blood volume regulation (4)
Ion important in blood coagulation, neurotransmitter relase
Failure to secrete ADH; up urine output
Autoregulation: Low GFR due to arterial pressure first causes _____ of Na+ and Cl- in __________ loop of henle
Paracellular transport: transport of substance through _________ to _____________ to basement membrane
Excrete ____ percentage of K
GRR in liters/day
The composition of filtrate is changed by _______ and __________ processes
Type of feedback control for blood regulation and potassium regulation
Sodium is ____ percent of extracellular cations
Peff factors: resistance of the walls of the capsule
Part of renal tubule close to bowman's capsule
Descending loop diameter (micrometers)
Pg is ________ from afferent arteriole to efferent arteriole
2 types of Transepithelial transport
Reabsorption of Calcium in PT
Distal tubule and collecting tubule reabsorb (3)
Elimination of urine from bladder
Reabsorption pathway: basolateral membrane to ___________
Hyperosmolarity occurs in the _____
Functional unit of kidney
Tubular Flow Filtrate flows from Loop of henle to ______
Tubular Flow: Filtrate flows from bowman's capsule to _____
ADH: ________ diffuses to the __________ membrane increasing water permeability
____ percent of potassium is absorbed in all tubules
Pg - Pb is _________
Peff factors: osmotic pressure of unfiltered proteins in capillaries
3 mechanisms of nephrons
Tubular Flow: Filtrate flows from distal tubule to ______
The countercurrent mechanism occurs in the _________
Voluntary delay of micturition involves ____ of parasympathetic neurons, and ________ of somatic motor neurons
Po - Pob is ________
Thick segment of loop of henle ascending back to glomerus
Collecting duct: reabsoprtion of ____ and ______
In collecting tubule, there are Na ______
Maximum Tubular capacity abreviation
Distal tubule and collecting tubule secrete (2)
Factors affecting GFR: increased rate of blood flow increases GFR
Inhibition of parasympathetic neurons cause detrusor ______
Peff is highest in the ________ arteriole
The derivation of the filtration equation is from a modified ______
2 Factors controlling K+ ion concentration
Normal GFR value
In ascending limb, Na cotransports with ____ and ____
Modified smooth muscle cells adjacent to afferent/efferent arterioles
Trend: pressure ______ along renal vasculature
Normal Kf value
Tubular Flow: Fluid filters into this capsule
The ______ of the blood must be higher than that of the bowman's capsule
GFR in ml/min
Diffusion that uses the gradient of another process
Proximal tubule: Glucose and amino acid reabsorption percentage
Osmoreceptors in _________ of the __________ excite nuclei in pituitary gland to release ADH
Ascending Limb is impermeable to
3 regions of kidney (alphabetical order)
Ra/Re increasing will ___________ GFR
third barrier of glomerular filtration
DRG neurons excite _________ neurons innervating detrusor muscle
3 substances secreted in proximal tube (alphabetical order)
Reabsorption of sodium percentages path: PT -> Ascending loop -> DT -> CD
size of pores in capillary endothelial cell (nm)
Part of tubule: large number of mitchondria, expanded epithelial with brush border, 'un tight' tight junctions, drug detoxification
Converts angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2
Peff Pathology: hyper-permeability of glomerular capillaries
Four sites water is lost to (alphabetical order)
Renal plasma flow estimation (RPF) in ml/min
Connecting medullary pyramids to minor calyx
Substance used to estimate RPF
Percentage of plasma volume remaining in renal blood vessels
Low osmolarity causes urine ______
Percentage of volume reabsorbed by body
Clinical substance uesd to estimate GFR
Cells of distal convoluted tubule adjacent to afferent/efferent arterioles
ion important in cellular pH, and Ap production
Active _____ reabsorption causes passive reabsoprtion of _______

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Created May 3, 2012ReportNominate

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