Science Quiz / Urinary System

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Can you name the Urinary System?

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Percentage of volume escaping body as urine
Po _______ from afferent arteriole to efferent arteriole
High osmolarity causes urine ______
The autoregulatory range in mmHg
Voluntary delay of micturition involves ____ of parasympathetic neurons, and ________ of somatic motor neurons
In proximal tubule, Na cotransports with ____ and _____
Term for active transport in one membrane and passive transport at another
Angiotensin 2 stimulates ______ secretion from the ________
Ion important in blood coagulation, neurotransmitter relase
Type of nephron with glomerulus in outer corticla region; parts of tublues don't penetrate deep into medulla
Type of transport mechanism in reabsoprtion
size of pores in basement membrane (nm)
Diffusion crossing cell membrane due to concentrations
Cells of distal convoluted tubule adjacent to afferent/efferent arterioles
ADH activates ______ on the ______________
Elimination of urine from bladder
2 Factors controlling K+ ion concentration
Pob is equal to _______
second barrier of glomerular filtration
Excitation of ________ area of the __________ causes thirst sensatoin
3 substances secreted in proximal tube (alphabetical order)
Urine concentration: active transport of Na+ in the _________ and ________
Distal tubule epithelium is impermeable to
Order of kidney artery/vein flow (omit artery and vein)
normal blood osmolalaity is (mmol/liter)
Filtration criteria: must contain same concentrations of ____ as in the plasma
third barrier of glomerular filtration
Peff is highest in the ________ arteriole
Water reabsorption is controlled by
Proximal tubule: Na reabsorption percentage
Tubular Flow: Filtrate flows from distal tubule to ______
____ percent of urea is reabsorbed in all tubules
The countercurrent mechanism occurs in the _________
Urine concentration: passive transport of Na+ in the __________
Reabsorption of Calcium in PT
Network of capillaries; performs first step of filtering blood
4 Factors affecting GFR
Urine concentration: Passive diffusion of urea from the _________ to the ________
Peff is lowest in the ______ arteriole
Organ level exchange; ex: urinary system, water absorption
3 steps of transcellular transport
The ______ of the blood must be higher than that of the bowman's capsule
Ra/RE decreasing will ________GFR
2 hormones that control ECF calcium
4 substances notably secreted (alphabetical order)
Factors affecting GFR: increased rate of blood flow increases GFR
PTH _________ reabsorption of Ca in ascending limb, DT and CT
Distal tubule and collecting tubule reabsorb (3)
Reabsorption of sodium percentages path: PT -> Ascending loop -> DT -> CD
Transcellular transport: substance enters luminal side through ________ and leaves basolateral side using ________
Average glomerular pressure (Pg)
Glomerular capillary receives blood from ______ arteriole
Smooth muscle forming the bladder wall
Factors affecting GFR: Afferent arterioles are constricted decreasing GFR
Aldosterone only effects the ____ and ____
Pg is ________ from afferent arteriole to efferent arteriole
3 mechanisms of nephrons
Average pressure in bowman's capsule (Pb)
name of pores in capillary endothelial cells
PAH estimate of RPF
In ascending limb, Na cotransports with ____ and ____
Filtration criteria: fluid must be ____ free
Collecting ducts become minor calyces at the _____
GFR equation (as written in packet)
Connecting medullary pyramids to minor calyx
Micturition: _______ of DRG neurons are stimulated
Part of renal tubule close to collecting duct
5 key substances in ECF (alphabetical order)
Organ moves blood to kidney
Control of ECF sodium concentration (2)
Reabsorption of calcium in ascending limb
GFR in ml/min
Reabsorption pathway: Tubular fluid to ________
Peff equation (as written in packet)
Distal tubule and collecting tubule secrete (2)
Ascending Limb: Na absorption percentage
Collecting duct: secretion of _____
Average colloid osmotic pressure (Po)
Afferent arteriolar constriction/dilation: _____ initiates signal to dilate afferent arteriole
Ra/Re increasing will ___________ GFR
Trend: pressure ______ along renal vasculature
Efferent arteriolar constriction increases both ____ and _____ causing a slight _____ in peff/GFR
Peff factors: resistance of the walls of the capsule
Blood flows from glomerulus to pertibular capillaries in ______ arteriole
Bowman's Capsule and Glomerulus complex
Substance used to estimate RPF
From the nernest equation, a negative delta E means passive flux ______ the cell (for cation)
Aldosterone is released due to excitation of ________ cells of the __________
Diffusion that uses the gradient of another process
Modified smooth muscle cells adjacent to afferent/efferent arterioles
Fibrous layer surrounding kidney
Peff Pathology: hyper-permeability of glomerular capillaries
Reabosprtion of Na is controlled by
number of nephrons in one kidney (in millions)
Peff factors: osmotic pressure of unfiltered proteins in capillaries
Organ moves blood away from kidney
Kidneys regulate _________ and __________ of interstitial fluid throughout the body
size of pores in epithelial cells (nm)
Type of feedback control for blood regulation and potassium regulation
Glomerulonpehritis causes a _____ in GFR
All materials are readily absorbed in tubules except _______
In proximal tubule, Na exchanges with
2 major comonents of JGC
Clinical substance uesd to estimate GFR
Autoregulation: Low GFR due to arterial pressure first causes _____ of Na+ and Cl- in __________ loop of henle
Osmoreceptors in _________ of the __________ excite nuclei in pituitary gland to release ADH
Water reabsoprtion in Descending limb of the Loop of Henle
Four sites water is lost to (alphabetical order)
Angiotensin causes _________ of ______ arterioles
High pressure capillary bed
Tubular Flow: Filtrate flows from bowman's capsule to _____
Excessive secretion of aldosterone pathology
Factors affecting GFR: increase in arterial pressure expected GFR increase, but blunted
Po - Pob is ________
Urine concentration range (mmol/liter)
In presence of ADH urine _____ occurs
Paracellular transport: transport of substance through _________ to _____________ to basement membrane
size of pores in capillary endothelial cell (nm)
Organ that moves urine from kidneys to bladder
Potassium is ________ filterable at glomerulus
First barrier of glomerular filtration
Excrete ____ percentage of K
DRG neurons inhibit ________ innervating external urethral sphincter
Pg - Pb is _________
Daily urine excretion (in liters)
Percentage of plasma volume remaining in renal blood vessels
Reabsorption pathway: basolateral membrane to ___________
Lack of voluntary control of micturition
Peff Pathology: Reduction in general arterial pressure or inflammation causing GFR to decrease
ADH pathophysiology: down urine output
Proximal tubule: Glucose and amino acid reabsorption percentage
2 types of Transepithelial transport
Part of renal tubule close to bowman's capsule
Inhibition of parasympathetic neurons cause detrusor ______
The composition of filtrate is changed by _______ and __________ processes
Reabsorption pathway: luminal membrane to _________
Percentage of volume reabsorbed by body
Low osmolarity causes urine ______
Reabsorption pathway: cytoplasm to ________
In the absence of ADH, urine _____ occurs
Efferent arteriolar constriction/dilation: decreased ionic concentration in macula densa causes ________ to release ______ from granules
circular layer of skeletal muscle, innervated by somatic motor neurons
Part of the peritubular capillary in the lower portions of loop of henle
Renal plasma flow estimation (RPF) in ml/min
Glomerulonephritis causes a ____ to develop
Reabsorption pathway: interstitial fluid to __________
Ascending Limb is impermeable to
Active _____ reabsorption causes passive reabsoprtion of _______
Hyperosmolarity occurs in the _____
Calcitonin is produced by ________ cells of the _________-
Osmolality is ______ in the proximal tube
Substances requiring active reabsoprtion (alphbetical order, 4)
Ascending loop diameter (micrometers)
Tubular Flow: Fluid filters into this capsule
GRR in liters/day
This substance controls pH
Afferent arteriolar constriction ______ Pg
Substance used to estimate GFR
Calcitonin causes ______ of Ca from _______
DRG neurons excite _________ neurons innervating detrusor muscle
Functional unit of kidney
Reduced secretion of aldosterone pathology
Another term for paracellular transport space
Pathway of blood volume regulation (4)
Excitation of parasympathetic neurons causes detrusor _______
Renal blood flow (RBF) in ml/min
Diffusion of ions, sodium potassium pum; inside cell modification of ECF
____ percent of potassium is absorbed in all tubules
K+ in urine is mainly from _______
Percentage of plasma volume filtered into renal tubules
Type of nephron with glomerulus close to corticomedullary junction;part of tubule penetrates deep into medulla
ADH: ________ diffuses to the __________ membrane increasing water permeability
Tubular Flow: Filtrate flows from proximal tubule to _______
Converts angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2
A slight increase in solute plasma concentrations results in a ____ increase in excreted solute concentration
In collecting tubule, there are Na ______
Percentage of all reabsorption that occurs in the proximal tube
Proximal tubule: K reabsorption percentage
Maximum Tubular capacity abreviation
Type of pores in epithelial cells
Normal GFR value
The Na/K pump is in the _______ membrane
Three effector sites of Calcium (alphabetical order)
Low pressure capillary bed
Part of tubule: large number of mitchondria, expanded epithelial with brush border, 'un tight' tight junctions, drug detoxification
ion important in cellular pH, and Ap production
Normal Kf value
Proximal tubule: H2O reabsorption percentage
Clearance Formula
The derivation of the filtration equation is from a modified ______
3 regions of kidney (alphabetical order)
Collecting duct: reabsoprtion of ____ and ______
Thick segment of loop of henle ascending back to glomerus
Tubular Flow Filtrate flows from Loop of henle to ______
Trend: volume _____ along renal tubular flow
Peff factors: Pressure inside capillaires
Descending loop diameter (micrometers)
Failure to secrete ADH; up urine output
PAH yields _____ venous output
Addison's disease, there is destruction of the_______
Sodium is ____ percent of extracellular cations

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Created May 3, 2012ReportNominate

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