Science Quiz / Urinary System

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Can you name the Urinary System?

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QuestionAnswer
Sodium is ____ percent of extracellular cations
____ percent of potassium is absorbed in all tubules
size of pores in epithelial cells (nm)
number of nephrons in one kidney (in millions)
Ion important in blood coagulation, neurotransmitter relase
Organ level exchange; ex: urinary system, water absorption
Reabosprtion of Na is controlled by
Tubular Flow Filtrate flows from Loop of henle to ______
Average glomerular pressure (Pg)
Clinical substance uesd to estimate GFR
Tubular Flow: Filtrate flows from distal tubule to ______
3 substances secreted in proximal tube (alphabetical order)
Reabsorption pathway: cytoplasm to ________
Percentage of volume escaping body as urine
Autoregulation: Low GFR due to arterial pressure first causes _____ of Na+ and Cl- in __________ loop of henle
Ra/RE decreasing will ________GFR
Paracellular transport: transport of substance through _________ to _____________ to basement membrane
Normal Kf value
Reabsorption of calcium in ascending limb
normal blood osmolalaity is (mmol/liter)
Peff factors: Pressure inside capillaires
Angiotensin causes _________ of ______ arterioles
Lack of voluntary control of micturition
Distal tubule and collecting tubule reabsorb (3)
ADH activates ______ on the ______________
3 regions of kidney (alphabetical order)
Excrete ____ percentage of K
Kidneys regulate _________ and __________ of interstitial fluid throughout the body
Control of ECF sodium concentration (2)
GRR in liters/day
Po _______ from afferent arteriole to efferent arteriole
2 hormones that control ECF calcium
Cells of distal convoluted tubule adjacent to afferent/efferent arterioles
Reduced secretion of aldosterone pathology
Proximal tubule: K reabsorption percentage
In the absence of ADH, urine _____ occurs
Tubular Flow: Filtrate flows from bowman's capsule to _____
ADH pathophysiology: down urine output
The derivation of the filtration equation is from a modified ______
Low pressure capillary bed
5 key substances in ECF (alphabetical order)
Water reabsorption is controlled by
The countercurrent mechanism occurs in the _________
ion important in cellular pH, and Ap production
Part of renal tubule close to collecting duct
This substance controls pH
Smooth muscle forming the bladder wall
Type of nephron with glomerulus in outer corticla region; parts of tublues don't penetrate deep into medulla
In ascending limb, Na cotransports with ____ and ____
Urine concentration: active transport of Na+ in the _________ and ________
circular layer of skeletal muscle, innervated by somatic motor neurons
Trend: pressure ______ along renal vasculature
Excitation of ________ area of the __________ causes thirst sensatoin
3 mechanisms of nephrons
Average pressure in bowman's capsule (Pb)
Functional unit of kidney
Part of renal tubule close to bowman's capsule
ADH: ________ diffuses to the __________ membrane increasing water permeability
Elimination of urine from bladder
The composition of filtrate is changed by _______ and __________ processes
Glomerular capillary receives blood from ______ arteriole
Urine concentration: passive transport of Na+ in the __________
The Na/K pump is in the _______ membrane
Water reabsoprtion in Descending limb of the Loop of Henle
DRG neurons inhibit ________ innervating external urethral sphincter
In presence of ADH urine _____ occurs
Normal GFR value
QuestionAnswer
Glomerulonpehritis causes a _____ in GFR
In proximal tubule, Na cotransports with ____ and _____
Converts angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2
High pressure capillary bed
Reabsorption pathway: basolateral membrane to ___________
Proximal tubule: Na reabsorption percentage
4 substances notably secreted (alphabetical order)
Calcitonin causes ______ of Ca from _______
Reabsorption pathway: luminal membrane to _________
Addison's disease, there is destruction of the_______
Percentage of all reabsorption that occurs in the proximal tube
Ascending Limb: Na absorption percentage
Reabsorption pathway: Tubular fluid to ________
PTH _________ reabsorption of Ca in ascending limb, DT and CT
A slight increase in solute plasma concentrations results in a ____ increase in excreted solute concentration
Low osmolarity causes urine ______
3 steps of transcellular transport
name of pores in capillary endothelial cells
K+ in urine is mainly from _______
Network of capillaries; performs first step of filtering blood
Fibrous layer surrounding kidney
Aldosterone is released due to excitation of ________ cells of the __________
size of pores in capillary endothelial cell (nm)
The ______ of the blood must be higher than that of the bowman's capsule
Collecting ducts become minor calyces at the _____
Type of pores in epithelial cells
Factors affecting GFR: increased rate of blood flow increases GFR
Order of kidney artery/vein flow (omit artery and vein)
Thick segment of loop of henle ascending back to glomerus
Osmoreceptors in _________ of the __________ excite nuclei in pituitary gland to release ADH
Tubular Flow: Filtrate flows from proximal tubule to _______
Blood flows from glomerulus to pertibular capillaries in ______ arteriole
Ascending loop diameter (micrometers)
Modified smooth muscle cells adjacent to afferent/efferent arterioles
Part of tubule: large number of mitchondria, expanded epithelial with brush border, 'un tight' tight junctions, drug detoxification
Organ moves blood to kidney
Peff Pathology: Reduction in general arterial pressure or inflammation causing GFR to decrease
Collecting duct: reabsoprtion of ____ and ______
In collecting tubule, there are Na ______
2 Factors controlling K+ ion concentration
Voluntary delay of micturition involves ____ of parasympathetic neurons, and ________ of somatic motor neurons
Efferent arteriolar constriction increases both ____ and _____ causing a slight _____ in peff/GFR
____ percent of urea is reabsorbed in all tubules
Bowman's Capsule and Glomerulus complex
Percentage of plasma volume filtered into renal tubules
Type of feedback control for blood regulation and potassium regulation
Micturition: _______ of DRG neurons are stimulated
Pg - Pb is _________
size of pores in basement membrane (nm)
Urine concentration range (mmol/liter)
Efferent arteriolar constriction/dilation: decreased ionic concentration in macula densa causes ________ to release ______ from granules
Pob is equal to _______
Peff is lowest in the ______ arteriole
Diffusion that uses the gradient of another process
Substance used to estimate RPF
Four sites water is lost to (alphabetical order)
Type of nephron with glomerulus close to corticomedullary junction;part of tubule penetrates deep into medulla
Renal blood flow (RBF) in ml/min
Proximal tubule: H2O reabsorption percentage
DRG neurons excite _________ neurons innervating detrusor muscle
second barrier of glomerular filtration
GFR equation (as written in packet)
Proximal tubule: Glucose and amino acid reabsorption percentage
Factors affecting GFR: Afferent arterioles are constricted decreasing GFR
Percentage of volume reabsorbed by body
Distal tubule epithelium is impermeable to
Trend: volume _____ along renal tubular flow
QuestionAnswer
Hyperosmolarity occurs in the _____
Reabsorption pathway: interstitial fluid to __________
Maximum Tubular capacity abreviation
Active _____ reabsorption causes passive reabsoprtion of _______
Renal plasma flow estimation (RPF) in ml/min
Peff Pathology: hyper-permeability of glomerular capillaries
Organ that moves urine from kidneys to bladder
third barrier of glomerular filtration
2 major comonents of JGC
Excessive secretion of aldosterone pathology
Filtration criteria: must contain same concentrations of ____ as in the plasma
Calcitonin is produced by ________ cells of the _________-
Potassium is ________ filterable at glomerulus
Inhibition of parasympathetic neurons cause detrusor ______
Transcellular transport: substance enters luminal side through ________ and leaves basolateral side using ________
Term for active transport in one membrane and passive transport at another
Factors affecting GFR: increase in arterial pressure expected GFR increase, but blunted
Another term for paracellular transport space
Diffusion of ions, sodium potassium pum; inside cell modification of ECF
Aldosterone only effects the ____ and ____
Part of the peritubular capillary in the lower portions of loop of henle
Afferent arteriolar constriction ______ Pg
Substance used to estimate GFR
In proximal tubule, Na exchanges with
2 types of Transepithelial transport
Peff is highest in the ________ arteriole
Filtration criteria: fluid must be ____ free
Organ moves blood away from kidney
High osmolarity causes urine ______
Collecting duct: secretion of _____
PAH estimate of RPF
Peff factors: resistance of the walls of the capsule
Tubular Flow: Fluid filters into this capsule
Peff equation (as written in packet)
Type of transport mechanism in reabsoprtion
Pg is ________ from afferent arteriole to efferent arteriole
Osmolality is ______ in the proximal tube
All materials are readily absorbed in tubules except _______
Urine concentration: Passive diffusion of urea from the _________ to the ________
Pathway of blood volume regulation (4)
Diffusion crossing cell membrane due to concentrations
Average colloid osmotic pressure (Po)
Daily urine excretion (in liters)
Connecting medullary pyramids to minor calyx
Clearance Formula
Excitation of parasympathetic neurons causes detrusor _______
Ascending Limb is impermeable to
Failure to secrete ADH; up urine output
PAH yields _____ venous output
GFR in ml/min
4 Factors affecting GFR
Po - Pob is ________
Reabsorption of Calcium in PT
First barrier of glomerular filtration
From the nernest equation, a negative delta E means passive flux ______ the cell (for cation)
Three effector sites of Calcium (alphabetical order)
The autoregulatory range in mmHg
Glomerulonephritis causes a ____ to develop
Afferent arteriolar constriction/dilation: _____ initiates signal to dilate afferent arteriole
Substances requiring active reabsoprtion (alphbetical order, 4)
Distal tubule and collecting tubule secrete (2)
Peff factors: osmotic pressure of unfiltered proteins in capillaries
Descending loop diameter (micrometers)
Reabsorption of sodium percentages path: PT -> Ascending loop -> DT -> CD
Ra/Re increasing will ___________ GFR
Percentage of plasma volume remaining in renal blood vessels
Angiotensin 2 stimulates ______ secretion from the ________

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