Science Quiz / Urinary System

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Can you name the Urinary System?

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5 key substances in ECF (alphabetical order)
Reabosprtion of Na is controlled by
2 Factors controlling K+ ion concentration
In the absence of ADH, urine _____ occurs
Collecting ducts become minor calyces at the _____
Voluntary delay of micturition involves ____ of parasympathetic neurons, and ________ of somatic motor neurons
Efferent arteriolar constriction increases both ____ and _____ causing a slight _____ in peff/GFR
Type of feedback control for blood regulation and potassium regulation
Inhibition of parasympathetic neurons cause detrusor ______
Tubular Flow: Filtrate flows from proximal tubule to _______
ADH pathophysiology: down urine output
Cells of distal convoluted tubule adjacent to afferent/efferent arterioles
The ______ of the blood must be higher than that of the bowman's capsule
Reabsorption pathway: Tubular fluid to ________
Aldosterone only effects the ____ and ____
Excitation of ________ area of the __________ causes thirst sensatoin
Three effector sites of Calcium (alphabetical order)
Smooth muscle forming the bladder wall
High pressure capillary bed
In proximal tubule, Na cotransports with ____ and _____
Distal tubule and collecting tubule secrete (2)
Pob is equal to _______
Clearance Formula
Connecting medullary pyramids to minor calyx
Low pressure capillary bed
Urine concentration: passive transport of Na+ in the __________
Low osmolarity causes urine ______
Water reabsorption is controlled by
Renal plasma flow estimation (RPF) in ml/min
Another term for paracellular transport space
Proximal tubule: Glucose and amino acid reabsorption percentage
Distal tubule and collecting tubule reabsorb (3)
This substance controls pH
ADH activates ______ on the ______________
Reabsorption pathway: interstitial fluid to __________
The autoregulatory range in mmHg
The derivation of the filtration equation is from a modified ______
Substance used to estimate GFR
normal blood osmolalaity is (mmol/liter)
DRG neurons inhibit ________ innervating external urethral sphincter
Part of the peritubular capillary in the lower portions of loop of henle
Filtration criteria: fluid must be ____ free
Calcitonin causes ______ of Ca from _______
Peff Pathology: hyper-permeability of glomerular capillaries
Proximal tubule: K reabsorption percentage
Paracellular transport: transport of substance through _________ to _____________ to basement membrane
Tubular Flow Filtrate flows from Loop of henle to ______
GRR in liters/day
4 Factors affecting GFR
Pathway of blood volume regulation (4)
A slight increase in solute plasma concentrations results in a ____ increase in excreted solute concentration
Part of tubule: large number of mitchondria, expanded epithelial with brush border, 'un tight' tight junctions, drug detoxification
Organ level exchange; ex: urinary system, water absorption
circular layer of skeletal muscle, innervated by somatic motor neurons
2 major comonents of JGC
Lack of voluntary control of micturition
In presence of ADH urine _____ occurs
Renal blood flow (RBF) in ml/min
Organ moves blood to kidney
Failure to secrete ADH; up urine output
ion important in cellular pH, and Ap production
Percentage of plasma volume filtered into renal tubules
size of pores in epithelial cells (nm)
Trend: pressure ______ along renal vasculature
Reduced secretion of aldosterone pathology
Afferent arteriolar constriction/dilation: _____ initiates signal to dilate afferent arteriole
Addison's disease, there is destruction of the_______
Calcitonin is produced by ________ cells of the _________-
3 substances secreted in proximal tube (alphabetical order)
ADH: ________ diffuses to the __________ membrane increasing water permeability
Percentage of volume escaping body as urine
Diffusion of ions, sodium potassium pum; inside cell modification of ECF
Peff is highest in the ________ arteriole
Afferent arteriolar constriction ______ Pg
Elimination of urine from bladder
Hyperosmolarity occurs in the _____
PTH _________ reabsorption of Ca in ascending limb, DT and CT
High osmolarity causes urine ______
Glomerulonpehritis causes a _____ in GFR
Order of kidney artery/vein flow (omit artery and vein)
size of pores in capillary endothelial cell (nm)
Average glomerular pressure (Pg)
Po - Pob is ________
Peff factors: Pressure inside capillaires
name of pores in capillary endothelial cells
Distal tubule epithelium is impermeable to
Bowman's Capsule and Glomerulus complex
Converts angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2
Blood flows from glomerulus to pertibular capillaries in ______ arteriole
Urine concentration range (mmol/liter)
Proximal tubule: Na reabsorption percentage
Network of capillaries; performs first step of filtering blood
Excessive secretion of aldosterone pathology
3 regions of kidney (alphabetical order)
Tubular Flow: Fluid filters into this capsule
Peff Pathology: Reduction in general arterial pressure or inflammation causing GFR to decrease
Angiotensin 2 stimulates ______ secretion from the ________
Filtration criteria: must contain same concentrations of ____ as in the plasma
____ percent of potassium is absorbed in all tubules
Po _______ from afferent arteriole to efferent arteriole
Fibrous layer surrounding kidney
Factors affecting GFR: Afferent arterioles are constricted decreasing GFR
Collecting duct: secretion of _____
Substances requiring active reabsoprtion (alphbetical order, 4)
Angiotensin causes _________ of ______ arterioles
Thick segment of loop of henle ascending back to glomerus
DRG neurons excite _________ neurons innervating detrusor muscle
Percentage of volume reabsorbed by body
Ascending loop diameter (micrometers)
All materials are readily absorbed in tubules except _______
Ra/RE decreasing will ________GFR
Urine concentration: Passive diffusion of urea from the _________ to the ________
Ion important in blood coagulation, neurotransmitter relase
Organ moves blood away from kidney
Type of pores in epithelial cells
Pg - Pb is _________
The Na/K pump is in the _______ membrane
Glomerular capillary receives blood from ______ arteriole
3 mechanisms of nephrons
Type of nephron with glomerulus in outer corticla region; parts of tublues don't penetrate deep into medulla
Excitation of parasympathetic neurons causes detrusor _______
In collecting tubule, there are Na ______
Term for active transport in one membrane and passive transport at another
Type of nephron with glomerulus close to corticomedullary junction;part of tubule penetrates deep into medulla
The composition of filtrate is changed by _______ and __________ processes
K+ in urine is mainly from _______
Osmoreceptors in _________ of the __________ excite nuclei in pituitary gland to release ADH
First barrier of glomerular filtration
Average pressure in bowman's capsule (Pb)
Trend: volume _____ along renal tubular flow
4 substances notably secreted (alphabetical order)
Peff is lowest in the ______ arteriole
Diffusion crossing cell membrane due to concentrations
GFR equation (as written in packet)
Diffusion that uses the gradient of another process
Ascending Limb is impermeable to
PAH estimate of RPF
Aldosterone is released due to excitation of ________ cells of the __________
Peff factors: resistance of the walls of the capsule
Efferent arteriolar constriction/dilation: decreased ionic concentration in macula densa causes ________ to release ______ from granules
Transcellular transport: substance enters luminal side through ________ and leaves basolateral side using ________
Glomerulonephritis causes a ____ to develop
Micturition: _______ of DRG neurons are stimulated
Modified smooth muscle cells adjacent to afferent/efferent arterioles
Percentage of all reabsorption that occurs in the proximal tube
Organ that moves urine from kidneys to bladder
Part of renal tubule close to bowman's capsule
Four sites water is lost to (alphabetical order)
Normal GFR value
Water reabsoprtion in Descending limb of the Loop of Henle
third barrier of glomerular filtration
Reabsorption pathway: luminal membrane to _________
Peff factors: osmotic pressure of unfiltered proteins in capillaries
Tubular Flow: Filtrate flows from bowman's capsule to _____
PAH yields _____ venous output
Proximal tubule: H2O reabsorption percentage
Normal Kf value
Daily urine excretion (in liters)
Average colloid osmotic pressure (Po)
In ascending limb, Na cotransports with ____ and ____
____ percent of urea is reabsorbed in all tubules
Control of ECF sodium concentration (2)
Clinical substance uesd to estimate GFR
The countercurrent mechanism occurs in the _________
Reabsorption of calcium in ascending limb
Percentage of plasma volume remaining in renal blood vessels
Pg is ________ from afferent arteriole to efferent arteriole
2 hormones that control ECF calcium
Osmolality is ______ in the proximal tube
Collecting duct: reabsoprtion of ____ and ______
Part of renal tubule close to collecting duct
second barrier of glomerular filtration
3 steps of transcellular transport
Ra/Re increasing will ___________ GFR
Factors affecting GFR: increase in arterial pressure expected GFR increase, but blunted
Reabsorption of sodium percentages path: PT -> Ascending loop -> DT -> CD
From the nernest equation, a negative delta E means passive flux ______ the cell (for cation)
size of pores in basement membrane (nm)
Ascending Limb: Na absorption percentage
Maximum Tubular capacity abreviation
GFR in ml/min
Functional unit of kidney
Kidneys regulate _________ and __________ of interstitial fluid throughout the body
Sodium is ____ percent of extracellular cations
In proximal tubule, Na exchanges with
Type of transport mechanism in reabsoprtion
Substance used to estimate RPF
Autoregulation: Low GFR due to arterial pressure first causes _____ of Na+ and Cl- in __________ loop of henle
Factors affecting GFR: increased rate of blood flow increases GFR
Potassium is ________ filterable at glomerulus
Peff equation (as written in packet)
Reabsorption pathway: cytoplasm to ________
Urine concentration: active transport of Na+ in the _________ and ________
Active _____ reabsorption causes passive reabsoprtion of _______
Descending loop diameter (micrometers)
2 types of Transepithelial transport
number of nephrons in one kidney (in millions)
Reabsorption pathway: basolateral membrane to ___________
Reabsorption of Calcium in PT
Excrete ____ percentage of K
Tubular Flow: Filtrate flows from distal tubule to ______

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