Science Quiz / Urinary System

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Can you name the Urinary System?

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QuestionAnswer
Factors affecting GFR: increase in arterial pressure expected GFR increase, but blunted
From the nernest equation, a negative delta E means passive flux ______ the cell (for cation)
In ascending limb, Na cotransports with ____ and ____
Active _____ reabsorption causes passive reabsoprtion of _______
Paracellular transport: transport of substance through _________ to _____________ to basement membrane
PAH estimate of RPF
Po _______ from afferent arteriole to efferent arteriole
First barrier of glomerular filtration
Low pressure capillary bed
Failure to secrete ADH; up urine output
Pg is ________ from afferent arteriole to efferent arteriole
Part of tubule: large number of mitchondria, expanded epithelial with brush border, 'un tight' tight junctions, drug detoxification
3 substances secreted in proximal tube (alphabetical order)
In proximal tubule, Na exchanges with
Substance used to estimate RPF
Angiotensin 2 stimulates ______ secretion from the ________
Tubular Flow: Fluid filters into this capsule
All materials are readily absorbed in tubules except _______
Micturition: _______ of DRG neurons are stimulated
Ascending Limb: Na absorption percentage
Maximum Tubular capacity abreviation
Thick segment of loop of henle ascending back to glomerus
Autoregulation: Low GFR due to arterial pressure first causes _____ of Na+ and Cl- in __________ loop of henle
size of pores in basement membrane (nm)
3 mechanisms of nephrons
Calcitonin is produced by ________ cells of the _________-
Aldosterone is released due to excitation of ________ cells of the __________
2 types of Transepithelial transport
Percentage of plasma volume remaining in renal blood vessels
Blood flows from glomerulus to pertibular capillaries in ______ arteriole
Percentage of volume reabsorbed by body
3 steps of transcellular transport
Peff Pathology: hyper-permeability of glomerular capillaries
The derivation of the filtration equation is from a modified ______
The composition of filtrate is changed by _______ and __________ processes
Percentage of plasma volume filtered into renal tubules
Order of kidney artery/vein flow (omit artery and vein)
Collecting duct: secretion of _____
Descending loop diameter (micrometers)
Filtration criteria: must contain same concentrations of ____ as in the plasma
Tubular Flow: Filtrate flows from proximal tubule to _______
Peff factors: Pressure inside capillaires
Functional unit of kidney
Diffusion of ions, sodium potassium pum; inside cell modification of ECF
Control of ECF sodium concentration (2)
Glomerulonpehritis causes a _____ in GFR
Clearance Formula
Connecting medullary pyramids to minor calyx
2 Factors controlling K+ ion concentration
____ percent of potassium is absorbed in all tubules
Inhibition of parasympathetic neurons cause detrusor ______
Reabsorption pathway: luminal membrane to _________
Lack of voluntary control of micturition
Tubular Flow Filtrate flows from Loop of henle to ______
Renal plasma flow estimation (RPF) in ml/min
High pressure capillary bed
Excitation of ________ area of the __________ causes thirst sensatoin
Percentage of all reabsorption that occurs in the proximal tube
In presence of ADH urine _____ occurs
Bowman's Capsule and Glomerulus complex
Term for active transport in one membrane and passive transport at another
3 regions of kidney (alphabetical order)
GFR in ml/min
Type of transport mechanism in reabsoprtion
Reabsorption of Calcium in PT
Smooth muscle forming the bladder wall
Afferent arteriolar constriction/dilation: _____ initiates signal to dilate afferent arteriole
QuestionAnswer
Reabsorption pathway: cytoplasm to ________
Organ that moves urine from kidneys to bladder
Excitation of parasympathetic neurons causes detrusor _______
ion important in cellular pH, and Ap production
Type of pores in epithelial cells
Part of renal tubule close to bowman's capsule
Organ moves blood away from kidney
Reabosprtion of Na is controlled by
number of nephrons in one kidney (in millions)
Proximal tubule: K reabsorption percentage
second barrier of glomerular filtration
Osmoreceptors in _________ of the __________ excite nuclei in pituitary gland to release ADH
Type of nephron with glomerulus close to corticomedullary junction;part of tubule penetrates deep into medulla
Ra/RE decreasing will ________GFR
2 major comonents of JGC
Angiotensin causes _________ of ______ arterioles
DRG neurons excite _________ neurons innervating detrusor muscle
Reabsorption of sodium percentages path: PT -> Ascending loop -> DT -> CD
Sodium is ____ percent of extracellular cations
Part of renal tubule close to collecting duct
Urine concentration: active transport of Na+ in the _________ and ________
Diffusion that uses the gradient of another process
Network of capillaries; performs first step of filtering blood
Pg - Pb is _________
Glomerular capillary receives blood from ______ arteriole
The autoregulatory range in mmHg
Voluntary delay of micturition involves ____ of parasympathetic neurons, and ________ of somatic motor neurons
K+ in urine is mainly from _______
Urine concentration range (mmol/liter)
Hyperosmolarity occurs in the _____
Urine concentration: Passive diffusion of urea from the _________ to the ________
Ion important in blood coagulation, neurotransmitter relase
4 substances notably secreted (alphabetical order)
Peff equation (as written in packet)
Addison's disease, there is destruction of the_______
Distal tubule and collecting tubule secrete (2)
Daily urine excretion (in liters)
Organ level exchange; ex: urinary system, water absorption
Trend: volume _____ along renal tubular flow
Proximal tubule: Na reabsorption percentage
Converts angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2
Peff is highest in the ________ arteriole
Modified smooth muscle cells adjacent to afferent/efferent arterioles
Po - Pob is ________
Reabsorption pathway: interstitial fluid to __________
size of pores in capillary endothelial cell (nm)
2 hormones that control ECF calcium
Afferent arteriolar constriction ______ Pg
____ percent of urea is reabsorbed in all tubules
The Na/K pump is in the _______ membrane
Osmolality is ______ in the proximal tube
Transcellular transport: substance enters luminal side through ________ and leaves basolateral side using ________
Distal tubule and collecting tubule reabsorb (3)
normal blood osmolalaity is (mmol/liter)
Glomerulonephritis causes a ____ to develop
Factors affecting GFR: increased rate of blood flow increases GFR
size of pores in epithelial cells (nm)
Factors affecting GFR: Afferent arterioles are constricted decreasing GFR
Clinical substance uesd to estimate GFR
4 Factors affecting GFR
Ascending loop diameter (micrometers)
Normal Kf value
ADH pathophysiology: down urine output
Organ moves blood to kidney
ADH: ________ diffuses to the __________ membrane increasing water permeability
Ra/Re increasing will ___________ GFR
DRG neurons inhibit ________ innervating external urethral sphincter
QuestionAnswer
Collecting duct: reabsoprtion of ____ and ______
Tubular Flow: Filtrate flows from bowman's capsule to _____
Fibrous layer surrounding kidney
In collecting tubule, there are Na ______
third barrier of glomerular filtration
ADH activates ______ on the ______________
circular layer of skeletal muscle, innervated by somatic motor neurons
Water reabsorption is controlled by
PTH _________ reabsorption of Ca in ascending limb, DT and CT
Trend: pressure ______ along renal vasculature
Collecting ducts become minor calyces at the _____
Efferent arteriolar constriction/dilation: decreased ionic concentration in macula densa causes ________ to release ______ from granules
Ascending Limb is impermeable to
Aldosterone only effects the ____ and ____
Reabsorption pathway: Tubular fluid to ________
Filtration criteria: fluid must be ____ free
Elimination of urine from bladder
In proximal tubule, Na cotransports with ____ and _____
Percentage of volume escaping body as urine
The countercurrent mechanism occurs in the _________
In the absence of ADH, urine _____ occurs
Diffusion crossing cell membrane due to concentrations
Three effector sites of Calcium (alphabetical order)
Type of nephron with glomerulus in outer corticla region; parts of tublues don't penetrate deep into medulla
Urine concentration: passive transport of Na+ in the __________
Potassium is ________ filterable at glomerulus
Distal tubule epithelium is impermeable to
name of pores in capillary endothelial cells
5 key substances in ECF (alphabetical order)
GFR equation (as written in packet)
A slight increase in solute plasma concentrations results in a ____ increase in excreted solute concentration
Reduced secretion of aldosterone pathology
Excrete ____ percentage of K
Excessive secretion of aldosterone pathology
Pob is equal to _______
Average glomerular pressure (Pg)
Part of the peritubular capillary in the lower portions of loop of henle
Low osmolarity causes urine ______
Proximal tubule: H2O reabsorption percentage
Proximal tubule: Glucose and amino acid reabsorption percentage
Substance used to estimate GFR
Normal GFR value
High osmolarity causes urine ______
Reabsorption pathway: basolateral membrane to ___________
Four sites water is lost to (alphabetical order)
Water reabsoprtion in Descending limb of the Loop of Henle
Average pressure in bowman's capsule (Pb)
Kidneys regulate _________ and __________ of interstitial fluid throughout the body
Tubular Flow: Filtrate flows from distal tubule to ______
Reabsorption of calcium in ascending limb
Peff Pathology: Reduction in general arterial pressure or inflammation causing GFR to decrease
Another term for paracellular transport space
Type of feedback control for blood regulation and potassium regulation
Efferent arteriolar constriction increases both ____ and _____ causing a slight _____ in peff/GFR
Peff factors: resistance of the walls of the capsule
GRR in liters/day
Pathway of blood volume regulation (4)
Calcitonin causes ______ of Ca from _______
Renal blood flow (RBF) in ml/min
Peff factors: osmotic pressure of unfiltered proteins in capillaries
Cells of distal convoluted tubule adjacent to afferent/efferent arterioles
Average colloid osmotic pressure (Po)
Peff is lowest in the ______ arteriole
Substances requiring active reabsoprtion (alphbetical order, 4)
The ______ of the blood must be higher than that of the bowman's capsule
PAH yields _____ venous output
This substance controls pH

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