Science Quiz / Urinary System

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Can you name the Urinary System?

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Urine concentration range (mmol/liter)
2 hormones that control ECF calcium
Potassium is ________ filterable at glomerulus
Glomerulonpehritis causes a _____ in GFR
Excrete ____ percentage of K
K+ in urine is mainly from _______
Descending loop diameter (micrometers)
GFR in ml/min
3 regions of kidney (alphabetical order)
Aldosterone is released due to excitation of ________ cells of the __________
Peff factors: Pressure inside capillaires
Micturition: _______ of DRG neurons are stimulated
This substance controls pH
Sodium is ____ percent of extracellular cations
Percentage of volume reabsorbed by body
Excessive secretion of aldosterone pathology
Type of nephron with glomerulus in outer corticla region; parts of tublues don't penetrate deep into medulla
Normal GFR value
Substance used to estimate RPF
Renal plasma flow estimation (RPF) in ml/min
ADH pathophysiology: down urine output
____ percent of potassium is absorbed in all tubules
Reabsorption of sodium percentages path: PT -> Ascending loop -> DT -> CD
Reabsorption of calcium in ascending limb
ADH activates ______ on the ______________
Blood flows from glomerulus to pertibular capillaries in ______ arteriole
normal blood osmolalaity is (mmol/liter)
Pg - Pb is _________
Organ that moves urine from kidneys to bladder
Peff Pathology: hyper-permeability of glomerular capillaries
In presence of ADH urine _____ occurs
Filtration criteria: fluid must be ____ free
Filtration criteria: must contain same concentrations of ____ as in the plasma
Peff is highest in the ________ arteriole
Bowman's Capsule and Glomerulus complex
Peff is lowest in the ______ arteriole
Three effector sites of Calcium (alphabetical order)
Peff factors: resistance of the walls of the capsule
Connecting medullary pyramids to minor calyx
Daily urine excretion (in liters)
Part of renal tubule close to collecting duct
Tubular Flow: Filtrate flows from distal tubule to ______
Percentage of plasma volume remaining in renal blood vessels
size of pores in basement membrane (nm)
circular layer of skeletal muscle, innervated by somatic motor neurons
Voluntary delay of micturition involves ____ of parasympathetic neurons, and ________ of somatic motor neurons
Factors affecting GFR: Afferent arterioles are constricted decreasing GFR
Clinical substance uesd to estimate GFR
Calcitonin causes ______ of Ca from _______
Peff Pathology: Reduction in general arterial pressure or inflammation causing GFR to decrease
Percentage of plasma volume filtered into renal tubules
Order of kidney artery/vein flow (omit artery and vein)
Collecting ducts become minor calyces at the _____
2 types of Transepithelial transport
Percentage of volume escaping body as urine
The composition of filtrate is changed by _______ and __________ processes
Factors affecting GFR: increased rate of blood flow increases GFR
Diffusion crossing cell membrane due to concentrations
Organ level exchange; ex: urinary system, water absorption
Collecting duct: reabsoprtion of ____ and ______
Maximum Tubular capacity abreviation
Ra/Re increasing will ___________ GFR
Distal tubule and collecting tubule reabsorb (3)
Average colloid osmotic pressure (Po)
Hyperosmolarity occurs in the _____
Pathway of blood volume regulation (4)
Angiotensin 2 stimulates ______ secretion from the ________
Pg is ________ from afferent arteriole to efferent arteriole
Substances requiring active reabsoprtion (alphbetical order, 4)
GRR in liters/day
Peff equation (as written in packet)
third barrier of glomerular filtration
PAH estimate of RPF
Reabosprtion of Na is controlled by
2 Factors controlling K+ ion concentration
Afferent arteriolar constriction ______ Pg
Distal tubule and collecting tubule secrete (2)
The ______ of the blood must be higher than that of the bowman's capsule
Kidneys regulate _________ and __________ of interstitial fluid throughout the body
Renal blood flow (RBF) in ml/min
Type of transport mechanism in reabsoprtion
Substance used to estimate GFR
ADH: ________ diffuses to the __________ membrane increasing water permeability
Tubular Flow: Filtrate flows from proximal tubule to _______
Reabsorption pathway: cytoplasm to ________
size of pores in capillary endothelial cell (nm)
Reabsorption of Calcium in PT
Percentage of all reabsorption that occurs in the proximal tube
Water reabsorption is controlled by
Po _______ from afferent arteriole to efferent arteriole
Average glomerular pressure (Pg)
Excitation of ________ area of the __________ causes thirst sensatoin
Proximal tubule: K reabsorption percentage
Clearance Formula
Autoregulation: Low GFR due to arterial pressure first causes _____ of Na+ and Cl- in __________ loop of henle
Modified smooth muscle cells adjacent to afferent/efferent arterioles
Tubular Flow: Filtrate flows from bowman's capsule to _____
name of pores in capillary endothelial cells
number of nephrons in one kidney (in millions)
Low pressure capillary bed
Type of nephron with glomerulus close to corticomedullary junction;part of tubule penetrates deep into medulla
Type of feedback control for blood regulation and potassium regulation
Inhibition of parasympathetic neurons cause detrusor ______
In the absence of ADH, urine _____ occurs
Converts angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2
ion important in cellular pH, and Ap production
2 major comonents of JGC
3 mechanisms of nephrons
A slight increase in solute plasma concentrations results in a ____ increase in excreted solute concentration
Active _____ reabsorption causes passive reabsoprtion of _______
Angiotensin causes _________ of ______ arterioles
Paracellular transport: transport of substance through _________ to _____________ to basement membrane
____ percent of urea is reabsorbed in all tubules
Diffusion of ions, sodium potassium pum; inside cell modification of ECF
Control of ECF sodium concentration (2)
Part of the peritubular capillary in the lower portions of loop of henle
The Na/K pump is in the _______ membrane
Ion important in blood coagulation, neurotransmitter relase
PTH _________ reabsorption of Ca in ascending limb, DT and CT
Another term for paracellular transport space
Reduced secretion of aldosterone pathology
4 Factors affecting GFR
All materials are readily absorbed in tubules except _______
Urine concentration: active transport of Na+ in the _________ and ________
Lack of voluntary control of micturition
The derivation of the filtration equation is from a modified ______
Afferent arteriolar constriction/dilation: _____ initiates signal to dilate afferent arteriole
Diffusion that uses the gradient of another process
In proximal tubule, Na exchanges with
5 key substances in ECF (alphabetical order)
PAH yields _____ venous output
4 substances notably secreted (alphabetical order)
Elimination of urine from bladder
First barrier of glomerular filtration
Excitation of parasympathetic neurons causes detrusor _______
GFR equation (as written in packet)
Trend: pressure ______ along renal vasculature
DRG neurons excite _________ neurons innervating detrusor muscle
Cells of distal convoluted tubule adjacent to afferent/efferent arterioles
Smooth muscle forming the bladder wall
Osmoreceptors in _________ of the __________ excite nuclei in pituitary gland to release ADH
Transcellular transport: substance enters luminal side through ________ and leaves basolateral side using ________
Normal Kf value
In ascending limb, Na cotransports with ____ and ____
Glomerulonephritis causes a ____ to develop
The autoregulatory range in mmHg
Osmolality is ______ in the proximal tube
Tubular Flow: Fluid filters into this capsule
High pressure capillary bed
Proximal tubule: Na reabsorption percentage
Trend: volume _____ along renal tubular flow
Addison's disease, there is destruction of the_______
Ascending loop diameter (micrometers)
Peff factors: osmotic pressure of unfiltered proteins in capillaries
Water reabsoprtion in Descending limb of the Loop of Henle
From the nernest equation, a negative delta E means passive flux ______ the cell (for cation)
Type of pores in epithelial cells
Reabsorption pathway: luminal membrane to _________
Thick segment of loop of henle ascending back to glomerus
second barrier of glomerular filtration
The countercurrent mechanism occurs in the _________
Urine concentration: Passive diffusion of urea from the _________ to the ________
Efferent arteriolar constriction increases both ____ and _____ causing a slight _____ in peff/GFR
Aldosterone only effects the ____ and ____
Proximal tubule: Glucose and amino acid reabsorption percentage
Reabsorption pathway: Tubular fluid to ________
3 substances secreted in proximal tube (alphabetical order)
Tubular Flow Filtrate flows from Loop of henle to ______
Distal tubule epithelium is impermeable to
Ascending Limb is impermeable to
Failure to secrete ADH; up urine output
Factors affecting GFR: increase in arterial pressure expected GFR increase, but blunted
size of pores in epithelial cells (nm)
In proximal tubule, Na cotransports with ____ and _____
Term for active transport in one membrane and passive transport at another
Pob is equal to _______
Po - Pob is ________
Organ moves blood to kidney
Part of tubule: large number of mitchondria, expanded epithelial with brush border, 'un tight' tight junctions, drug detoxification
Efferent arteriolar constriction/dilation: decreased ionic concentration in macula densa causes ________ to release ______ from granules
DRG neurons inhibit ________ innervating external urethral sphincter
Network of capillaries; performs first step of filtering blood
Low osmolarity causes urine ______
Functional unit of kidney
Organ moves blood away from kidney
Glomerular capillary receives blood from ______ arteriole
Reabsorption pathway: interstitial fluid to __________
Fibrous layer surrounding kidney
Four sites water is lost to (alphabetical order)
Ascending Limb: Na absorption percentage
In collecting tubule, there are Na ______
Collecting duct: secretion of _____
Proximal tubule: H2O reabsorption percentage
High osmolarity causes urine ______
Part of renal tubule close to bowman's capsule
3 steps of transcellular transport
Urine concentration: passive transport of Na+ in the __________
Calcitonin is produced by ________ cells of the _________-
Average pressure in bowman's capsule (Pb)
Ra/RE decreasing will ________GFR
Reabsorption pathway: basolateral membrane to ___________

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Created May 3, 2012ReportNominate

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