Science Quiz / Urinary System

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Can you name the Urinary System?

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QuestionAnswer
Trend: volume _____ along renal tubular flow
normal blood osmolalaity is (mmol/liter)
The derivation of the filtration equation is from a modified ______
Ra/Re increasing will ___________ GFR
Calcitonin causes ______ of Ca from _______
Excitation of ________ area of the __________ causes thirst sensatoin
High osmolarity causes urine ______
PAH estimate of RPF
DRG neurons inhibit ________ innervating external urethral sphincter
In presence of ADH urine _____ occurs
second barrier of glomerular filtration
Filtration criteria: fluid must be ____ free
Glomerular capillary receives blood from ______ arteriole
Water reabsorption is controlled by
Water reabsoprtion in Descending limb of the Loop of Henle
Percentage of volume reabsorbed by body
Calcitonin is produced by ________ cells of the _________-
Excessive secretion of aldosterone pathology
Reabsorption pathway: Tubular fluid to ________
Part of tubule: large number of mitchondria, expanded epithelial with brush border, 'un tight' tight junctions, drug detoxification
Type of feedback control for blood regulation and potassium regulation
Diffusion that uses the gradient of another process
Autoregulation: Low GFR due to arterial pressure first causes _____ of Na+ and Cl- in __________ loop of henle
3 substances secreted in proximal tube (alphabetical order)
In proximal tubule, Na exchanges with
Clearance Formula
Sodium is ____ percent of extracellular cations
circular layer of skeletal muscle, innervated by somatic motor neurons
Po - Pob is ________
Reduced secretion of aldosterone pathology
____ percent of potassium is absorbed in all tubules
Distal tubule epithelium is impermeable to
Peff Pathology: Reduction in general arterial pressure or inflammation causing GFR to decrease
Factors affecting GFR: Afferent arterioles are constricted decreasing GFR
Diffusion of ions, sodium potassium pum; inside cell modification of ECF
Peff is lowest in the ______ arteriole
Average glomerular pressure (Pg)
Functional unit of kidney
Normal Kf value
K+ in urine is mainly from _______
ADH activates ______ on the ______________
Organ level exchange; ex: urinary system, water absorption
Excitation of parasympathetic neurons causes detrusor _______
PTH _________ reabsorption of Ca in ascending limb, DT and CT
From the nernest equation, a negative delta E means passive flux ______ the cell (for cation)
Modified smooth muscle cells adjacent to afferent/efferent arterioles
Osmoreceptors in _________ of the __________ excite nuclei in pituitary gland to release ADH
PAH yields _____ venous output
Organ moves blood away from kidney
Reabsorption pathway: basolateral membrane to ___________
Converts angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2
In collecting tubule, there are Na ______
Order of kidney artery/vein flow (omit artery and vein)
Peff factors: Pressure inside capillaires
Proximal tubule: Na reabsorption percentage
The autoregulatory range in mmHg
Substance used to estimate GFR
Pg - Pb is _________
Efferent arteriolar constriction increases both ____ and _____ causing a slight _____ in peff/GFR
Hyperosmolarity occurs in the _____
Ion important in blood coagulation, neurotransmitter relase
ADH: ________ diffuses to the __________ membrane increasing water permeability
Average pressure in bowman's capsule (Pb)
In the absence of ADH, urine _____ occurs
Renal blood flow (RBF) in ml/min
First barrier of glomerular filtration
Collecting ducts become minor calyces at the _____
QuestionAnswer
Inhibition of parasympathetic neurons cause detrusor ______
Ascending loop diameter (micrometers)
Peff factors: resistance of the walls of the capsule
Peff factors: osmotic pressure of unfiltered proteins in capillaries
Peff is highest in the ________ arteriole
Potassium is ________ filterable at glomerulus
size of pores in capillary endothelial cell (nm)
Efferent arteriolar constriction/dilation: decreased ionic concentration in macula densa causes ________ to release ______ from granules
Pob is equal to _______
Organ moves blood to kidney
Bowman's Capsule and Glomerulus complex
Peff equation (as written in packet)
Tubular Flow Filtrate flows from Loop of henle to ______
Transcellular transport: substance enters luminal side through ________ and leaves basolateral side using ________
Reabsorption pathway: cytoplasm to ________
Blood flows from glomerulus to pertibular capillaries in ______ arteriole
Three effector sites of Calcium (alphabetical order)
Reabsorption pathway: interstitial fluid to __________
2 types of Transepithelial transport
Connecting medullary pyramids to minor calyx
Substances requiring active reabsoprtion (alphbetical order, 4)
Voluntary delay of micturition involves ____ of parasympathetic neurons, and ________ of somatic motor neurons
Factors affecting GFR: increase in arterial pressure expected GFR increase, but blunted
Glomerulonpehritis causes a _____ in GFR
Part of the peritubular capillary in the lower portions of loop of henle
Substance used to estimate RPF
The Na/K pump is in the _______ membrane
3 mechanisms of nephrons
Reabsorption of sodium percentages path: PT -> Ascending loop -> DT -> CD
DRG neurons excite _________ neurons innervating detrusor muscle
Trend: pressure ______ along renal vasculature
Micturition: _______ of DRG neurons are stimulated
Active _____ reabsorption causes passive reabsoprtion of _______
Afferent arteriolar constriction ______ Pg
Collecting duct: reabsoprtion of ____ and ______
Low pressure capillary bed
In proximal tubule, Na cotransports with ____ and _____
Type of pores in epithelial cells
Tubular Flow: Filtrate flows from distal tubule to ______
Reabsorption pathway: luminal membrane to _________
2 major comonents of JGC
number of nephrons in one kidney (in millions)
High pressure capillary bed
All materials are readily absorbed in tubules except _______
Osmolality is ______ in the proximal tube
Type of nephron with glomerulus in outer corticla region; parts of tublues don't penetrate deep into medulla
____ percent of urea is reabsorbed in all tubules
GFR in ml/min
Fibrous layer surrounding kidney
Aldosterone is released due to excitation of ________ cells of the __________
Tubular Flow: Filtrate flows from proximal tubule to _______
Tubular Flow: Filtrate flows from bowman's capsule to _____
Pathway of blood volume regulation (4)
Proximal tubule: K reabsorption percentage
Control of ECF sodium concentration (2)
Low osmolarity causes urine ______
Addison's disease, there is destruction of the_______
Renal plasma flow estimation (RPF) in ml/min
GRR in liters/day
This substance controls pH
third barrier of glomerular filtration
Collecting duct: secretion of _____
Term for active transport in one membrane and passive transport at another
Type of transport mechanism in reabsoprtion
Ra/RE decreasing will ________GFR
Clinical substance uesd to estimate GFR
Percentage of volume escaping body as urine
QuestionAnswer
Distal tubule and collecting tubule reabsorb (3)
Reabsorption of calcium in ascending limb
The composition of filtrate is changed by _______ and __________ processes
3 steps of transcellular transport
Diffusion crossing cell membrane due to concentrations
Four sites water is lost to (alphabetical order)
Organ that moves urine from kidneys to bladder
5 key substances in ECF (alphabetical order)
name of pores in capillary endothelial cells
Network of capillaries; performs first step of filtering blood
A slight increase in solute plasma concentrations results in a ____ increase in excreted solute concentration
Angiotensin 2 stimulates ______ secretion from the ________
Percentage of all reabsorption that occurs in the proximal tube
Daily urine excretion (in liters)
size of pores in epithelial cells (nm)
Afferent arteriolar constriction/dilation: _____ initiates signal to dilate afferent arteriole
Percentage of plasma volume remaining in renal blood vessels
Urine concentration: passive transport of Na+ in the __________
Ascending Limb is impermeable to
Part of renal tubule close to collecting duct
Thick segment of loop of henle ascending back to glomerus
Pg is ________ from afferent arteriole to efferent arteriole
Proximal tubule: Glucose and amino acid reabsorption percentage
Aldosterone only effects the ____ and ____
Lack of voluntary control of micturition
Po _______ from afferent arteriole to efferent arteriole
Part of renal tubule close to bowman's capsule
Descending loop diameter (micrometers)
Angiotensin causes _________ of ______ arterioles
Percentage of plasma volume filtered into renal tubules
Excrete ____ percentage of K
Type of nephron with glomerulus close to corticomedullary junction;part of tubule penetrates deep into medulla
Ascending Limb: Na absorption percentage
Kidneys regulate _________ and __________ of interstitial fluid throughout the body
Failure to secrete ADH; up urine output
Distal tubule and collecting tubule secrete (2)
4 substances notably secreted (alphabetical order)
ion important in cellular pH, and Ap production
Tubular Flow: Fluid filters into this capsule
Paracellular transport: transport of substance through _________ to _____________ to basement membrane
Filtration criteria: must contain same concentrations of ____ as in the plasma
In ascending limb, Na cotransports with ____ and ____
GFR equation (as written in packet)
The ______ of the blood must be higher than that of the bowman's capsule
Urine concentration range (mmol/liter)
2 hormones that control ECF calcium
Maximum Tubular capacity abreviation
Smooth muscle forming the bladder wall
Proximal tubule: H2O reabsorption percentage
Cells of distal convoluted tubule adjacent to afferent/efferent arterioles
Normal GFR value
size of pores in basement membrane (nm)
ADH pathophysiology: down urine output
Peff Pathology: hyper-permeability of glomerular capillaries
2 Factors controlling K+ ion concentration
Another term for paracellular transport space
Urine concentration: active transport of Na+ in the _________ and ________
3 regions of kidney (alphabetical order)
Elimination of urine from bladder
Glomerulonephritis causes a ____ to develop
Average colloid osmotic pressure (Po)
Urine concentration: Passive diffusion of urea from the _________ to the ________
Factors affecting GFR: increased rate of blood flow increases GFR
Reabsorption of Calcium in PT
4 Factors affecting GFR
The countercurrent mechanism occurs in the _________
Reabosprtion of Na is controlled by

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