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Level of compaction after nucleosomes
HV causing cross linking of
end of tRNA that binds to amino acid
multiple ribosomes on a single mRNA
product binds to repressor controlling transcription
Immune system cell that gobbles up anthrax in lungs
sequence between promoter and first gene
repairs breaks in backbone, makes final phosphodiester bonds between gaps
positive gene regulation: as glucose goes up, cAMP goes
excised intron form, quickly degraded
moves peptide onto the new amino acid (an ase)
Ricin A depurinates this on rRNA
start codon
strand copied in fragments
Time when virus is transmissible between people
site where tRNA exits
binds to TATA box first
Exclude liquid matter from cytoplasm leaving DNA
everything before a start codon (mRNA)
finds polyA signal and then cleaves hairpin off
single strand binding proteins, prevent re-annealing
inhibit transcription (not completely stop)
DNA polymerase with built in RNA template, adds in bases to stop end-replication problems
can pair with U, C, or A, in wobble position
(mRNA) multiple genes, multiple binding sequences
end of DNA that has unmodified phosphate
transcription binds to this thing (-25 base pairs upstream0
a DNA strand and all genes it carries
2 copies of each chromosome
base change leads to stop codon
Anti-viral drug treates herpes; guanosine look-alike
several genes with related functions, regulated together
hair loss
Topoisomerase type such as gyrase that uses energy
3rd position of anticodon
where ribosomal RNA synthesis occurs
DNA lying within genes; expressed
1 copy of each chromosome
new infection, invasion of something resistant to drug in use
Prevents DNA from falling off
overdevelopment of male breast tissue
Intestinal anthrax
Anthrax through cut or abrasion
stop growth of bacteria (adjective)
Accumulation of ketones (drop plasma pH)
diabetes type: cells don't respond to insulin
Amount of base pairs per turn on DNA
DNA and histone complex
a strand to which you will add bases to
excessive urine
nucleic acid inhibitor example
blood vessels in the brain (adjective)
HNF binds to this creating a complex
EF-TU takes how many GTP
type of factor required to allow RNA poly to bind to DNA
Chromatin Type: folded and compacted; inactive
steroids based on this (type of molecule)
Anthrax factor: leads to water imbalance, cAMP drownage
Initiator + TATA complex
group of 3 sequential bases, designate amino acid
The terminator is located in the (transcript or DNA)
reduction in hemoglobin content
kill bacterial (adjective)
DNA polymerase, 5' to 3' polymerass 3' to 5' exonuclease
pyrmidine loses amino group (change of base)
Prokaryotic number of replication origins
EF-G uses how many GTP
Anthrax factor: leads to cell lysis, cleaves cell division enzymes
diabetes type: deficiency of insulin secretion; autoimmune
excessive thirst
cell old age
flag for export of mRNA from nucleus, prevents degradation
elevated blood sugar
muscle pain
start point in transcription designated with numerical value of
TFs binding to TFIID complex
DNA polymerase, get rid of primers
makes cuts in lumps due to wrong base pairing
lose purine/base off a sugar
total ATP and GTP usage (__,___)
cell wall inhibitor example
Cell that lyses in herpes
cAMP binds to, forming a complex (regulation of lactose)
prevents suprcoiling
substrate binds to repressor controlling transcription
isolated guanine with mustard gas sticking off
upstream is what direction (5' or 3')
binds to origin and separates DNA strands
Difficulty breathing
part of ricin that is cytotoxic
end of DNA that has unmodified hydroxyl group
Does translocaiton
bond between ricin A and B
where to line up mRNA binding site on prokaryotes
base added or deleted
melt's duplex DNA
Infected and an immune response has been mounted
Initiation needs the addition of how many NTPs before elongation
portions far away from promoter
whats deleted each replication (end-replication problem)
Length after stretching out chromosome linearly
shape of prokaryotic DNA
a protein that modulates transcription
Phosphorylates guanosine; activates it
sets lifetime of transcript
Positively charged proteins that DNA binds to for neutralization and compaction into the nucleus
Bonds between complement bases in DNA
Length of one turn on DNA (in nm)
Anthrax factor: endocytoses self into cells
disease of nerves, typically peripheral
adding carbon chains
eyelid becomes inflammed
Nucleic acid sequence necessary for synthesis of functional protein
Y's at the side of each replication bubble
Elongation factor in eukaryotic translation
number of stop codons
peptide chain is built in the
code for regulatory proteins, control expression of structural genes
Bonds that form the phosphate backbone
everything after stop codon (mRNA)
break up molecules
lower blood glucose
synthesized by microorganisms against other ones
surrounding sequence of +1
sequences that are the same in promoters amongst species
raw materials and energy for transcription
mutation in this in 70% of MODY
Adds a primer
Environment of cytoplasm that results in ricin A & B separaitng
steroids bind to this to move through blood
make molecules
degrades transcript after polyA degradation
dominant protein in blood, prevent h2o loss, carrier molecule
type of supercoiling resulting form helicase
DNA lying between expressed segments of genes but don't code
Anthrax anti-microbial; inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase
2 molecules of DNA/RNA only differ in degree of supercoiling
lethal dose amount of anthrax spores
redness ofs kin
gum disease
long lasting erection
amino acid can be coded for by more than one codon
lower layers of dermis
Process of adding a polyA tail
cell bursts, spilling out its guts
upper layers of dermis
type of topoisomerase that no energy is used
drop in cardiac output and blood flow due to bacterial infection
something that kills cells (adjective)
transcriptional defect from inherited mutation causing diabetes
guanines across from each other (1 away) crosslinked
removes 5' cap after polyA degradation
first mRNA modificaiton
includes both natural and synthetic substances against organisms
strand copied continuously
blistering agent
remove introns
fatal anthrax due to inhalation of spores
reason the terminator forms a hairpin
portions around promoter
substrate induction and end-product repression are _______forms of regulation
sites specifying beginning and end of introns
dead (refers to tissue)
site where tRNA comes in
synthetic steroid example
code for enzymes/proteins
part of ricin that enters cells
diseases of retina
promote transcription
base change mutation
DNA lying between genes
virus stops replication, lays dormant until reactivation
Ricin A depurinates results in inhibiting what binding to the large subunit
Chromatin type: less densely packed; active state
two adjacent guanines crosslinked
strand that is being copied
to bind single DNA strands back together
base change no effect on amino acid sequence
moving ester bonds, involved in splicing
site where peptide grows (middle)
Part of virus, helps infect host cells, hide from immune system
narrow or broad (in reference to antimicrobials)
body's mechanism of transporting fat and blood (molecule)
type of RNA poly that makes mRNA (pre-)

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