Science Quiz / Biomechanics Final Exam

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Can you name the Biomechanics Final Exam?

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_____ decreases with age: This is due to an increase in permeability causing a decrease in ____ under load leading to an increase load on the_____
In plastic collapse, stress is ___ while strain is ____
Outer layer of bone
Cartilage Zone: collagen is mineralized
The ______ of the tissue matrix and the ____ of the fluid are dependent on eachother
Blood vessels are located in the _____ of the bone
Cartilage Function: little deterioration with time
Bone has the ____ Young's Modulus
As the Density Dependence increase there is less ______, while _____, _____, and energy transmission through joints increases
Tensegrity Model: Elements
Endothelial cell response to shear stress: Increased cell ____ and _____
Cortical bone is 1/3 ______, _____ , and _____
The ____ theory models cartilage as a mixture of solid and fluid components which are interdependent
The middle zone has collagen fibers and ____
Collagen fibrils are ____ when unloaded
Cartilage is composed of (3)
Proteoglycans have a strong ____ charge, and bind and attract ____
Endothelial cell response to shear stress: cells ____ in direction of _____
Cartilage Stress-Strain Mech: the order of degrees to the cleavage line with highest slope to lowest
Layers of blood vessels from inner to outer
Blood Vessels: Stress levels are related to ______ and ____ on endothelial cells
'sensor molecules' for force transduction; trigger biochemical pathways in cell
Cleavage line patterns correspond to ____ created by _____
Medium sized arteries are known as __ arteries
Cartilage is ____ (isotropy)
Endothelial cell response to shear stress: F- actin bears ____
Bone cells that degrade bone matrix
Trabecular bone is aligned to bear ______
Cortical bone is 2/3 _______, which mainly _______
Endothelial cell response to shear stress: microtubules bear ____
Large arteries are known as ___ arteries
Cortical bone type: young animals, injury repair
Bone Cells
Spongy, Cancellous bone; 10-50% as dense
Murray's Law of minumum work eventually proves shear stress to be _____
Cartilage creep test points in order (3)
If mean residual stress is 0, the vessel is in _______
Inner layer of bone
Comp Stress-Strain Mech: Region in which bone absorbs energy until we reach yield stress
Density Dependence on bone is characterizied by equation _____ over _____
Larger opening angles are attributed to ____ residual stress, while small opening angles are attributed to _____ residual stress
Cartilage Zone: large collagen fibers arranged radially on surface, generating cleavage lines
The superficial zone has collagen fibers, ____, and _____
The media contains ___ cells, and has high ___ content, and moderate ___ content
Endothelial cell response to shear stress: Change in ____ and ____ expression
Cartilage Zone: collagen and proteoglycans
The middle cylindrical part of the bone is called the _____ region
Tensegrity Model: Tension elments are ____
The loss of articular cartilage with underlying bone degeneration
Cartilage Zone: collagen fibers, lubricin, chondrocytes
Keratan sulfate, and chondroitan sulfate are examples of ______-
Cartilage Function: minimal friction
The equilibrium of cartilage creep test is due to ___ bearing the load
Cartilage Zones in order of top to bottom (4)
The adventitia contains _____ as well as elastin and collagen
The Intima contains ____ cells and the ____
3 Regions of Compressive Strain-Stress Mechanics
Cortical bone type consists of parallel osteons 1-2cm in length
Comp Stress-Strain Mech: Region in which traceulae have collapsed, stresses begin to rise
Lies on the curved surfaces of joints
Bone cells that secrete bone matrix
Osteon Lamella are wrapped in ___ fibers to add ductility
Cells align ______ to stretch direction, this does not occur in ____ conditions
Comp Stress-Strain Mech: Trabecullar bone begins to collapse, acts like'packing foam'
In Aneurysms, the radius increases causing the ____ to increase (greek letter)
Cartilage Functions (3)
Reduce stress concentrations in joints
Tensegrity Model: Compression elements are ____
Loading at higher ____ is more significant than ____ of loading
The viscous creep of cartilage creep test is due to ____
Opening angles ___ with increasing pressure
Compact, very dense bone
Cortical bone is _____ material: or ______ material defined by orthogonal coordinate system

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