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Proteins built into the plasma membrane. Transmit signals between the ECM and cytoskeleton and indicate changes.
2nd compartment of the mitochondrion, enclosed by the inner membrane. contains many different enzymes as well as mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes.
A network of fibers extending through the cytoplasm
Each variant for a character of an individual.
Includes the nuclear envelope, the ER, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, various types of vesicles and vacuoles, and the plasma membrane.
During Prophase I duplicated homologs are connected to each other via the synaptonemal complex. Doesn't occur in Mitosis.
When subunits run in opposite directions
A netlike array of protein filaments that maintain the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope
When an error is missed, other enzymes remove and replace incorrectly paired nucleotides.
2nd type of life, includes both diploid & haploid stages that are multicellular.
1/3 types of animal cell junction
Multicellular haploid that's named for its production by mitosis of haploid gametes.
When the two alleles affect the phenotype in seperate, distinguishable ways
Inside the centrosome, consist of 9 sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring.
Site of cellular respiration, metabolic process that uses oxygen to produce ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels.
Diagram used for predicting the allele composition of offspring
An additive effect of 2 or more genes on a single phenotype character.
At the ends of replication bubbles, y-shaped region where particular strands of DNA are being unwound
Organism's outward appearance/observable traits
Genes located on the X chromosome
Produced by mitotic division of a zygote, multicellular diploid.
Membrane enclosed structures within eukaryotic cells.
A gene's specific location along the length of a chromosome.
At the boundary of every cell. Functions as a selective barrier that allows passage of enough oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service the entire cell.
aneuploidy involving a missing chromosome
Organism's genetic makeup, outward appearance does not display the full picture
Synthesizes completely using just one primer
Parental generation.
Contain a single set of chromosomes. Each has a haploid number of chromosomes. Sex cells.
Only produce the same variety as the parent organism, even over many generations.
A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion
Gamete cells require this, reduces # of sets of chromosomes from 2 to 1 in gametes.
The phenotype for a character most commonly observed in a natural population
Individual chromosomes that carry genes derived from 2 different parents.
Inside all cells, semifluid, jellylike substance in which all subcellular components are suspended.
Many factors including genetics, and the environment collectively affect phenotype
Alternative versions of a gene
Humans have 46. Includes all cells of the body except gametes & their precursors.
A region often located near the nucleus and is considered a 'microtubule organization center'
When one trait is dominant and the other is recessive
1/3 types of animal cell junction
States that two alleles of a heritable character segregate from one another during gamete formation & end up with different gametes.
Perforate cell walls. Membrane-line channels filled with cytoplasm.
Infoldings of an inner membrane
1st filial generation
The phenotypic expression of a gene at one locus alters that of a gene at a second locus
Solid rods, short, and can for structural networks
genetic map based on recombination frequencies
Occurs while replicated homologs are paired during meiosis 1.
Catalyses the synthesis of new DNA by adding nucleotides to the preexisting chain.
When an abnormal gamete unites with a normal gamete, the zygote will also have an abnormal number of a particular chromosome
Mating of two variants.
Heterozygotes who though they don't show any phenotypic affects, could pass the recessive allele on to the next generation
An extensive network of membrane that accounts for more than half the total membrane in many euk. cells.
Organism that has 2 different alleles for a gene
Bind to the unpaired DNA strands after parental strands separate, keeping them from reconnecting
Genes located near each other on the same chromosome, they tend to be inherited together
Type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the parental molecule, and one newly made strand.
Membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that animal cells use to digest macromolecules.
When an incorrect segment of nucleotides is incorrect, they're cut out and refilled.
Where replication of DNA begins.
Complex of DNA and protein, fits into the nucleus through an elaborate, multilevel packing system.
A warehouse for receiving, sorting, shipping and manufacturing products of the ER.
X & Y chromosomes. They determine an individual's sex. (Females=XX, Males=XY)
A gene located on the X chromosome
Any cell with 2 chromosome sets, doesn't include sex cells.
Display of condensed chromosomes arranged in pairs. Used to screen for defective chromosomes associated with certain congenital disorders.
An mishap in the distribution of chromosomes by the meiotic spindle which the members of homologs dont move apart properly or don't seperate during meiosis II
Extracellular structure of plant cells. distinguishes them from animal cells. protects plant cells, maintains its shape, and prevents excessive uptake of water.
Specialized metabolic compartment bonded by a single membrane. Cooperates with chloroplasts and mitochondrion in certain metabolic functions
The initial nucleotide chain that is produced during DNA synthesis is a short stretch of RNA. Starts a complimentary RNA chain so that DNA synthesis can continue.
When neither allele is completely dominant & their phenotype is a mix between the two alleles (eg. pink flowers from white and red parents)
Specialized structure in the nucleus that consist of chromosomal regions containing rRna genes and ribosomal protein. The site of rRna synthesis and ribosomal subunit assembly.
Found in plants and algae, sites of photosynthesis
One of a family of closely related organelles that includes chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts, photosynthesis.
Genotype that is associated with a range of phenotypic possibilities due to environmental influences
Exists at the point where a cross-over has occured.
The interior of a cell.
Protein that breaks, swivels, and rejoins DNA strands. During DNA replication, helps relieve strain in the double helix ahead of rep. fork.
During Prophase I chromosomes attach to their non-sister chromatid counterparts and exchange DNA segments, doesn't occur in Mitosis.
Larger than microfilaments but shorter than microtubules. Specialize in bearing tension.
The purpose of meiosis I, reduces the chromosomes in half.
1/3 types of animal cell junction
Variation in phenotype depending on whether an allele came from the male or the female
proteins responsible for the first level of DNA packing in chromatin.
Hollow rods constructed from tubulin, grow in length by adding tubulin dimers.
Two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents.
The lesser condensed form of chromatin that can be transcribed
Organism that has a pair of identical alleles for a gene
Proteins that have carbs covalently bonded to them.
stacks of thylakoids
aneuploidy involving an extra/third chromosome
Family tree describing the traits of parents & children across the generations
Sacs made of membrane, tiny.
A single individual is the sole parent & passes copies of all its genes to its offspring without the fusion of gametes.
fluid outside chloroplast DNA
Short appendage used for movement
All other chromosomes, humans have 46.
Large vesicles derived from the ER & golgi apparatus, integral part of cell's endomembrane system.
Contains most of the genes in the eukaryotic cell.
A framework of protein fibres extending throughout the nuclear interior
Outer surface lacks ribosomes. Synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbs, detox of poison, and storage of calcium.
An offspring whose phenotype differs from that of the true-breeding P generation parents. Also refers to the phenotype itself.
ordered list of genetic loci along a chromosome
encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm. double membrane, lined by nuclear lamina.
Studded with ribosomes on the outer surface of the membrane. Proteins attach to this.
Eukaryotic chromatin that remains highly compact during interphase and is genetically not transcribed
Reproductive cells which are the vehicles that transmit genes from one generation to the next.
Coded information in the form of hereditary units.
Enzymes that untwist the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and make them available as template strands.
States that each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation
Characters that don't vary categorically (eg. height, skin color)
Breeding an organism with an unknown genotype w/ one with homozygous recessive, in order to determine the genotype of the unknown
The inactive X in each cell of a female condenses into a compact object.
DNA molecules that contain no genes used to protect organism's genes from cutting too far.
an animal's version of a cell wall. Contains glycoproteins and other carb. molecules/
Two chromosomes that have the same length, centromere, position, & staining pattern.
2nd filial generation
A group of genetically identical individuals.
Tiny complexes that make proteins according to instructions from the genes, all cells have these. Made of RNA and protein.
A gene with multiple phenotypic affects
flattened, interconnected sac in chloroplast
Catalyses the lengthening of telomeres compensating for the shortening during DNA replication.
Synthesizes discontinuously as a series of segments

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