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flattened, interconnected sac in chloroplast
genetic map based on recombination frequencies
When an incorrect segment of nucleotides is incorrect, they're cut out and refilled.
When one trait is dominant and the other is recessive
The initial nucleotide chain that is produced during DNA synthesis is a short stretch of RNA. Starts a complimentary RNA chain so that DNA synthesis can continue.
Enzymes that untwist the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and make them available as template strands.
Variation in phenotype depending on whether an allele came from the male or the female
A network of fibers extending through the cytoplasm
An offspring whose phenotype differs from that of the true-breeding P generation parents. Also refers to the phenotype itself.
Any cell with 2 chromosome sets, doesn't include sex cells.
Two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents.
stacks of thylakoids
Membrane enclosed structures within eukaryotic cells.
States that two alleles of a heritable character segregate from one another during gamete formation & end up with different gametes.
X & Y chromosomes. They determine an individual's sex. (Females=XX, Males=XY)
The phenotypic expression of a gene at one locus alters that of a gene at a second locus
When the two alleles affect the phenotype in seperate, distinguishable ways
Organism's outward appearance/observable traits
1/3 types of animal cell junction
Large vesicles derived from the ER & golgi apparatus, integral part of cell's endomembrane system.
Hollow rods constructed from tubulin, grow in length by adding tubulin dimers.
Genotype that is associated with a range of phenotypic possibilities due to environmental influences
2nd filial generation
Multicellular haploid that's named for its production by mitosis of haploid gametes.
A region often located near the nucleus and is considered a 'microtubule organization center'
A gene's specific location along the length of a chromosome.
Site of cellular respiration, metabolic process that uses oxygen to produce ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels.
When neither allele is completely dominant & their phenotype is a mix between the two alleles (eg. pink flowers from white and red parents)
ordered list of genetic loci along a chromosome
Occurs while replicated homologs are paired during meiosis 1.
Contain a single set of chromosomes. Each has a haploid number of chromosomes. Sex cells.
proteins responsible for the first level of DNA packing in chromatin.
Found in plants and algae, sites of photosynthesis
Specialized structure in the nucleus that consist of chromosomal regions containing rRna genes and ribosomal protein. The site of rRna synthesis and ribosomal subunit assembly.
Protein that breaks, swivels, and rejoins DNA strands. During DNA replication, helps relieve strain in the double helix ahead of rep. fork.
2nd compartment of the mitochondrion, enclosed by the inner membrane. contains many different enzymes as well as mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes.
Organism that has 2 different alleles for a gene
fluid outside chloroplast DNA
Specialized metabolic compartment bonded by a single membrane. Cooperates with chloroplasts and mitochondrion in certain metabolic functions
The inactive X in each cell of a female condenses into a compact object.
During Prophase I chromosomes attach to their non-sister chromatid counterparts and exchange DNA segments, doesn't occur in Mitosis.
The lesser condensed form of chromatin that can be transcribed
The purpose of meiosis I, reduces the chromosomes in half.
Contains most of the genes in the eukaryotic cell.
Produced by mitotic division of a zygote, multicellular diploid.
1/3 types of animal cell junction
Organism that has a pair of identical alleles for a gene
Only produce the same variety as the parent organism, even over many generations.
The interior of a cell.
At the ends of replication bubbles, y-shaped region where particular strands of DNA are being unwound
Gamete cells require this, reduces # of sets of chromosomes from 2 to 1 in gametes.
Diagram used for predicting the allele composition of offspring
Family tree describing the traits of parents & children across the generations
When subunits run in opposite directions
The phenotype for a character most commonly observed in a natural population
Extracellular structure of plant cells. distinguishes them from animal cells. protects plant cells, maintains its shape, and prevents excessive uptake of water.
Eukaryotic chromatin that remains highly compact during interphase and is genetically not transcribed
Inside the centrosome, consist of 9 sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring.
Alternative versions of a gene
One of a family of closely related organelles that includes chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts, photosynthesis.
Humans have 46. Includes all cells of the body except gametes & their precursors.
1/3 types of animal cell junction
Many factors including genetics, and the environment collectively affect phenotype
Includes the nuclear envelope, the ER, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, various types of vesicles and vacuoles, and the plasma membrane.
Genes located on the X chromosome
Genes located near each other on the same chromosome, they tend to be inherited together
an animal's version of a cell wall. Contains glycoproteins and other carb. molecules/
Display of condensed chromosomes arranged in pairs. Used to screen for defective chromosomes associated with certain congenital disorders.
2nd type of life, includes both diploid & haploid stages that are multicellular.
During Prophase I duplicated homologs are connected to each other via the synaptonemal complex. Doesn't occur in Mitosis.
Individual chromosomes that carry genes derived from 2 different parents.
All other chromosomes, humans have 46.
Catalyses the synthesis of new DNA by adding nucleotides to the preexisting chain.
Mating of two variants.
An additive effect of 2 or more genes on a single phenotype character.
When an error is missed, other enzymes remove and replace incorrectly paired nucleotides.
Two chromosomes that have the same length, centromere, position, & staining pattern.
Proteins built into the plasma membrane. Transmit signals between the ECM and cytoskeleton and indicate changes.
A warehouse for receiving, sorting, shipping and manufacturing products of the ER.
States that each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation
An extensive network of membrane that accounts for more than half the total membrane in many euk. cells.
Solid rods, short, and can for structural networks
Infoldings of an inner membrane
Perforate cell walls. Membrane-line channels filled with cytoplasm.
Membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that animal cells use to digest macromolecules.
A single individual is the sole parent & passes copies of all its genes to its offspring without the fusion of gametes.
Outer surface lacks ribosomes. Synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbs, detox of poison, and storage of calcium.
aneuploidy involving an extra/third chromosome
Synthesizes discontinuously as a series of segments
Where replication of DNA begins.
Characters that don't vary categorically (eg. height, skin color)
Reproductive cells which are the vehicles that transmit genes from one generation to the next.
Sacs made of membrane, tiny.
At the boundary of every cell. Functions as a selective barrier that allows passage of enough oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service the entire cell.
aneuploidy involving a missing chromosome
Type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the parental molecule, and one newly made strand.
An mishap in the distribution of chromosomes by the meiotic spindle which the members of homologs dont move apart properly or don't seperate during meiosis II
Exists at the point where a cross-over has occured.
Tiny complexes that make proteins according to instructions from the genes, all cells have these. Made of RNA and protein.
Short appendage used for movement
Larger than microfilaments but shorter than microtubules. Specialize in bearing tension.
Studded with ribosomes on the outer surface of the membrane. Proteins attach to this.
When an abnormal gamete unites with a normal gamete, the zygote will also have an abnormal number of a particular chromosome
Coded information in the form of hereditary units.
Each variant for a character of an individual.
A framework of protein fibres extending throughout the nuclear interior
Complex of DNA and protein, fits into the nucleus through an elaborate, multilevel packing system.
Synthesizes completely using just one primer
DNA molecules that contain no genes used to protect organism's genes from cutting too far.
A netlike array of protein filaments that maintain the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope
Inside all cells, semifluid, jellylike substance in which all subcellular components are suspended.
Breeding an organism with an unknown genotype w/ one with homozygous recessive, in order to determine the genotype of the unknown
A gene located on the X chromosome
Catalyses the lengthening of telomeres compensating for the shortening during DNA replication.
A group of genetically identical individuals.
Organism's genetic makeup, outward appearance does not display the full picture
Parental generation.
A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion
1st filial generation
Proteins that have carbs covalently bonded to them.
encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm. double membrane, lined by nuclear lamina.
Bind to the unpaired DNA strands after parental strands separate, keeping them from reconnecting
Heterozygotes who though they don't show any phenotypic affects, could pass the recessive allele on to the next generation
A gene with multiple phenotypic affects

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