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Gamete cells require this, reduces # of sets of chromosomes from 2 to 1 in gametes.
Organism's outward appearance/observable traits
2nd type of life, includes both diploid & haploid stages that are multicellular.
A single individual is the sole parent & passes copies of all its genes to its offspring without the fusion of gametes.
Hollow rods constructed from tubulin, grow in length by adding tubulin dimers.
Alternative versions of a gene
ordered list of genetic loci along a chromosome
Where replication of DNA begins.
When neither allele is completely dominant & their phenotype is a mix between the two alleles (eg. pink flowers from white and red parents)
genetic map based on recombination frequencies
1/3 types of animal cell junction
Tiny complexes that make proteins according to instructions from the genes, all cells have these. Made of RNA and protein.
The initial nucleotide chain that is produced during DNA synthesis is a short stretch of RNA. Starts a complimentary RNA chain so that DNA synthesis can continue.
Multicellular haploid that's named for its production by mitosis of haploid gametes.
States that two alleles of a heritable character segregate from one another during gamete formation & end up with different gametes.
Infoldings of an inner membrane
A warehouse for receiving, sorting, shipping and manufacturing products of the ER.
Breeding an organism with an unknown genotype w/ one with homozygous recessive, in order to determine the genotype of the unknown
A gene's specific location along the length of a chromosome.
Contains most of the genes in the eukaryotic cell.
A gene with multiple phenotypic affects
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Diagram used for predicting the allele composition of offspring
Catalyses the lengthening of telomeres compensating for the shortening during DNA replication.
encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm. double membrane, lined by nuclear lamina.
During Prophase I chromosomes attach to their non-sister chromatid counterparts and exchange DNA segments, doesn't occur in Mitosis.
Display of condensed chromosomes arranged in pairs. Used to screen for defective chromosomes associated with certain congenital disorders.
When subunits run in opposite directions
Site of cellular respiration, metabolic process that uses oxygen to produce ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels.
Proteins built into the plasma membrane. Transmit signals between the ECM and cytoskeleton and indicate changes.
Occurs while replicated homologs are paired during meiosis 1.
1st filial generation
Coded information in the form of hereditary units.
Type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the parental molecule, and one newly made strand.
stacks of thylakoids
Produced by mitotic division of a zygote, multicellular diploid.
Organism that has a pair of identical alleles for a gene
The purpose of meiosis I, reduces the chromosomes in half.
When the two alleles affect the phenotype in seperate, distinguishable ways
Reproductive cells which are the vehicles that transmit genes from one generation to the next.
Specialized structure in the nucleus that consist of chromosomal regions containing rRna genes and ribosomal protein. The site of rRna synthesis and ribosomal subunit assembly.
Outer surface lacks ribosomes. Synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbs, detox of poison, and storage of calcium.
Includes the nuclear envelope, the ER, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, various types of vesicles and vacuoles, and the plasma membrane.
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Bind to the unpaired DNA strands after parental strands separate, keeping them from reconnecting
An offspring whose phenotype differs from that of the true-breeding P generation parents. Also refers to the phenotype itself.
Membrane enclosed structures within eukaryotic cells.
A network of fibers extending through the cytoplasm
Genes located near each other on the same chromosome, they tend to be inherited together
Inside the centrosome, consist of 9 sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring.
Genes located on the X chromosome
fluid outside chloroplast DNA
When one trait is dominant and the other is recessive
Membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that animal cells use to digest macromolecules.
The phenotype for a character most commonly observed in a natural population
Parental generation.
Organism's genetic makeup, outward appearance does not display the full picture
Perforate cell walls. Membrane-line channels filled with cytoplasm.
The lesser condensed form of chromatin that can be transcribed
Family tree describing the traits of parents & children across the generations
aneuploidy involving a missing chromosome
States that each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation
Two chromosomes that have the same length, centromere, position, & staining pattern.
The interior of a cell.
2nd filial generation
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The phenotypic expression of a gene at one locus alters that of a gene at a second locus
2nd compartment of the mitochondrion, enclosed by the inner membrane. contains many different enzymes as well as mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes.
Eukaryotic chromatin that remains highly compact during interphase and is genetically not transcribed
A netlike array of protein filaments that maintain the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope
Contain a single set of chromosomes. Each has a haploid number of chromosomes. Sex cells.
an animal's version of a cell wall. Contains glycoproteins and other carb. molecules/
An additive effect of 2 or more genes on a single phenotype character.
Two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents.
Characters that don't vary categorically (eg. height, skin color)
Large vesicles derived from the ER & golgi apparatus, integral part of cell's endomembrane system.
Protein that breaks, swivels, and rejoins DNA strands. During DNA replication, helps relieve strain in the double helix ahead of rep. fork.
proteins responsible for the first level of DNA packing in chromatin.
Variation in phenotype depending on whether an allele came from the male or the female
A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion
Any cell with 2 chromosome sets, doesn't include sex cells.
When an incorrect segment of nucleotides is incorrect, they're cut out and refilled.
Specialized metabolic compartment bonded by a single membrane. Cooperates with chloroplasts and mitochondrion in certain metabolic functions
When an abnormal gamete unites with a normal gamete, the zygote will also have an abnormal number of a particular chromosome
Larger than microfilaments but shorter than microtubules. Specialize in bearing tension.
Studded with ribosomes on the outer surface of the membrane. Proteins attach to this.
aneuploidy involving an extra/third chromosome
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Catalyses the synthesis of new DNA by adding nucleotides to the preexisting chain.
Synthesizes discontinuously as a series of segments
The inactive X in each cell of a female condenses into a compact object.
One of a family of closely related organelles that includes chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts, photosynthesis.
An mishap in the distribution of chromosomes by the meiotic spindle which the members of homologs dont move apart properly or don't seperate during meiosis II
Genotype that is associated with a range of phenotypic possibilities due to environmental influences
Short appendage used for movement
Many factors including genetics, and the environment collectively affect phenotype
Proteins that have carbs covalently bonded to them.
Mating of two variants.
DNA molecules that contain no genes used to protect organism's genes from cutting too far.
Sacs made of membrane, tiny.
A framework of protein fibres extending throughout the nuclear interior
Only produce the same variety as the parent organism, even over many generations.
X & Y chromosomes. They determine an individual's sex. (Females=XX, Males=XY)
flattened, interconnected sac in chloroplast
Synthesizes completely using just one primer
Exists at the point where a cross-over has occured.
Inside all cells, semifluid, jellylike substance in which all subcellular components are suspended.
Extracellular structure of plant cells. distinguishes them from animal cells. protects plant cells, maintains its shape, and prevents excessive uptake of water.
Organism that has 2 different alleles for a gene
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Enzymes that untwist the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and make them available as template strands.
Solid rods, short, and can for structural networks
Humans have 46. Includes all cells of the body except gametes & their precursors.
Heterozygotes who though they don't show any phenotypic affects, could pass the recessive allele on to the next generation
When an error is missed, other enzymes remove and replace incorrectly paired nucleotides.
A group of genetically identical individuals.
1/3 types of animal cell junction
A gene located on the X chromosome
Complex of DNA and protein, fits into the nucleus through an elaborate, multilevel packing system.
During Prophase I duplicated homologs are connected to each other via the synaptonemal complex. Doesn't occur in Mitosis.
An extensive network of membrane that accounts for more than half the total membrane in many euk. cells.
Each variant for a character of an individual.
All other chromosomes, humans have 46.
Found in plants and algae, sites of photosynthesis
Individual chromosomes that carry genes derived from 2 different parents.
At the ends of replication bubbles, y-shaped region where particular strands of DNA are being unwound
A region often located near the nucleus and is considered a 'microtubule organization center'
At the boundary of every cell. Functions as a selective barrier that allows passage of enough oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service the entire cell.
1/3 types of animal cell junction

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