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Only produce the same variety as the parent organism, even over many generations.
When subunits run in opposite directions
Variation in phenotype depending on whether an allele came from the male or the female
Bind to the unpaired DNA strands after parental strands separate, keeping them from reconnecting
Display of condensed chromosomes arranged in pairs. Used to screen for defective chromosomes associated with certain congenital disorders.
Solid rods, short, and can for structural networks
The inactive X in each cell of a female condenses into a compact object.
States that each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation
Short appendage used for movement
Perforate cell walls. Membrane-line channels filled with cytoplasm.
Where replication of DNA begins.
States that two alleles of a heritable character segregate from one another during gamete formation & end up with different gametes.
genetic map based on recombination frequencies
Organism that has a pair of identical alleles for a gene
Sacs made of membrane, tiny.
Site of cellular respiration, metabolic process that uses oxygen to produce ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels.
Includes the nuclear envelope, the ER, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, various types of vesicles and vacuoles, and the plasma membrane.
Studded with ribosomes on the outer surface of the membrane. Proteins attach to this.
A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion
Complex of DNA and protein, fits into the nucleus through an elaborate, multilevel packing system.
1st filial generation
proteins responsible for the first level of DNA packing in chromatin.
When one trait is dominant and the other is recessive
ordered list of genetic loci along a chromosome
Produced by mitotic division of a zygote, multicellular diploid.
At the ends of replication bubbles, y-shaped region where particular strands of DNA are being unwound
The interior of a cell.
The phenotypic expression of a gene at one locus alters that of a gene at a second locus
A netlike array of protein filaments that maintain the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope
Coded information in the form of hereditary units.
Individual chromosomes that carry genes derived from 2 different parents.
Organism that has 2 different alleles for a gene
During Prophase I duplicated homologs are connected to each other via the synaptonemal complex. Doesn't occur in Mitosis.
Large vesicles derived from the ER & golgi apparatus, integral part of cell's endomembrane system.
flattened, interconnected sac in chloroplast
When neither allele is completely dominant & their phenotype is a mix between the two alleles (eg. pink flowers from white and red parents)
Breeding an organism with an unknown genotype w/ one with homozygous recessive, in order to determine the genotype of the unknown
Contains most of the genes in the eukaryotic cell.
Mating of two variants.
Gamete cells require this, reduces # of sets of chromosomes from 2 to 1 in gametes.
A group of genetically identical individuals.
1/3 types of animal cell junction
The initial nucleotide chain that is produced during DNA synthesis is a short stretch of RNA. Starts a complimentary RNA chain so that DNA synthesis can continue.
The purpose of meiosis I, reduces the chromosomes in half.
Each variant for a character of an individual.
Alternative versions of a gene
Eukaryotic chromatin that remains highly compact during interphase and is genetically not transcribed
Synthesizes discontinuously as a series of segments
aneuploidy involving a missing chromosome
A framework of protein fibres extending throughout the nuclear interior
Heterozygotes who though they don't show any phenotypic affects, could pass the recessive allele on to the next generation
Many factors including genetics, and the environment collectively affect phenotype
Infoldings of an inner membrane
Specialized structure in the nucleus that consist of chromosomal regions containing rRna genes and ribosomal protein. The site of rRna synthesis and ribosomal subunit assembly.
Inside all cells, semifluid, jellylike substance in which all subcellular components are suspended.
Membrane enclosed structures within eukaryotic cells.
Multicellular haploid that's named for its production by mitosis of haploid gametes.
DNA molecules that contain no genes used to protect organism's genes from cutting too far.
Humans have 46. Includes all cells of the body except gametes & their precursors.
Genes located near each other on the same chromosome, they tend to be inherited together
Organism's genetic makeup, outward appearance does not display the full picture
aneuploidy involving an extra/third chromosome
Parental generation.
Specialized metabolic compartment bonded by a single membrane. Cooperates with chloroplasts and mitochondrion in certain metabolic functions
Proteins built into the plasma membrane. Transmit signals between the ECM and cytoskeleton and indicate changes.
A region often located near the nucleus and is considered a 'microtubule organization center'
A single individual is the sole parent & passes copies of all its genes to its offspring without the fusion of gametes.
Characters that don't vary categorically (eg. height, skin color)
Catalyses the synthesis of new DNA by adding nucleotides to the preexisting chain.
Tiny complexes that make proteins according to instructions from the genes, all cells have these. Made of RNA and protein.
When an incorrect segment of nucleotides is incorrect, they're cut out and refilled.
Hollow rods constructed from tubulin, grow in length by adding tubulin dimers.
Exists at the point where a cross-over has occured.
When the two alleles affect the phenotype in seperate, distinguishable ways
Contain a single set of chromosomes. Each has a haploid number of chromosomes. Sex cells.
2nd compartment of the mitochondrion, enclosed by the inner membrane. contains many different enzymes as well as mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes.
A gene located on the X chromosome
A warehouse for receiving, sorting, shipping and manufacturing products of the ER.
A network of fibers extending through the cytoplasm
Two chromosomes that have the same length, centromere, position, & staining pattern.
During Prophase I chromosomes attach to their non-sister chromatid counterparts and exchange DNA segments, doesn't occur in Mitosis.
1/3 types of animal cell junction
Proteins that have carbs covalently bonded to them.
Type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the parental molecule, and one newly made strand.
encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm. double membrane, lined by nuclear lamina.
At the boundary of every cell. Functions as a selective barrier that allows passage of enough oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service the entire cell.
Any cell with 2 chromosome sets, doesn't include sex cells.
A gene with multiple phenotypic affects
Occurs while replicated homologs are paired during meiosis 1.
Extracellular structure of plant cells. distinguishes them from animal cells. protects plant cells, maintains its shape, and prevents excessive uptake of water.
An additive effect of 2 or more genes on a single phenotype character.
Inside the centrosome, consist of 9 sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring.
2nd filial generation
When an abnormal gamete unites with a normal gamete, the zygote will also have an abnormal number of a particular chromosome
Protein that breaks, swivels, and rejoins DNA strands. During DNA replication, helps relieve strain in the double helix ahead of rep. fork.
A gene's specific location along the length of a chromosome.
One of a family of closely related organelles that includes chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts, photosynthesis.
2nd type of life, includes both diploid & haploid stages that are multicellular.
an animal's version of a cell wall. Contains glycoproteins and other carb. molecules/
An offspring whose phenotype differs from that of the true-breeding P generation parents. Also refers to the phenotype itself.
Found in plants and algae, sites of photosynthesis
Enzymes that untwist the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and make them available as template strands.
The phenotype for a character most commonly observed in a natural population
All other chromosomes, humans have 46.
An extensive network of membrane that accounts for more than half the total membrane in many euk. cells.
1/3 types of animal cell junction
Catalyses the lengthening of telomeres compensating for the shortening during DNA replication.
An mishap in the distribution of chromosomes by the meiotic spindle which the members of homologs dont move apart properly or don't seperate during meiosis II
stacks of thylakoids
Organism's outward appearance/observable traits
Family tree describing the traits of parents & children across the generations
Genes located on the X chromosome
When an error is missed, other enzymes remove and replace incorrectly paired nucleotides.
The lesser condensed form of chromatin that can be transcribed
Synthesizes completely using just one primer
Reproductive cells which are the vehicles that transmit genes from one generation to the next.
Genotype that is associated with a range of phenotypic possibilities due to environmental influences
Two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents.
Larger than microfilaments but shorter than microtubules. Specialize in bearing tension.
Membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that animal cells use to digest macromolecules.
Outer surface lacks ribosomes. Synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbs, detox of poison, and storage of calcium.
fluid outside chloroplast DNA
X & Y chromosomes. They determine an individual's sex. (Females=XX, Males=XY)
Diagram used for predicting the allele composition of offspring

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