Language Quiz / Introduction to Formal Logic Final Vocabulary

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Review Chapters 1-26 of Introduction to Formal Logic

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If ~Ex appears on an open path, then we can add this (with any a not already on the path).
When can two quantifiers be switched around?
A wff A is *this* of wff B if A appears anywhere on the construction tree for B.
If a path does not contain a pair of wffs of the form W, ~W then the path is *blank*.
In a tree (A^B) yields:
In a tree (A=B) yields:
In a tree (A --> B) yields:
When the object language expresses various claims, this is called *this*.
In a tree ~~A yields:
The PL wffs A and B are *this* just if, on each valuation of all the atoms occurring in them, A and B take the same value.
The *blank* of two propositions A and B is true when at least one of A and B is true, and is false otherwise.
An inference step is *this* just if, given that its premises are true, then its conclusion is absolutely guaranteed to be true as well.
Positions on a tree are conventionally called what?
If Ax appears on a path, we can add what (if variable c is already on the path)?
An atomic wff of QL is formed from a n-place *blank* followed by n *blank*
A wff that isn't closed is called?
The *blank* of A is the operator introduced at the final step in the construction tree. (In QL)
What does wff stand for?
In a tree ~(AvB) yields:
The *blank* of a non-atomic wff is the connective that is introduce at the final stage of its construction tree.
What means roughly someone/something x is such that ...?
True or false? Any constant can be replaced with a variable and a quantifier to form a new wff.
If a tree has all closed paths, it is called what?
~(A=B)
An occurrence of a variable x in a wff A is *this* iff it is in the scope of some matching quantifier that occurs in A.
A way of forming a complex sentence is *this* if fixing the truth-values of the constituent sentences of the complex sentence is always enough to determine the truth-value.
Arguments with missing premises left to be understood are called *this*.
In a tree ~(A --> B) yields:
What is the name of the logical fallacy of the form 'If A then C; C; then A'?
Nodes in a tree are occupied by what?
HintAnswer
A *blank* of QL is a wff with no free occurrences of variables.
You can instantiate the A quantifier with any name that is what?
The *blank* of a connective in A is the wff on A's construction tree where the connective is introduced.
A wff of PL is a *blank* if it takes the value true on every valuation of its atoms.
What means roughly everyone/everything x is such that ...?
What states that an inference with actually true premises and an actually false conclusion can't be deductively valid?
A set of propositions is *this* if it is logically possible for the propositions all to be true together.
An occurrence of a variable x in a wff A is *this* iff it is not bound.
What is the language in which we conduct the investigation of and discuss what is going on in the object-language?
Some A is/are B translates in QL to:
What is the name of the schema 'If A then C; A; Therefore C'?
In a tree ~(A^B) yields:
A set of PL wffs is *this* if there is at least one possible valuation of the relevant atoms which makes the wffs all true together.
In a conditional of the form 'If A then C' C is the what?
A tree in which all of the wffs have explicit truth values is called what?
QL trees give *what* proofs of validity?
In Propositional Logic (PL), what do the letters P, Q, R, and S stand for?
When the object language is discussed, this is called *this*.
This describes knowing something from prior knowledge
When a chain of argument leads from initial premises to a final conclusion via intermediate inferential steps, which are clearly valid, we will say that the argument is *this*.
All A are B translates in QL to:
What is the term for an argument with the same form of an argument with questionable validity, but is itself invalid?
No A is B translates in QL to:
*This* is an individual constant or individual variable.
You can instantiate the E quantifier with any name that is what?
When an inference is deductively valid, we'll say that the premises do *this* to the conclusion.
In a tree (AvB) yields:
The *blank* of a quantifier in a QL wff is the subformula that starts with that quantifier.
If a tree has an open path it is called what?
Pronouns in QL are called what?
HintAnswer
If ~Ex appears on an open path, then we can exchange it with what (using a, a new variable)?
A wff is a *blank* if it takes the value false on every valuation of its atoms.
In a set of PL wffs, *this* is when there is no possible valuation of the wffs that makes them all true together.
When something must be true in all possible worlds.
A tree in which all of the wffs do not have truth values assigned because they are all assumed to be true is called what?
What is the object of logical studies called?
What is the name of the schema 'If A then C; not C; Therefore not A'?
What is the term for the logical fallacy when you change the quantifier of the derived premise?
Premise wffs do *this* to the conclusion iff there is no valuation of the atoms involved in the premises and the conclusion that makes the premises true and the conclusion false.
If ~Ax appears on a path, it can be written as what (if c is a variable already on the path)?
If a path contains a pair of wffs of the form W, ~W, then the path is *blank*.
An inference step from given premises to a particular conclusion is *this* iff there is no possible situation in which the premises would be true and the conclusion false.
When using a rule to strip off a quantifier, the resulting wff is called a *blank* of that quantified sentence.
The *blank* of two propositions A and B is true when A and B are both true, and is false otherwise.
This describes when a claim is true no matter the meanings of the English words.
When something is true in this world.
In a conditional of the form 'If A then C' A is the what?
The *blank* of two propositions A and B is true when exactly one of A and B is true, and is false otherwise.
A set of propositions is *this* if it is logically impossible for the propositions to be true together.
When premise wffs tautologically entail the conclusion, they also do *this* to the conclusion.
A kind of extrapolation from the past to the future, or more generally from old cases to new cases, is called *this*.
This describes when a claim is true in the meaning of the words.
If Ex appears on an open path, then we can write it as what (for any a not on the path)?
*These* are arguments containing a premise that isn't used in getting to the conclusion.
An argument is *this* just if it has all true premises and the inference from those premises to the conclusion is valid.
A skeletal pattern of an argument is *this*.
The *blank* of a proposition A is is true when A is false and is false exactly when A is true.
The scope of a *blank* is likewise the wff on the construction tree where the connective is introduced.
Symbols followed by a variable are called what?
This describes something that is known without previous experience.

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