Hint | Answer |

A way of forming a complex sentence is *this* if fixing the truth-values of the constituent sentences of the complex sentence is always enough to determine the truth-value. | |

What states that an inference with actually true premises and an actually false conclusion can't be deductively valid? | |

What is the language in which we conduct the investigation of and discuss what is going on in the object-language? | |

When the object language expresses various claims, this is called *this*. | |

If ~Ax appears on a path, it can be written as what (if c is a variable already on the path)? | |

In Propositional Logic (PL), what do the letters P, Q, R, and S stand for? | |

You can instantiate the E quantifier with any name that is what? | |

The *blank* of two propositions A and B is true when exactly one of A and B is true, and is false otherwise. | |

*This* is an individual constant or individual variable. | |

When using a rule to strip off a quantifier, the resulting wff is called a *blank* of that quantified sentence. | |

A wff A is *this* of wff B if A appears anywhere on the construction tree for B. | |

A kind of extrapolation from the past to the future, or more generally from old cases to new cases, is called *this*. | |

Some A is/are B translates in QL to: | |

Pronouns in QL are called what? | |

The *blank* of two propositions A and B is true when at least one of A and B is true, and is false otherwise. | |

If Ax appears on a path, we can add what (if variable c is already on the path)? | |

In a tree ~(A^B) yields: | |

An atomic wff of QL is formed from a n-place *blank* followed by n *blank* | |

In a tree ~(AvB) yields: | |

*These* are arguments containing a premise that isn't used in getting to the conclusion. | |

This describes knowing something from prior knowledge | |

A wff of PL is a *blank* if it takes the value true on every valuation of its atoms. | |

This describes when a claim is true in the meaning of the words. | |

All A are B translates in QL to: | |

The *blank* of a proposition A is is true when A is false and is false exactly when A is true. | |

Premise wffs do *this* to the conclusion iff there is no valuation of the atoms involved in the premises and the conclusion that makes the premises true and the conclusion false. | |

The *blank* of a connective in A is the wff on A's construction tree where the connective is introduced. | |

If ~Ex appears on an open path, then we can exchange it with what (using a, a new variable)? | |

When a chain of argument leads from initial premises to a final conclusion via intermediate inferential steps, which are clearly valid, we will say that the argument is *this*. | |

A tree in which all of the wffs do not have truth values assigned because they are all assumed to be true is called what? | |

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