Science Quiz / Nutrition

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Niacin can be sythesised in the liver from...
Classification of Vitamins: First absorb into Lymph, require protein carriers, are trapped in fat associated cells, less readily excreted and likely reach toxic levels in excess
Vitamin that with deficiency results in Scurvy: resulting in bleeding gums and petechial haemorrhaging.
Biochemical term referring to the amount micronutrient which may be potentially absorbed.
Phospholipids are broken down by Phospholipase into...
Most abundant bodily mineral
Scurvy is the deficiency of...
Mineral deficiency that results in electrochemical imbalances and then muscle weakness (extending to the heart).
8: Triacylgylcerides, fatty acids, phospholipds, prostaglandins, steriods, lipophillic vitamins, waxes and terpenes.
Vitamin most related to eye health
Action of Pancreatic Lipase
In plants, Vitamin K is called...
Vitamin E requirements (based on PUFA intake).
Excess Zn in the body can interfere with metabolism of...
Reference Nutrient Intake for Iodine.
DRV for Vitamin K in adults is an arbitrary...
Menke's disease results in the failure of _______ absorption, leading to mental impairment, hair, skeletal and vascular issues.
How are concentration gradients maintained in the small intestine?
Carbohydrate Atwater factor (Kcal/g) + (Kj/g)
Polyunsaturated Fat uptake is closely related to the uptake of...
Protein Atwater factors (Kcal/g) + (Kj/g).
Vitamin responsible for conversion of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA in Catabolism of propionate.
DRV for Vitamin C
Deficiency = Keshan disease, cardiomyopathy, low enzyme activity.
Excess protein ________ amino acids in the liver, negatively affecting it.
What is PDCAAS? (e.g. 0-1)
Wernickes Encephalopathy is due to excessive _________ consumption while eating _______ quantities.
What does LRNI stand for?
As opposed to SCT and LCT, Medium Chain Trigylcerides are directly transported in the...
What regulates Protein synthesis?
Monounsaturated Fatty Acid consumption guidleines (%TEI)
Why is the Lymphatic system where Chylomicrons enter?
Lipase does what to convert TAGs to MGs and FAs?
Vitamin that can be made in the body when skin is exposed to the sun's UVB rays.
Trace-element: Cofactor for 100+ proteins/enzymes(involved in DNA), Carbohydrate metabolism.
Important for enzymes involved in redox reactions. Important for white & red blood cells and iron metabolism.
What does SI stand for? (level of intake with no deficiency risk)
Riboflavin deficiency is called...
What does DRV stand for?
Built from C,H & O. Atoms arranged in series of 4 rings with side chains.
The actual amount of micronutrient absorbed and available for use by the body's cells.
Simplest Amino acid is...
Polyunsaturated Fatty acids consumption guidleines.
Another term for Vitamin C
Vitamin needed for Ca absorption from foods, immunity and muscle function.
Mineral essential for skeletal development and electrical activity in nerves and muscles.
Trace-element: Regulation of proteins and enzymes
Vitamin A is a generic term used to describe _____________ and similar structures.
Nutrients: Vitamins, Minerals + Electrolytes.
Termination of a meal as result of inhibition of hunger (within a meal)
Fat consumption guidelines (%TEI)
The reaction of proteins with sugars; creating aromatic compounds.
Forms part of Thyroid Hormones
DRV for Vitamin A
Vitamin important for Coagulation.
Changing a Cis-fatty acid to a Trans-fatty acid.
Where do FA enter for storage?
Trace-element: Mineralisation of bones & teeth
Which classification of Vitamins: Directly absorb into blood, travel freely, circulate in water-filled regions, readily excreted and unlikely reach toxic levels in excess
DRV for Vitamin D
% of CHO absorbed
Non-essential nutrients. Play a role in Bodily functions and treatment of disease. Include: Phytochemicals + Antioxidants
Example of a motor protein
Pellagra is a deficiency of _______ that causes: diarrhoea, dermatitis, dementia and death.
Excess protein which cannot be used puts strain on the ______ as they control urea formation.
Minerals required in smaller amounts than the 'minerals' classification
Vitamin which can result in male infertility and low rates of female conception
FAs, glycerol, other lipid products are incorperated into what along the small intestinal wall?
Nutrients: Carboydrates, Fats + Proteins.
Required for bone formation and energy metabolism. A constituent of an antioxidant enzyme - helps prevent free radical mediated damage to cells.
CH3–(CH2 )16 COOH
Vitamins B & C
Chronic Beriberi relates to the...
The amount of Oxygen required to burn 1 Kcal.
Amino Acids that cant be made from other amino acids; must be from diet.
Fat Atwater factors (Kcal/g) + (Kj/g).
:90-95% of total dietary fat
Which two Fatty Acids move immediately into circulation from the small intestine?
Metabolism of ALA produces...
Marasmus is _______ deficiency
The softening of bones caused by defective bone mineralisation secondary to inadequate amounts of available phosphorus and calcium.
How many Carbon atoms in Medium Chain Triglycerides?
Use of Hydrogenation by Food manufacturers.
Structure of Cell membranes & lipoproteins
Toxic levels of Fluoride. (lead to mottled tooth enamel and joint pain, stiffness)
Gives a bent fatty acid: often an oil at RT.
What percentage of dietary energy should not be exceeded by free sugars?
Where can Vitamin A be obtained from?
Severe deficiency causes dwarfism and hypogonadism.
Breakdown of AAs into waste products & energy
Group of compounds that don't readily dissolve in water.
Disease characterised by Insulin resistance
Small, Nucleophillic, Hydrophobic, Aromatic, Acidic, Amide & Basic (SHANABA
Protein Quality is determined by...
Important role in Carbohydrate and Lipid metabolism, enhance insulin activity in those who are deficient.
What does EAR stand for?
1g Long chain fatty acids = (up to)...
Trace- element that regulates physical and mental development.
Mineral that contributes to acid/base balance and cell electrical conductivity.
Pellagra is the deficiency of...
1g Glucose equals how many Kcal?
Adjacent bonds of protein side chains or the end of peptide chains are attacked by...
Deficiency symptoms such as Goitre, mental retardation, cretinism are from the lack of...
% of Protein absorbed
Vitamin A,D,E & K are examples of...
Guidelines of Trans-fat consumption (%TEI)
Substance with functions such as: Blood formation, AA synthesis, Homocysteine metabolism
Nutrients: Vitamins, Minerals + Water.
Its deficiency leads to muscle weakness, neuromuscular and cardiac problems
1g Medium chain fatty acids =
Vitamin: converts Pyruvate to acetyl CoA, converts α-ketoglutarate to succinyl CoA, is needed in transketolase reactions + in catabolism of branched AA(leu, isoleu, val(ine))
Acute Breiberi relates to...
Final digestion of protein is completed by ________ and ________ in the ________ of the small intestine.
Vitamin: important in immune response, a powerful antioxidant and easily destroyed by heat, light and extreme pH.
Haem and non-haem are both sources of...
Inhibition of hunger and appetite post meal (between meal)
What substance neutralises Stomach acid?
Obligatory energy expenditure
What can either be Aliphatic or Aromatic?
Action of Bile on Fats
Process of converting non-essential AAs from one to another.
Which organ destroys old blood cells?
Alpha-linolenic acid + Linoleic acid
Metabolism of LA produces
Aliphatic means...
Adipose tissue within and around the organs in thoracic and abdominal cavities.
Kwashiorkor is ______ deficiency
What catalyses the conversion of TAG to FAs and glyccerol?
Deficiency of which leads to Lipid peroxidation, reduced red blood cell survival.
What do Short and Medium Chain FA bind to when transporting into circulation?
What ultimate molecule passes into circulation from fat digestion?
Monosaccharides and Disaccharides added to foods + sugars naturally present in syrups, honey, fruit juices + 50% of sugars in dried/ canned fruit.
Amount of recommended dietary energy from protein.
When TAGs are reformed in digestion, they are packed by proteins with other lipids into...
Alcohol requires _______ for metabolism and alcohol does not contain it. If ____ deficiency is also aparent, Wernickes Encephalopathy follows.
Vitamin in which its deficiency results in bleeding (due to missing pro-coagulant factors),
Mineral important for fluid balance maintenance and acid/ base balance. Also contributes towards hypertension.
Vitamin D adequacy, Ca deficiency, Phosphorus decifiency, Pregnancy. What mineral absorption does this facilitate?
Mineral of which blood loss is its only excretion.
Tocopherols and Tocotrienols are referred to as...
Mineral absorbed in the intestine from food and stored in the kidneys.
WHO guidelines of weekly moderate-intensity physical activity for 18-64 yr olds.
Aromatic means...
Mineral bound and transported in the body via transferrin and stored in ferritin molecules.
Deamination forms _____ which leaves the body in ______.
Long-Chained Fatty Acids enter cells via passive and facilitated diffusion by transporters such as...
Generic term for related compunds that have activity in preventing pellegra.
Vitamin E has a close relationship with (x) . When (x) levels rise, circulating Vitamin E does also.
How many joules in 1 calorie?
2 forms of Niacin:
Mineral deficiency that results in anaemia.
% of Fat absorbed
Which organ Stores and concentrates Bile?
Sugars naturally incorporated into cellular structure of foods or in milk.
:Storage(fuel reserve), Structure(biological membrane), Metabolic(energy provision + steroid and bile synthesis), Transport(absorption of fat soluble vitamins)
Vitamin associated with the neutralisation of free radicals.
Two forms of Vitamin D.
Gives a straight fatty acid: often solid at RT.
Vitamin _ is needed by the retina of the eye in the form of _____, which combines with the protein ____ to form the light-absorbing molecule, __________
Intake of Chromium/ day
Beriberi is the deficiency of...
Deficiency results in impaired glucose tolerance
Alcohol Atwater factors (Kcal/g) + (Kj/g).
Protein degradation is regulated by...
Undernutrition is characterised by a BMI of...
Main site of Lipid Digestion.
Fat-soluble and Water soluble are the two classifications of...
What does RNI stand for?
Guidelines of Saturated fat consumption (%TEI)
Vitamin important for oxidative processes.
Conversion of TAG to monoglycerides and 2 x Fatty Acids is caused by which enzyme?
What is the term that means a sense of fullness?
Excess ______ causes brittle nails/hair, skin lesions and garlic breathe odur.
1g Starch equals how many Kcal?
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Created Dec 11, 2018ReportNominate

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