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What regulates Protein synthesis?
Pellagra is a deficiency of _______ that causes: diarrhoea, dermatitis, dementia and death.
Vitamin D adequacy, Ca deficiency, Phosphorus decifiency, Pregnancy. What mineral absorption does this facilitate?
Vitamin A,D,E & K are examples of...
Vitamin important for oxidative processes.
The softening of bones caused by defective bone mineralisation secondary to inadequate amounts of available phosphorus and calcium.
Gives a straight fatty acid: often solid at RT.
Vitamin needed for Ca absorption from foods, immunity and muscle function.
Niacin can be sythesised in the liver from...
Mineral deficiency that results in anaemia.
What does LRNI stand for?
Trace- element that regulates physical and mental development.
Mineral of which blood loss is its only excretion.
What is PDCAAS? (e.g. 0-1)
Metabolism of ALA produces...
Riboflavin deficiency is called...
Vitamin: important in immune response, a powerful antioxidant and easily destroyed by heat, light and extreme pH.
Intake of Chromium/ day
Scurvy is the deficiency of...
Changing a Cis-fatty acid to a Trans-fatty acid.
Excess ______ causes brittle nails/hair, skin lesions and garlic breathe odur.
Trace-element: Cofactor for 100+ proteins/enzymes(involved in DNA), Carbohydrate metabolism.
Kwashiorkor is ______ deficiency
Example of a motor protein
Most abundant bodily mineral
Vitamin responsible for conversion of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA in Catabolism of propionate.
How are concentration gradients maintained in the small intestine?
The actual amount of micronutrient absorbed and available for use by the body's cells.
Required for bone formation and energy metabolism. A constituent of an antioxidant enzyme - helps prevent free radical mediated damage to cells.
The amount of Oxygen required to burn 1 Kcal.
Haem and non-haem are both sources of...
Obligatory energy expenditure
Group of compounds that don't readily dissolve in water.
Why is the Lymphatic system where Chylomicrons enter?
Conversion of TAG to monoglycerides and 2 x Fatty Acids is caused by which enzyme?
Important role in Carbohydrate and Lipid metabolism, enhance insulin activity in those who are deficient.
Which organ destroys old blood cells?
Another term for Vitamin C
What does RNI stand for?
1g Medium chain fatty acids =
Protein degradation is regulated by...
Mineral important for fluid balance maintenance and acid/ base balance. Also contributes towards hypertension.
What does DRV stand for?
Lipase does what to convert TAGs to MGs and FAs?
What does EAR stand for?
In plants, Vitamin K is called...
FAs, glycerol, other lipid products are incorperated into what along the small intestinal wall?
Nutrients: Carboydrates, Fats + Proteins.
% of Protein absorbed
Vitamins B & C
Final digestion of protein is completed by ________ and ________ in the ________ of the small intestine.
1g Long chain fatty acids = (up to)...
Excess protein which cannot be used puts strain on the ______ as they control urea formation.
Action of Bile on Fats
Vitamin in which its deficiency results in bleeding (due to missing pro-coagulant factors),
Beriberi is the deficiency of...
Mineral that contributes to acid/base balance and cell electrical conductivity.
Minerals required in smaller amounts than the 'minerals' classification
Two forms of Vitamin D.
What percentage of dietary energy should not be exceeded by free sugars?
Deficiency = Keshan disease, cardiomyopathy, low enzyme activity.
What substance neutralises Stomach acid?
Disease characterised by Insulin resistance
Adjacent bonds of protein side chains or the end of peptide chains are attacked by...
As opposed to SCT and LCT, Medium Chain Trigylcerides are directly transported in the...
Adipose tissue within and around the organs in thoracic and abdominal cavities.
When TAGs are reformed in digestion, they are packed by proteins with other lipids into...
Which classification of Vitamins: Directly absorb into blood, travel freely, circulate in water-filled regions, readily excreted and unlikely reach toxic levels in excess
Vitamin A is a generic term used to describe _____________ and similar structures.
Vitamin _ is needed by the retina of the eye in the form of _____, which combines with the protein ____ to form the light-absorbing molecule, __________
Alcohol Atwater factors (Kcal/g) + (Kj/g).
Vitamin associated with the neutralisation of free radicals.
Which organ Stores and concentrates Bile?
Vitamin that can be made in the body when skin is exposed to the sun's UVB rays.
8: Triacylgylcerides, fatty acids, phospholipds, prostaglandins, steriods, lipophillic vitamins, waxes and terpenes.
Polyunsaturated Fat uptake is closely related to the uptake of...
Deficiency results in impaired glucose tolerance
DRV for Vitamin D
Guidelines of Saturated fat consumption (%TEI)
Fat consumption guidelines (%TEI)
Undernutrition is characterised by a BMI of...
Biochemical term referring to the amount micronutrient which may be potentially absorbed.
:Storage(fuel reserve), Structure(biological membrane), Metabolic(energy provision + steroid and bile synthesis), Transport(absorption of fat soluble vitamins)
The reaction of proteins with sugars; creating aromatic compounds.
Use of Hydrogenation by Food manufacturers.
Sugars naturally incorporated into cellular structure of foods or in milk.
Long-Chained Fatty Acids enter cells via passive and facilitated diffusion by transporters such as...
Vitamin E has a close relationship with (x) . When (x) levels rise, circulating Vitamin E does also.
Amino Acids that cant be made from other amino acids; must be from diet.
DRV for Vitamin A
Alcohol requires _______ for metabolism and alcohol does not contain it. If ____ deficiency is also aparent, Wernickes Encephalopathy follows.
Excess protein ________ amino acids in the liver, negatively affecting it.
Process of converting non-essential AAs from one to another.
:90-95% of total dietary fat
Vitamin E requirements (based on PUFA intake).
DRV for Vitamin K in adults is an arbitrary...
Action of Pancreatic Lipase
What does SI stand for? (level of intake with no deficiency risk)
Menke's disease results in the failure of _______ absorption, leading to mental impairment, hair, skeletal and vascular issues.
1g Starch equals how many Kcal?
Toxic levels of Fluoride. (lead to mottled tooth enamel and joint pain, stiffness)
Fat Atwater factors (Kcal/g) + (Kj/g).
Vitamin that with deficiency results in Scurvy: resulting in bleeding gums and petechial haemorrhaging.
Breakdown of AAs into waste products & energy
CH3–(CH2 )16 COOH
What do Short and Medium Chain FA bind to when transporting into circulation?
Mineral essential for skeletal development and electrical activity in nerves and muscles.
Small, Nucleophillic, Hydrophobic, Aromatic, Acidic, Amide & Basic (SHANABA
Its deficiency leads to muscle weakness, neuromuscular and cardiac problems
2 forms of Niacin:
Nutrients: Vitamins, Minerals + Electrolytes.
Classification of Vitamins: First absorb into Lymph, require protein carriers, are trapped in fat associated cells, less readily excreted and likely reach toxic levels in excess
Protein Atwater factors (Kcal/g) + (Kj/g).
Non-essential nutrients. Play a role in Bodily functions and treatment of disease. Include: Phytochemicals + Antioxidants
Main site of Lipid Digestion.
% of Fat absorbed
Forms part of Thyroid Hormones
Protein Quality is determined by...
Aliphatic means...
Generic term for related compunds that have activity in preventing pellegra.
Trace-element: Mineralisation of bones & teeth
Nutrients: Vitamins, Minerals + Water.
What is the term that means a sense of fullness?
DRV for Vitamin C
Reference Nutrient Intake for Iodine.
Alpha-linolenic acid + Linoleic acid
What ultimate molecule passes into circulation from fat digestion?
Carbohydrate Atwater factor (Kcal/g) + (Kj/g)
Which two Fatty Acids move immediately into circulation from the small intestine?
Deficiency symptoms such as Goitre, mental retardation, cretinism are from the lack of...
Vitamin: converts Pyruvate to acetyl CoA, converts α-ketoglutarate to succinyl CoA, is needed in transketolase reactions + in catabolism of branched AA(leu, isoleu, val(ine))
Important for enzymes involved in redox reactions. Important for white & red blood cells and iron metabolism.
Vitamin which can result in male infertility and low rates of female conception
% of CHO absorbed
Mineral bound and transported in the body via transferrin and stored in ferritin molecules.
Chronic Beriberi relates to the...
Phospholipids are broken down by Phospholipase into...
Where can Vitamin A be obtained from?
Amount of recommended dietary energy from protein.
Trace-element: Regulation of proteins and enzymes
Deficiency of which leads to Lipid peroxidation, reduced red blood cell survival.
Severe deficiency causes dwarfism and hypogonadism.
Simplest Amino acid is...
What can either be Aliphatic or Aromatic?
Inhibition of hunger and appetite post meal (between meal)
Substance with functions such as: Blood formation, AA synthesis, Homocysteine metabolism
Monosaccharides and Disaccharides added to foods + sugars naturally present in syrups, honey, fruit juices + 50% of sugars in dried/ canned fruit.
Vitamin most related to eye health
What catalyses the conversion of TAG to FAs and glyccerol?
Marasmus is _______ deficiency
Monounsaturated Fatty Acid consumption guidleines (%TEI)
Wernickes Encephalopathy is due to excessive _________ consumption while eating _______ quantities.
Built from C,H & O. Atoms arranged in series of 4 rings with side chains.
Structure of Cell membranes & lipoproteins
Aromatic means...
WHO guidelines of weekly moderate-intensity physical activity for 18-64 yr olds.
Mineral deficiency that results in electrochemical imbalances and then muscle weakness (extending to the heart).
Vitamin important for Coagulation.
How many Carbon atoms in Medium Chain Triglycerides?
Where do FA enter for storage?
Tocopherols and Tocotrienols are referred to as...
Fat-soluble and Water soluble are the two classifications of...
Polyunsaturated Fatty acids consumption guidleines.
Gives a bent fatty acid: often an oil at RT.
Excess Zn in the body can interfere with metabolism of...
Metabolism of LA produces
Guidelines of Trans-fat consumption (%TEI)
Termination of a meal as result of inhibition of hunger (within a meal)
How many joules in 1 calorie?
Acute Breiberi relates to...
1g Glucose equals how many Kcal?
Deamination forms _____ which leaves the body in ______.
Pellagra is the deficiency of...
Mineral absorbed in the intestine from food and stored in the kidneys.

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