Science Quiz / Biomechanics No 2 -19th dec 2019

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Biomechanics

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HintAnswer
Complex network of neurons which allow the generation of movements at a spinal level
...... ....... carry signals from the CNS towards the muscle.
Frequency domain: plotted against ......
Response depends on direction of load application
 
Fusiform: (HSC, LSR)
Brain region: responsible for execution of movements
Includes both varieties of pennate muscle
the perpendicular distance from the line of action to the pivot joint
The greater the angle of attachment, the .... the force needed to move the lever
Skin preperation for EMG: shave and wipe with alcohol - reduces ........ between electrical signal from .... and the .....
Ability of a muscle to respond to stimulation
Theory:movement patterns emerge as a function of constraints placed upon it and degrees of freedom self-organise into a functional unit (dynamical systems theory)
Muscle that originates off one side of tendon (Semimebranosus)
:Only measures superficial muscles
Movement artefact for EMG: wired systems require to be constantly ...... so movement is ........
Motor unit is formed by the ........ ....... and the ...... it innervates
Frequency domain: EMG is comprised of ....... curves with different frequencies
muscle characteristic: allows stretch (fascia surrounding muscle, titin and nebulin in sarcomeres)
For the same task, a fatigued muscle EMG will have: a ......... EMG amplitude and a .........median frequency
the time lag between muscle activation and muscle force production
Bones do not deform more than ....%
:Measures deeper muscles and in greater detail
(Muscles causing loading on bone) Collagen arranges itself in line with tension produced by muscles - can produce a ......... or .......
Reflex arc: ........ neuron, ....... cord, ............, ........ neuron, effector
Normalisation methods: ..... ...... ..... and .......... ........
Tendon stress-strain response
Collagen fascicles surrounded by a capsule
........... EMG can measure activity of individual motor units
The distribution of mass relative to axis of rotation
converts a signal from its original domain (often time) to a representation in the frequency domain
Bandpass filter: removes frequencies above ..... Hz and below .... Hz
Hyaline contains: (C,P)
Root mean square: Within a specified ...... .......
Golgi tendon organs send afferent signals to spinal cord following the detection of high tension. Efferent signals modulate .......
muscle characteristic: converts stimulation into force
Sensory information: local location and orientation, position and interaction of body relative to itself and external environment
HintAnswer
EMG considerations: (MA, SF)
EMG considerations: (EP, SP)
prioprioceptor between muscle and tendon
(Bone) response to increased stress, osteoblasts dominate
Plyometrics facilitates neural input by increasing ......... ....... ........
When all is equal, a more compliant tendon will require a .... amount of filament sliding before external force is generated
muscle characteristic: transfers muscle force to bone (mostly tendon)
Muscle force production, regulated by: (MUR, MUFR)
Signals carried away from the CNS
Brain region: Stability and coordination
Theory: A coordinated group of muscles with specific activation balances or specific activation waveforms
Concept:Lower force and neural input for individual muscles from bilateral training
Neural adaptations to training: increased: (MNFR, MUS)
penniform muscles have ........ speed of contraction to fusiform muscles, ............ strength and ......... range of shortening
Characterised by the reorganisation and restructuring of the brain cells
How much activation there is in a given time and activation timing
EMG assessing sport: (CA, MC)
The greater the moment arm, the .... the torque for the same force
Sensory information: global orientation - our whereabouts relative to gravity
Muscle of which force is in the same direction as musculature
average decrease in length for a muscle contracting
Muscle spindles modulate muscle ........
Inelastic bundle of collagen fibres
All fibres innervated by the same motor neuron are of the same ......
Expressing EMG values as percentage of some repeatable/ standardised EMG value
type II fibres have a faster pre-stretch due to
Ratio of anatomical cross section: Physiological cross section (Fusiform muscle)
Tendon characteristics: (TMF, PF, WTL)
Intrafusal fibres help monitor .... ...... (activated by alpha motor neurones)
Ability of a muscle to shorten when receiving sufficient stimulation
Ability of a muscle to return to resting length after being stretched
integrated EMG: the larger the area under the curve means
The measure of electrical activity of contractile stimulus
Cancellous bone has ....... strength
Hamstring: quadriceps ratio: lower ratio is associated with higher ....... .......
Response depends on rate and duration of loading
electrode placement for EMG: placed so electrodes are ..... to fibre direction and not picking up activity of ......... .......
HintAnswer
Strengthened synapses are ........ to activate (hold a .... threshold)
EMG assessing sport: (MAS, AT)
Muscle with PCS>ACS
..... are more effective a hip flexor then knee flexor
Cortical bone has ...... strength
Neural adaptations to training: increased: (NF, IoA)
Type of loading: Twisting force
Muscle immobilisation causes the disorganisation of ..........
Golgi tendon O: direct connection to ...... fibres, thus ....... sensitive to muscle ....... than ........
sampling frequency for EMG: frequency that data is collected at should be no less than ........ Hz (some as high as ....... Hz)
Frequency domain: Median frequency is the frequency that divides the ........ ..... into 2 regions of equal power
Sheath of fibrous tissue, looks like a flat tendon
Brain region: Controls (primarily) trunk muscles
includes the quick lengthening of a muscle before contraction to generate greater force than contraction alone
EMG assessing injury: (MCP, II)
Model of muscle: C, PE, SE
the storage of elastic energy in muscles helps modulate
Change made if muscle is required to produce the same force when fatigued
Generation of new neurons
Brain region: Integrates sensory information and modulates output
....... is more effective a knee extender than hip flexor
Difficulty to interpret the relationship between EMG and muscle force: (C-T, C, FC, SMA)
If performance of movement is continuously analysed and corrected
Torque =
Activation of a set of instructions leads to a specific movement (schema)
Ability of a muscle to stretch/lengthen beyond resting length
EMG processing(Time domain): requires ..... of values and .......
Root mean squared (method): ......... each value, calculate the ......., then take the ...... .....
If motor instruction contains all the info needed to perform a movement (feedback is not used)
Torque (N⋅m) =
Integrated EMG (method): ...... the change in EMG value by the ... ...... EMG values
EMG signal processing: a ..... ....... ........ is performed on raw data, then perform a ........... filter
Type of loading: Pulls on ends
EMG processing (Frequency domain): Requires use of ..... frequency and ...... frequency.
EMG data: either extracted in ..... domain or ....... domain
Muscle that originates off both sides of tendon (e.g. gastrocnemius)

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Created Dec 18, 2019ReportNominate
Tags:2019

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