History Quiz / Prehispanic Civilizations

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Can you name the Prehispanic Civilizations?

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DescriptionCivilization
They are known for the construction of a religious complex named Cahokia, with earth-mound structures.
They were reportedly the first American Indians met by Greenland Norsemen in the XIII century.
They built towns with complex apartments made with adobe & stone. They are named after the Spanish word for 'town'.
They held a 40-year war against Spanish settlers using small raids & guerrilla warfare, until the Spanish sought peace.
Under King Tzomé, they won the Salt War against local enemies & defeated 3 Spanish invasion attempts.
Known for their circular plazas & conical step pyramids, like that of Huachimontones.
With their capital at Tzintzuntzan, they formed the second largest Mesoamerican state with their leaders named 'cazonci'.
They were the main allies of the Spanish conquerors' wars against Mesoamerican states.
They founded an Empire, result of a triple alliance between Tenochtitlan, Texcoco & Tlacopan against the rising power of Azcapotzalco.
DescriptionCivilization
Peoples from South-America's Caribbean coast, they eventually allied with Spain against other European Powers.
Known for their cannibalistic practices & bellicosity, they settled in the Caribbean Lesser Antilles.
They were among the first native inhabitants encountered by Christopher Columbus in Hispaniola, to which they called 'Ayiti', from which 'Haiti' is derived.
They are renowed for their goldwork, mainly those known as 'caciques'. They attacked Spanish new settlements (Santa Marta, Bonhida) several times, until they were defeated.
A civilization that grew around Lake Titcaca, it became an empire but theories state that climate changes & droughts could have caused it's decline between 950 & 1000 AD.
It was one of the 2 most important civilizations in the Middle Horizon period in South-America, being disestablished in 1000 AD.
Their main archeological site is in Tula, Mexico; & it is famous for it's Atlantean statues.
They are known for their ceramic figures with smiling faces & for the 'dance of flyers' ceremony, yet celebrated today.
Their greatest ruler, Eight-Deer-Jaguar-Claw achieved the conquest of around 100 neighbouring chiefdoms, but was sacrificed after defeat by rebel chiefs.
DescriptionCivilization
They founded Monte Albán, one of the most important precolumbian cities in Oaxaca, Mexico. Their main deity was Xipe Totec: major god, creator & god of the Sun.
Their colonial books 'Popol Vuh' & 'Chilam Balam' describe their conceptions of the creation of the universe.
Their culture flourished in the centres San Lorenzo, La Venta & Tres Zapotes. They left as main legacy several giant head-shaped stone sculptures.
It was a ceremonial centre, in which the Pyramid of the Sun, the Pyramid of the Moon & the Avenue of the Death.
Called 'foreigners', they were established in the surroundings of Yucatan Peninsula, having as cities Potonchan & Itzamkanar.
Their heroes Caupolican, Lautaro & Galvarino fought against the Spanish. The latter attached knives to his severed hands.
A culture from Costa Rica, they are thought to have built about 300 perfectly rounded stones spheres.
They formed a confederacy & their architectural complexes consisted of circular houses around a central market square & the chief's house.
With their capital at Cuzco, their state -Tawantinsuyo- & their strategic complexes in Machu Pichu, Ollantaytambo & Pisac, this was probably the most advanced empire in America.

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