Science Quiz / Natural Disasters 2

Random Science or Definition Quiz

Can you name the Natural Disasters ?

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Type of avalanche: develops due to partial melting of snow. Freezing and thawing at depth can develop weak depth hoar layers allowing overlying snow to glide across the surface. Th
Fujita scale rating: when land is basically flattened out
An extraterrestrial fragment that survives passage through the atmosphere to reach Earth's surface
Low pressure centres can develop as warm, moist air to the south moves more rapidly to the east than cold, dry air to the north. That shear between air masses can initiate a low pr
A mass of ice, frozen methane, and some rock material travelling at a high velocity in the gravitational field of the sun, but travelling outside our solar system before passing th
Cyclic variation in pressure regimes influencing northern Atlantic environment and communities, phases are defined by pressure differentials between the Icelandic Low and Azores Hi
Gives wood its stiffness. Burns by glowing combustion rather than bursting into flame. Oak is high in this component.
Involves deviations from a constant mean value (random or cyclic variation) but does not necessarily invovle a change in climate over a 30-year or longer time period
Tree adpated to fire. Spongy bark does not burn.
Fires burn up slopes more rapidly due to ____________ carrying heat upwards toward the unburnt forest
Type of Fire: creep along under ground surface, little flaming, more smoldering
Advancing warm air rises slowly over the adjacent cooler air mass associated with widespread cloud with moderate, steady precipitation
Issued when thunderstorms are capable of producing tornaodes
Hydrogen gas molecules emitted by the sun, which carry energy toward Earth
Develops when precipitation falls through layers of the atmosphere with different temperatures. If particle falls through warm air nearby but not at the ground, partial melting and
Scale based on wind speed thresholds and linked to their associated damage
Measure of how much insolation is directly reflected. White surfaces have very high values.
A general term for extraterrestrial objects, including both asteroids and comets
index used for estimating water available for plants (soil-water budget), compares and estiamtes soil-water budget to average conditions
Results from a strong separation of charge that builds up between the top and bottom of cumulonimbus clouds
Include resins, fats, oils and terpenes. Tend to flame suddenly when exposed to heat.
A stream of charged particles from the sun
Wildfire phase: fuel achieves temperature and humidity favorable to ignition
Compares precipitation at a site to historical records as accumulated over a period of time (usually several months)
Configuration/stage of cyclogenesis, the cold front moves more rapidly than the warm front and begins to overtake it
Form when there is shear in wind directions. Shear creates a roll of horizontal currents. These currents are dragged into a vertical rotation axis by updrafts to form a rotation
extreme winter storms: sustained wind speeds greater than 40km/h, visibility less than 1km and wind chills equivalent to -25 degrees celsius
biological and physical signatures that result from climate conditions taht can be used as proxies for past climate
Process of preignition: processes that chemically degrade fuel, products included volatile gases, mineral ash, tar, etc.
drought that considers the impacts water supply on plant growth.
The long-term statistical average of weather conditions. Assessed using at least 30 years of data.
Fujita scale rating: when roof tiles are missing, lots of debris, buildings still intact
The level of concentration of a substance under natural conditions
Type of combustion: takes place in lower temperatures, does not require pyrolysis for growth
___________ are caused by scattering of insolation of dust and gas molecules, scattering shorter wave lengths of visible light
Occur when the low atompsheric pressure over an area of a major storm permits the sea surface to rise
Minimum wind speeds of 40km/h. Convective spiral and rotation develops as warm air spirals upward. Decreasing pressure at the surface increases wind speed and subsequent evaporatio
Kills 1-3 million people annually. Spread by several species of mosquitoes. Caused by 4 species of the protozan plasmodium which lives as a parasite in gut of female mosquito. Plas
percent of fires caused by humans in Canada
Type of Fire: move along surface, vary in intensity, burn slowly with smoldering, limited flaming
Type of avalanche: involve the movement of powdery or granular snow forming loose, turbulent flows down slopes of 20-40 degrees. Power avalanches move rapidly (60 to 200km/hr). Com
Wildfire phase: point at which combustion ceases, there is no longer heat and fuel to sustain fire
Thunderstorms developed in a zone of convergence. Condensation and release of latent heat continues to warm air. (Stage in Tropical Cyclone formation)
Favourable conditions for tornado development occurs when two fronts collide in a strong low pressure centre. This can be recognized as a ____ _____ of heavy rain on weather radar
Results when hot air rises over an area of low pressure. Can also result when heating occurs during the day. (Result, condensation altitude which can produce rain)
Severe natural hazard in many areas of the world often accompanied by famine and starvation. Often called a 'creeping' phenomena because its arrival is not recognized until conditi
Scale that measures the risk posed by near Earth objects
Analysis of annual tree rings and their variation. The tree's annual growth is recorded in growth rings.
Tree well adapted to fire, heat of fire opens their cones liberating the seeds
Inhalation of large quantities of dust in a dust storm can result in...
A small solid rock body orbiting the sun in the same way that Earth orbits the sun
Scale used to categorize tropical cyclones on the basis of maximum sustained wind speed and barometric pressure
Radiation that moves with the speed of light
Refers to the day-to-day changes in atmospheric conditions: temperature, precipitation
High concentrations of ______ are poisonous and lower concentrations can cause skin cancer and melanosis. Can dissolve readily in groundwater and move long distances from its sourc
Thunders torms that develop as aresult of local conditions that generate convection and are usually not associated with weather fronts. Last for short periods sand are less than 2k
Stream of energized charged particles (a plasma) produced by the sun
Type of combustion: dominates early fire, rapid high temperature conversion of fuel into heat, characterized by flames and large amount of unburned material
Deformed conical structure formed by meteorite impact
Occurs as the smaller upward-moving particles tend to carry positive charges while the large downward-moving particles carry negative charges. Thus the top of the cloud carries a p
Wildfire phase: begins with ignition, external reactions liberate heat and light (lightning, volcanic activity, human action), sufficient fuel present will lead to wildfires upon i
Formed by the rapidly descending mass of cold air from a thunderstorm. Major threat to aircraft as it results in wind shear, which reduces lift.
An important water source for groundwater recharge, insulates soil reducing frost penetration, important component of the Earth's radiation budget due to its high albedo
Process of preignition: fuel loses water and other chemical compounds
Area extending more than 15 trillion kilometres beyond the sun, containing many comets
Issued if a tornado is spotted or Doppler radar shows signs of rotation
Droplets of molten rock (glass) that may have formed by superheated splash from a hypervelocity impact of a meteorite on either the moon or earth
A strong extratropical winter storm that moves up t he east coast of North America with high winds and high waves. These can be as damaging as hurricanes.
A large extraterrestrial body that heats to a white hot incandescence when it streaks through Earth's atmosphere
Invovles sshift in long-term conditions
For dry air, the cooling rate is _____ degrees celsius for every 1000m.
An asteroid that passes through Earth's orbit around the sun
When conditions for freezing rain persist for over ap eriod of hours to days, the events are classified as ice storms or _________
Thunderstorm that invovles strong rotational motion of the upward moving air. Storm develops where the wind direction near the surface differs from that higher in the troposphere.
Cold air rapidly displaces relatively warm air as it advances. Heavy precipitation results along a narrow band.
Controlled burns to manage forest, reduces fuel for more catastrophic fires, necessary to predict the behaviour of fire and control it
percent of fires caused by lightning in Canada
drought indicated by dropping water level in reservoir, rivers and lakes
Tropical storm with sustained wind speeds exceeding 119km/h.
A crater of impact structure on Earth, formed by the impact of an extraterrestial object
Minimum wind speeds of 62km/h, Eye forms as warm air from the high-pressure aloft is sucked down into the centre
Incubation period of 3-6 days. Symptoms: fever, muscle pain, backache, headache, vomiting. 85% victims recover after first phase. Victims can develop a toxic phase w/ jaundice, int
A virulent hantavirus that kills approximately 45% of infected people. Victim contracted virus by coming in contact with deer mouse droppings and saliva.
Type of avalanche: involve detachment of blocks of snow. Contain greater volume of snow and greater probability for burial.
Occurs when rising air cools as it expands without change in heat content.
Unconsolidated deposit of partially decayed wood, leaves or moss
Configuration/Stage of cyclogenesis, occurs when the cold front overtakes the warm front. The warm front has been cut off by the cold front. Once this stage happens, the system wil
incoming solar radiation (depends on distance to sun, composition of the atmosphere)
The saturated adiabatic lapse rate is less than the dry adiabatic lapse rate due to the release of _____ ____ during condensation.
Originates in the area from Egypt to Iran. First detected in the US in 1999. Virus can cause encephalitis or meningitis.
Type of Fire: flaming is carried via tree canopies, driven by strong winds and steep slopes
When to different air masses meet up (different pressure or different wind or different jet stream), you are more than likely to form a ______ _______
Fujita scale rating: when buildings reasonably intact, roofs gone

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