Science Quiz / Natural Disasters

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Natural & Human Created Hazard (floods, droughts, wildland fires, weather phenomena, landslides)
Measured volume of water flowing past a cross section of river in a given amount of time (Q = vA)
Boundary where plates slide past each other
Part of lithosphere: silica-rich, lower density, thicker crust
The attraction between small soil particles that is provided by the surface tension of water between the particles
The degree to which a person, community or system is adversely affected by a hazard (Exposure + Sensitivity)
Karst-like landscape in permafrost terrain caused by melting of thermofrost under increasing temperatures
Type of collision that forms oceanic island arc of basaltic volcanoes
Theory by Alfred Wegner (1912)
A flow involving movement of broken rock, with little sand or mud, and particle-particle contact; usually developed in gravel or sand
Flat-topped volcano formed by an eruption under a glacier
A fan shaped deposit of sand and gravel at the mouth of a mountain canyon where the stream gradient flattens at main valley floor
Mineral or rock composed of hydrated calcium sulphate
Finer particles such as clay,silt, and fine sand carried in suspension
The amount the fault or ridge moves away from its point of origin (aka displacement)
Relatively slow movement of land, typically at rates of cm/yr
Theory by Harry Hess (1960)
Pyroclastic particle of sand size
The condition of a system in which the inflow and outflow of material is in balance
An ice jam resulting from the physical accumulation of ice at a constriction
Mineral composed of potassium chloride, a salt used in manufacturing fertilizer
Relatively flat lowland that borders a river usually dry but subject to flooding
Part of Lithosphere: Iron and magnesium rich, higher density
Ice that crystallizes in pores between grains of sediment
The total area inundated by the tsunami
The chance or potential for something to happen
A huge collapse depression at the Earth's surface that sank into a near-surface magma chamber during eruption of the magma
The time between seismic waves
Point where boundaries of 3 plates meet
A slurry of rock, sand, water flowing downslope; water usually makes up less than half of the flow volume
A ground depression caused by collapse into an underground cavern
Developed in 1902 by Giuseppe Mercalli
Natural Hazards (Earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic Eruptions, Asteroid/Comet Impacts, Landslides)
Basalt lava with a ropy or smooth top
Water saturated sediment jostled by an earthquake rearrange themselves into a closer packing arragement
Erupt very explosive with high rhyolite viscosity lavas; forms gentle sloping flanks
An event involving a significant number of people and/or significant economic damage
High-velocity, high-temperature, high-density flow or surge of volcanic tephra, gases and debris
A particle of volcanic ash between 2mm and 6mm across
A slope failure that involves vertically downward motion under gravity of a block without internal deformation or rotation
Change in size or shape of a body in response to an imposed stress
Records local earthquakes
Fragmental material blown out of a volcano (ex. tephra, cinders, and bombs)
A measure of the total energy expended during an earthquake; depends on its seismic moment determined by: rock shear strength, area of rock, average slip distance offset across the
Boundary where plates are moving away from each other
Tsunami that strikes area distant from its point of origin
Ash from a hot PDC that is hot enough when deposited that he particles fuse together to form a solid rock
A mudflow associated with volcanic action or involving volcanic materials
A phenomenon that causes problems for people
Fine materials (dust, ash, and cinders) produced by volcanic action
The potential degree to which an individual or community could be affected by a natural hazard
Boundary where plates are moving towards each other
A mass of cold, solid rock ejected from a volcano
Slope failures involving material that has lost internal cohesion
An elevation that a stream cannot erode past, controlled by level of the body of water which the stream discharges into
Splitting of rock through pressure exerted when water freezes
Topography resulting from dissolution of carbonate, gypsum or evaporate rocks by water
Downslope creep driven by sequential freezing and thawing
Developed 1953l based on maximum amplitude of earthquake waves recorded on a Wood Anderson Seismograph
Accumulation of sediment deposited by a river at its entrance into a basin
Lenses of pure ice developed in permafrost sediment
Component of stress perpendicular to the earth's planar surface (force keeping the boulder/grain from moving)
Tension in a surface layer of water that causes it to behave as an elastic sheet
Rapid discharge of water from an ice-dammed lake, typically resulting from a volcanic eruption
Slope of the river channel; typically decreases downstream
Part of the Earth's mantle below the lithosphere that behaves in a plastic manner
A mass of liquid of partially solidified rock that is ejected from a volcano
Formed on the ceiling of a cavern when water percolates through fractures in limestone
Extremely rapid downslope movement of large volumes of rock and debris
A river characterized by multiple, frequency shifting channels
Record local and very strong earthquakes
An ice jam initiated by rpaid change in temperature
Ground that remains frozen (below 0 degrees) for at least 2 consecutive years
A flow of mud, rock, and water dominated by clay-sized particles
Energy level between Richter Scale Units differs by ______ times
Maximum angle of which sediment particles can stand without falling (dependent on grain size, grain angularity, moisture content)
Molten rock
Type of collision forms continent volcanic arc of stratovolcanoes
A stream in equilibrium with its environment
A large steep-sided volcano consisting of layers of ash, fragmental debris and lava
Accepting that the hazard will occur, or that it cannot be completely mitigated or eliminated; taking actions to reduce the impact and the communities' sensitivity and vulnerabilit
Secondary/Shear waves that shake back and forth perpendicular to the direction of wave travel, cannot travel through a liquid (4.5km/s upper mantle, 3.5km/s crust)
Used to measure earthquakes
Record both local and distant earthquakes; but cannot accurately measure strong earthquakes in the direct vicinity
The force on a body
The resistance to flow of a fluid because of internal friction
An extremely large basalt-lava volcano, gently sloping sides
Blocky basalt lava with a ragged clinkery surface
Rigid outer rind of Earth approximately 60-100km thick
Where the earthquake actually appears on the earth's surface, sometimes there is a rupture at that point
The likelihood or statistical measure that a particular event will occur
Stress resulting from application of force parallel to a surface (ex. force pulling the boulder/grain downslope)
Form as sediment is deposited in the slower waters on the inside of the meander bends
Surface waves the move side to side
The upstream area from which surface water flows towards the channel
Topographic line or boundary separating watersheds
Records distant earthquakes
Rapid movement of land, ranging from cm/hr to m/s of material disappearing almost instantaneously
The length from crest to crest of a wave
Taking actions to physically reduce the exposure of the community to the hazard
River with a single channel and high to moderate sinuosity
A circular or oval feature resulting from the dissolution of rock
Where the earthquake actually happens in the earth's crust, where energy is radiating out from all directions
The degree to which a particular hazard or phenomena can occur
Mineral or rock composed of calcium carbonate
Water saturated fine-grain mud deposits in salty water which are unstable and may easily collapse and liquefy during an earthquake
Measure earthquakes quantitatively, independent of location and assigns a magnitude value based on energy released
Magma that flows out onto the ground surface
Extremely slow downslope flow of sediment on the surface
A large natural underground cave or tunnel
Primary/compressional waves that shake back and forth along the direction of wave travel (8km/s upper mantle, 5-6km/s continental crust)
Increased stream flow resulting from snowmelt and spring runoff
The theory applied to most earthquakes in which movement on two sides of a fault leads to bending of the rocks until they slip and snap to release the bending strain
Involves the movement of a slab of rock, debris, or cohesive mud as a single unit
The average number of years between an event of a certain size in a location
Volcanic dome composed of rhyolite and rhyodacite
Heavier sediment in a stream that is moved along the stream bed rather than in suspension
A broad expanse of basalt lava that cooled to fill in low-lying areas of the landscape
An abnormally long wavelength wave produced by sudden displacement of water
A slope failure that involves vertically downward motion under gravity of a block without internal deformation, but with rotation
Indicates the severity of an earthquake in terms of the damage that it inflicts on structures and people
The number peaks per second
The rate of increase of velocity
The deepest parts of the channel along the length of the stream bed
Type of collision that forms mountains (ex. Himalayas)
The height to which a tsunami wave rushes up onshore
A landslide in which the mass rotates as it slides on a basal slip surface
Mineral or rock composed of sodium chloride; susceptible to dissolution
Surface waves that move up and down
Tsunami that strikes area adjacent to its point of origin
A landslide that moves along a regular sloping planar surface
The length of a fault broken during an earthquake
Form on the outside of meander bends where the water is accelerated along the outside wall and erodes into the bank
Mineral or rock composed of calcium magnesium carbonate

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