What nation gained its independence from Great Britain when General Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown in 1781? Their constitution was approved in 1788, and the Bill of Rights was proposed in 1789.
What is a fundamental change in the political and social organization of a state called? In other words, 'deep and profound change'.
True or False? In the fifty years before 1789, France had experienced a period of economic growth.
In 1781, in reaction to the ambitions of aristocrats newly arrived from the boureoisie, this law attempted to limit the sale of military officerships to fourth-generation nobles, thus exluding newly enrolled members of the nobility.
Ordinary French people spent one-third to one-half ot their income on this food. It constituted three-fourths of their diet, so sudden increases in the price of this food immediately affected public order.
What was the political and social system of France in the 18th century before the Revolution known as?
Although these guys did not advocate revolution, their ideas were widely circulated among the literate bourgeois and noble elites of France. They caused an increase in criticism of existing privileges as well as social and political institutions.
The French __ often frustrated efforts at reform. These thirteen law courts could block royal edicts by not registering them. They often blocked new taxes and was a huge problem in the financial crisis before 1789.
On the verge of a complete financial collapse, the government was finally forced to call a meeting of the __ in 1789, which had not met since 1614. By calling this body, the government was virtually admitting that the consent of the nation was required to raise taxes.
This term means 'statements of local grievances.' They were drafted throughout France during the elections to the Estates-General and advocated a regular constitutional government that would abolish the fiscal privileges of the church and nobility as the major way to rengenerate the country.
Oh June 17, 1789, the Third Estate voted to constitute itself a ___, and decided to draw up a constitution. The Third Estate wanted to vote by head, while the First Estate wanted to vote by order.
On June 20, 1789, the members of the National Assembly swore this oath. They were locked out of their regular meeting place and swore to continue to meet until they established a new constitution for France.
Parisian leaders formed the so-called Permanent Committe to keep order. Needing arms, they organized a popular force to capture this royal armory on July 14.
Who was king during the beginning of the French Revolution? He appointed the marquis de Lafayette as commander of a newly created citizen's militia known as the National Guard.
Peasant revolts caused a vast panic that spread like wildfire through France between July 20 and August 6 known as this. Fear of invasion by foreign troops, aided by supposed aristocratic plot, encouraged the formation of more citizen's mlitias and permanent committees.
On August 26, the National Assembly (also known as the Constituent Assembly) adopted this document. This charter of basic liberties reflected the ideas of many philosophes of the French Enlightenment and affirmed the destruction of aristocratic privileges by proclaiming an end to exemptions from taxation, freedom and equal rights for all men, and access to public office based on talent. The monarchy was restricted, citizens had the right to partake in legislative processes, and freedom of speech and press and no arbitrary arrests were guaranteed.
On October 5, who marched on Versailles in demand for bread?
True or False? Most of the lands of the church were confiscated and assignats, a form of paper money, were issued based on the collateral of the newly nationalized church property.
In July 1790, this document was put into effect. Both bishops and priests of the Catholic Church were to be elected by the people and paid by the state. All clergy were required to swear an oath of allegiance to this document. The church was secularized.
Which assembly was the sovereign power by 1791? It was to sit for two years and consist of 745 representatives chosen by an indirect system of election that preserved power in the hands of the more affluent members of society. The National Assembly had established a limited consitutional monarchy.
This radical club first emerged as a gathering of more radical deputies at the beginning of the Revolution. Eventually, there were nine hundred of these clubs in France associated with the Parisian center. Members were usually the elite of their local societies, but also included artisans and tradespeople.
France declarted war on this nation on April 20, 1792. They did this because reactionaries wanted to cool off the revolution or even lead to the restoration of the old regime. Defeats in war and economic shortages led to the suspension of the monarchy and the formation of the Paris Commune.
Literally meaning 'without breeches,' these people were common people who did not wear the fine clothes of the upper classes and played an important role in the Paris Commune and the radical phase of the French Revolution.
The Paris Commune under the leadership of the newly appointed minister of justice arrested and massacred ordinary Parisian tradespeople.
The National Convention was split into many factions over the fate of the king. Both members of the Jacobin club, Girondins favored keeping the king alive while this group favored the execution of the king.
True or False? The Girondins won out and the king was sent to a penal colony in Australia.
In this departmnt, peasants revolted against the new military draft. This rebellion soon escated into a full-blow counterrevolutionary appeal.
To administer the government, the National Convention gave broad powers to an executive committe known as __, which was dominated initially by Danton.
True or False? A coalition of Austria, Prussia, Spain, Portugal, Britain, and the Dutch Republic were threatening to invade France throughout most of the French Revolution.
What was the people's army raised by universal mobilization to repel the foreign enemies of the French Revolution called? The Republic's army was the largest ever seen in European history, numbering 1,169,000 people. Historians note the creation of modern nationalism with the creation of any army of the 'people's' government to fight the 'people's' wars.
Who was one of the most important members of the Committee of Public Safety? He was dedicated to using power to benefit the people, but became obsessed with purifying the body politic of all the corrupt. He was eventually guillotined on July 28, 1794 by an anti-(him) coalition in the National Convention.
To meet the domestic crisis, the National Convention and the Committee of Public Safety established the this period in French history. Victims of this period included Queen Marie Antoinette, Olympe de Gouges, and thousands of peasants.
True or False? Most men, radical or conservative, agreed that women should be allowed to participate in political affairs, based on the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen.
The National Convention adopted this policy that was aimed at creating a secular society by eliminating Christian forms and institutions from French society.
What cathedral in Paris was designated the Temple of reason? The word 'Saint' was removed from street names, a new republican calendar was adopted, and abolished slavery in the colonies. Robespierre noted that de-Christianization made more enemies than it did friends.
Which nation became the first independent state in Latin America in 1804 when it declared its independence from France?
After the execution of Robespierre, revolution fervor gave way to this reaction. The Terror began to abate, the Committe of Public Safety's power was curtailed, the Jacobin clubs were shut down, churches were allowed to reopen for public worship, laissez-faire policies were adopted, and a new consitution was adopted in August 1795.
The Constituion of 1795 established this executive authority. It consisted of five people elected by the Council of Elders from a list presented by the council of 500. This body relied on the military for surival.
Napoleon was the son of an Italian lawyer on the French island of Corsica. As a soldier, he commanded the French army in Italy and turned a group of ill-disciplined soldiers into an effective fighting force and defeated the Austrians in 1797. He married Josephine de Beauharnais. He participated in this act in Paris that ultimately led to his virtual dictatorshp of France in 1799.
True or False? Napoleon continued the war on the Catholic Church as he called himself a Muslim in Egypt and rebuked Pope Pius VII when he crowned himself at his coronation.
True or False? Napoleon declarted Catholicism as the state religion of France.
What did Napoleon create that preserved most of the revolutionary gains by recognizing the principle of equality of all citizens before the law, the right of individuals to choose their professions, religious toleration, and the abolition of serfdom and feudalism. Napoleon also restored control of fathers over their families and the difficulty of women to gain a divorce.
During Napoleon's reign, what was the name of the an official that was appointed by the central government to oversee all aspects of a local government?
True or False? Napoleon made tax collection systematic and efficient under his regime. He also created a new aristocracy based on merit in state service.
Which nation was Napoleon not able to conquer or influence? Spain, Prussia, Austria, Great Britain, Russia
What was Napoleon's effor to bar British goods from the Continent in the hope of weakening Britain's economy and destroying its capacity to wage war called?
Napoleon was comparable to this man 130 years in the future because like him, he hoped his Grand Empire would last for centuries and Great Britain worked against both of them.
What is a sense of national consciousness based on awareness of being part of a community that has common institutions, traditions, language, and customs that that becomes the focus of the individual's primary political loyalty called? The French aroused this factor in the defeat of Napoleon by making themselves hated by oppressors and by showing the people of Europe what a nation could do with this factor.
Where did Napoleon perform the 'Great Retreat'? Napoleon had to attack this nation because the nation defected from the Continental System and if they were allowed to challenge the system unapposed, others would soon follow suit. This military disaster then led to a war of liberation all over Europe, culminating in Napoleon's defeat in April 1814.
Who suceeded Napoleon as ruler of France?
At what battle was Napoleon defeated and thus exiled to Saint Helena in 1815?
What is the national motto of France, originated in the French Revolution, and institutionalized by the Third Republic in the 19th century?
Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia, the Quadruple Alliance, attended this meeting in 1814 headed by Klemens von Metternich. Important aspects of the meeting was the principle of legitimacy, balance of power, and the conservatism ideology.