Science Quiz / Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
A self protein that is recognized as an antigen in autoimmune disease
Part of antibody where antigens are bound
What is another name for a MHC?
Condition in which patient is 20% or more heavier than their ideal weight
What is the name of the detergent that unfolds/denatures proteins in electrophoresis?
A protein that binds tightly to specific epitopes for identification and elimination.
Acetaldehyde increases generation of what?
Where do B-cells go after production?
What recognizes and binds to all primary antibodies from a given species?
What is the net yield per glucose molecule after the TCA cycle?
What is the unit for 1/12th the mass of a Carbon atom?
To respond to a wide array of antigens
What sugar is a part of ATP?
Multiple antigens cross-link with antibodies
How are fats converted into acetyl coa?
What receptors only bind to antigens on display?
Putting the antigen on the outside of the cell to display to other cells.
What condition involves a autoimmune attack on your joints?
A discrete part of an antigen that is antigenic. There can be many of them.
Cells that have large nuclei, can proliferate, extensive rough ER
Cells responsible for cell mediated immunity
Electrophoresis separates molecules according to?
What pathway utilizes normal cells to spark an immune response through interaction with cytotoxic T-cells?
Excess Acetyl CoA can be converted into what?
What class of MHCs is found on all antigen presenting cells?
Loss of electrons
What are the three types of effector cells for T-cells?
Pyruvate is symported into the matrix with what?
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of NADH in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
What is imflammation of the intestine?
How many ATPs are made from the NADH molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
What process keeps only the T-cells that adequately bind to MHCs in self cells?
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of FADH2 in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
What is ethanol converted into by ADH?
ADP is antiported into the matrix using what substance?
Formation of acetaldehyde adducts yields what?
Finger-like projections that suggest that the cell is reaching out and trying to reach something
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 2?
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 3?
Fatty acids can be converted into what?
What is the breakdown of amino acids?
A receptor whose ligand is an antigen
Another name for stationary phase or gel.
A specific type of dendritic cell found in the epidermis.
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 3
What is the the antigen in urine that’s detected in pregnancy tests?
Using energy to form glucose
Bind to sugars on bacteria
String of amino acids
What is another name for scarring of the liver and poor liver function?
What pathway utilizes B-cells to spark an immune response through interaction with helper T-cells?
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Triglycerides can be split into what?
What differentiates into T-cells and B-cells?
What is required for leukocyte activation?
Glycerols can be converted into what?
Acetaldehyde causes a depletion of what?
Antibodies cross-linked with antigen can form a precipitate
What is another name for liver cells?
What class of MHCs is found on all nucleated cells?
What adjective describes the phenomena where you transcribe both parents copies of a particular protein?
Process of turning oxidizable substrates into H20 and CO2
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 1?
What base is a part of ATP?
What is the breakdown of fat?
Which CD is taken advantage of by HIV?
For previously encountered antigens to give a faster response on subsequent encounters.
The breakdown of glucose to yield energy
What transporter pumps viral proteins into the ER to be displayed on the surface?
What are the products of TCA entry (total per glucose molecule)?
What is the synthesis of amino acids?
High levels of lipids in the blood
A systemic allergic reaction (as opposed to a localized allergic reaction)
Help discriminate between types of pathogens
What provides an enhanced secondary immune response to a previously encountered antigen?
Amino acid with a Hydrogen group
What are the final products from one molecule of glucose that goes through aerobic respiration?
What is pyruvate converted into during fermentation?
What is Oxaloacetate converted into?
Anaerobic metabolic breakdown of a nutrient molecule without net oxidation
Another name for constant domain
What recognizes and binds only to the protein of interest?
Can respond to the one antigen that is present rather than all antigens
Self becomes recognized as foreign
What connects amino acids into linear chains?
Process of turning fermentable substrates into Lactate or Ethanol and CO2
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on the intestinal wall that is exacerbated by ingestion of glutens?
What does acetyl CoA dump the carbons onto in the first step of the TCA cycle?
What is the name of the process of converting lactate back into glucose?
What condition involves a slowly progressing autoimmune attack on your brain and spinal cord?
How much does the stalk rotate when three protons pass through it?
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on pancreatic beta cells?
Are MHCs specific?
Cells divide and become more numerous
What is another name for the Kreb's/citric acid cyle
Where do T-cells mature?
An enzyme system in the blood that can directly kill some foreign cells.
Amino acid with a Thiol group
What is acetyl CoA converted into via the TCA cycle?
Amino acid that is locked into a ring
Weight/Height^2
Antibodies bind to and inactivate antigens
Programmed cell death
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
What are the products of glycolysis step 1
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 4?
has two identical light chains and two identical heavy chains
Immunity that you are born with
What CD is mainly found on helper T-cells?
What is the basis of lymphocyte production in the bone marrow?
The vesicle in which the object now resides after phagocytosis.
What is another name for electron transport?
Antibody class that is secreted from B cells; y-shaped
Macrophage-like cells with long spike and sheet like protrusions.
What are the products of glycolysis step 2
How many ATPs are made from the FADH2 molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
How many protons are required to flow through F0 to generate one ATP by F1?
What is the role of Plasma cells?
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane in reality?
How many residues per turn are there on an antibody?
If the pH is lowered, amino acids protonate and the protein becomes more _____ overall
OH- is antiported out of the matrix using what substance?
Why use secondary antibodies?
Affecting many nerves sytemically
Another name for variable domain
Part of antibody involved in cell binding
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 1
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 2
What is a substance used for storing energy as a carbohydrate in muscle and the liver?
Stands for Immunoglobulin
Cells that have a single lobed, big nucleus, ruffles, lysosomes, can't proliferate, participate in phagocytosis and antigen display.
Cells responsible for humoral immunity
Cells respond directly and actively to eliminate antigens
What does acetaldehyde trigger secretion of?
What CD is mainly found on cytotoxic T-cells?
Monocytes in the tissue are called?
What is the pH at which a protein's net charge is zero?
Lipopolysaccharide, a molecule only found on some bacteria
A porous polymer, the voids in which are filled with a fluid
What is a family of lipids bound to oligosaccharides that have parts of their structure that are identical to lipooligosaccharides?
The process of a cell engulfing solid particles.
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane theoretically?
What are the products of glycolysis step 3
What process induces apoptosis in T-cells that bind too well to self cells?
A cell becomes more specific in its structure and function
Most common coenzyme
Some substance capable of inducing an immune response.
If the pH is raised, amino acids de-protonate, and the protein becomes more _____ overall.
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; weird shape
What is the process by which the immune system is supressed for antigens seen on a fairly regular basis due to eating?
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; y-shaped
Granulocytes that cannot proliferate, and love phagocytosis.
What is a Adenine connected to a Ribose sugar called?
What are the effector cells for B-cells?

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