Science Quiz / Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Self becomes recognized as foreign
Granulocytes that cannot proliferate, and love phagocytosis.
Cells responsible for cell mediated immunity
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on pancreatic beta cells?
Condition in which patient is 20% or more heavier than their ideal weight
What pathway utilizes B-cells to spark an immune response through interaction with helper T-cells?
What base is a part of ATP?
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of FADH2 in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
Process of turning oxidizable substrates into H20 and CO2
What differentiates into T-cells and B-cells?
The breakdown of glucose to yield energy
Acetaldehyde increases generation of what?
What is imflammation of the intestine?
What class of MHCs is found on all antigen presenting cells?
A specific type of dendritic cell found in the epidermis.
Another name for constant domain
Lipopolysaccharide, a molecule only found on some bacteria
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of NADH in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; y-shaped
What are the final products from one molecule of glucose that goes through aerobic respiration?
What are the products of glycolysis step 2
Using energy to form glucose
To respond to a wide array of antigens
String of amino acids
Where do T-cells mature?
What is the name of the process of converting lactate back into glucose?
Cells that have large nuclei, can proliferate, extensive rough ER
Formation of acetaldehyde adducts yields what?
Which CD is taken advantage of by HIV?
A discrete part of an antigen that is antigenic. There can be many of them.
Loss of electrons
High levels of lipids in the blood
What is the basis of lymphocyte production in the bone marrow?
What is the synthesis of amino acids?
What is another name for liver cells?
What is a Adenine connected to a Ribose sugar called?
What is pyruvate converted into during fermentation?
How many ATPs are made from the NADH molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
Finger-like projections that suggest that the cell is reaching out and trying to reach something
has two identical light chains and two identical heavy chains
What pathway utilizes normal cells to spark an immune response through interaction with cytotoxic T-cells?
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 3?
A receptor whose ligand is an antigen
What is the pH at which a protein's net charge is zero?
Anaerobic metabolic breakdown of a nutrient molecule without net oxidation
Part of antibody involved in cell binding
The vesicle in which the object now resides after phagocytosis.
What transporter pumps viral proteins into the ER to be displayed on the surface?
Where do B-cells go after production?
What is the process by which the immune system is supressed for antigens seen on a fairly regular basis due to eating?
If the pH is lowered, amino acids protonate and the protein becomes more _____ overall
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
What does acetyl CoA dump the carbons onto in the first step of the TCA cycle?
Cells respond directly and actively to eliminate antigens
What are the effector cells for B-cells?
A systemic allergic reaction (as opposed to a localized allergic reaction)
Glycerols can be converted into what?
What process induces apoptosis in T-cells that bind too well to self cells?
What is the breakdown of amino acids?
Amino acid with a Thiol group
Triglycerides can be split into what?
Cells that have a single lobed, big nucleus, ruffles, lysosomes, can't proliferate, participate in phagocytosis and antigen display.
Antibodies cross-linked with antigen can form a precipitate
What is another name for a MHC?
An enzyme system in the blood that can directly kill some foreign cells.
Help discriminate between types of pathogens
Stands for Immunoglobulin
What is the breakdown of fat?
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane in reality?
Antibodies bind to and inactivate antigens
What is Oxaloacetate converted into?
What is required for leukocyte activation?
Programmed cell death
Amino acid that is locked into a ring
Most common coenzyme
What CD is mainly found on helper T-cells?
ADP is antiported into the matrix using what substance?
What is the unit for 1/12th the mass of a Carbon atom?
What recognizes and binds only to the protein of interest?
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; weird shape
What is the role of Plasma cells?
What is acetyl CoA converted into via the TCA cycle?
What sugar is a part of ATP?
Part of antibody where antigens are bound
Weight/Height^2
What is a family of lipids bound to oligosaccharides that have parts of their structure that are identical to lipooligosaccharides?
A self protein that is recognized as an antigen in autoimmune disease
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 4?
Cells divide and become more numerous
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 1?
How are fats converted into acetyl coa?
A cell becomes more specific in its structure and function
Why use secondary antibodies?
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 2?
Immunity that you are born with
How many protons are required to flow through F0 to generate one ATP by F1?
What class of MHCs is found on all nucleated cells?
Cells responsible for humoral immunity
What recognizes and binds to all primary antibodies from a given species?
What is another name for scarring of the liver and poor liver function?
Pyruvate is symported into the matrix with what?
OH- is antiported out of the matrix using what substance?
What condition involves a slowly progressing autoimmune attack on your brain and spinal cord?
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Some substance capable of inducing an immune response.
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 2
What does acetaldehyde trigger secretion of?
Can respond to the one antigen that is present rather than all antigens
Multiple antigens cross-link with antibodies
A protein that binds tightly to specific epitopes for identification and elimination.
What is the the antigen in urine that’s detected in pregnancy tests?
Are MHCs specific?
Putting the antigen on the outside of the cell to display to other cells.
Antibody class that is secreted from B cells; y-shaped
What provides an enhanced secondary immune response to a previously encountered antigen?
Monocytes in the tissue are called?
Bind to sugars on bacteria
Electrophoresis separates molecules according to?
What are the three types of effector cells for T-cells?
What is another name for electron transport?
What connects amino acids into linear chains?
Another name for variable domain
What is another name for the Kreb's/citric acid cyle
What are the products of TCA entry (total per glucose molecule)?
How many residues per turn are there on an antibody?
Macrophage-like cells with long spike and sheet like protrusions.
What are the products of glycolysis step 3
What is ethanol converted into by ADH?
Process of turning fermentable substrates into Lactate or Ethanol and CO2
What process keeps only the T-cells that adequately bind to MHCs in self cells?
What receptors only bind to antigens on display?
Excess Acetyl CoA can be converted into what?
What is a substance used for storing energy as a carbohydrate in muscle and the liver?
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 3
Amino acid with a Hydrogen group
How many ATPs are made from the FADH2 molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
The process of a cell engulfing solid particles.
What condition involves a autoimmune attack on your joints?
Another name for stationary phase or gel.
What are the products of glycolysis step 1
What is the net yield per glucose molecule after the TCA cycle?
What CD is mainly found on cytotoxic T-cells?
A porous polymer, the voids in which are filled with a fluid
Acetaldehyde causes a depletion of what?
Affecting many nerves sytemically
What adjective describes the phenomena where you transcribe both parents copies of a particular protein?
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 1
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane theoretically?
Fatty acids can be converted into what?
For previously encountered antigens to give a faster response on subsequent encounters.
If the pH is raised, amino acids de-protonate, and the protein becomes more _____ overall.
What is the name of the detergent that unfolds/denatures proteins in electrophoresis?
How much does the stalk rotate when three protons pass through it?
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on the intestinal wall that is exacerbated by ingestion of glutens?

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