Science Quiz / Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2

Random Science or Definition Quiz
Score 0/152 Timer 20:00
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
The vesicle in which the object now resides after phagocytosis.
What is acetyl CoA converted into via the TCA cycle?
Most common coenzyme
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 2?
What sugar is a part of ATP?
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane in reality?
How much does the stalk rotate when three protons pass through it?
Antibody class that is secreted from B cells; y-shaped
What is the unit for 1/12th the mass of a Carbon atom?
Some substance capable of inducing an immune response.
What are the three types of effector cells for T-cells?
Amino acid with a Hydrogen group
How many ATPs are made from the NADH molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
What is imflammation of the intestine?
Antibodies bind to and inactivate antigens
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 1?
Stands for Immunoglobulin
Triglycerides can be split into what?
Another name for stationary phase or gel.
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; weird shape
A receptor whose ligand is an antigen
Anaerobic metabolic breakdown of a nutrient molecule without net oxidation
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; y-shaped
What is the net yield per glucose molecule after the TCA cycle?
Putting the antigen on the outside of the cell to display to other cells.
What recognizes and binds only to the protein of interest?
Finger-like projections that suggest that the cell is reaching out and trying to reach something
Multiple antigens cross-link with antibodies
What is another name for a MHC?
If the pH is raised, amino acids de-protonate, and the protein becomes more _____ overall.
A cell becomes more specific in its structure and function
Are MHCs specific?
Where do B-cells go after production?
Macrophage-like cells with long spike and sheet like protrusions.
Granulocytes that cannot proliferate, and love phagocytosis.
For previously encountered antigens to give a faster response on subsequent encounters.
Excess Acetyl CoA can be converted into what?
String of amino acids
What is the name of the detergent that unfolds/denatures proteins in electrophoresis?
How many residues per turn are there on an antibody?
An enzyme system in the blood that can directly kill some foreign cells.
Cells responsible for cell mediated immunity
What are the products of glycolysis step 2
How are fats converted into acetyl coa?
What is the role of Plasma cells?
Immunity that you are born with
Cells that have large nuclei, can proliferate, extensive rough ER
What are the products of glycolysis step 1
What recognizes and binds to all primary antibodies from a given species?
Process of turning oxidizable substrates into H20 and CO2
A systemic allergic reaction (as opposed to a localized allergic reaction)
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
What condition involves a autoimmune attack on your joints?
What is the breakdown of fat?
What provides an enhanced secondary immune response to a previously encountered antigen?
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 3
High levels of lipids in the blood
What are the effector cells for B-cells?
Pyruvate is symported into the matrix with what?
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane theoretically?
What class of MHCs is found on all nucleated cells?
A specific type of dendritic cell found in the epidermis.
Formation of acetaldehyde adducts yields what?
What is ethanol converted into by ADH?
What is the pH at which a protein's net charge is zero?
Cells respond directly and actively to eliminate antigens
What is a Adenine connected to a Ribose sugar called?
ADP is antiported into the matrix using what substance?
How many protons are required to flow through F0 to generate one ATP by F1?
What receptors only bind to antigens on display?
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of FADH2 in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
What class of MHCs is found on all antigen presenting cells?
What does acetaldehyde trigger secretion of?
What is the breakdown of amino acids?
Acetaldehyde increases generation of what?
A discrete part of an antigen that is antigenic. There can be many of them.
What is required for leukocyte activation?
What adjective describes the phenomena where you transcribe both parents copies of a particular protein?
Help discriminate between types of pathogens
What connects amino acids into linear chains?
A self protein that is recognized as an antigen in autoimmune disease
What is another name for electron transport?
Where do T-cells mature?
Process of turning fermentable substrates into Lactate or Ethanol and CO2
What does acetyl CoA dump the carbons onto in the first step of the TCA cycle?
Amino acid with a Thiol group
Monocytes in the tissue are called?
Weight/Height^2
What is Oxaloacetate converted into?
Self becomes recognized as foreign
Cells divide and become more numerous
Which CD is taken advantage of by HIV?
Using energy to form glucose
Electrophoresis separates molecules according to?
What is the name of the process of converting lactate back into glucose?
What are the products of glycolysis step 3
A porous polymer, the voids in which are filled with a fluid
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on pancreatic beta cells?
What CD is mainly found on helper T-cells?
OH- is antiported out of the matrix using what substance?
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 2
What CD is mainly found on cytotoxic T-cells?
What is the synthesis of amino acids?
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Affecting many nerves sytemically
Condition in which patient is 20% or more heavier than their ideal weight
Fatty acids can be converted into what?
Cells responsible for humoral immunity
What is the process by which the immune system is supressed for antigens seen on a fairly regular basis due to eating?
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of NADH in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on the intestinal wall that is exacerbated by ingestion of glutens?
What is the basis of lymphocyte production in the bone marrow?
Another name for constant domain
Programmed cell death
What process induces apoptosis in T-cells that bind too well to self cells?
Loss of electrons
Can respond to the one antigen that is present rather than all antigens
has two identical light chains and two identical heavy chains
Bind to sugars on bacteria
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 4?
To respond to a wide array of antigens
What pathway utilizes B-cells to spark an immune response through interaction with helper T-cells?
Glycerols can be converted into what?
What are the final products from one molecule of glucose that goes through aerobic respiration?
What base is a part of ATP?
Part of antibody where antigens are bound
What condition involves a slowly progressing autoimmune attack on your brain and spinal cord?
If the pH is lowered, amino acids protonate and the protein becomes more _____ overall
Another name for variable domain
What is a substance used for storing energy as a carbohydrate in muscle and the liver?
The breakdown of glucose to yield energy
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 3?
What is another name for liver cells?
Amino acid that is locked into a ring
What pathway utilizes normal cells to spark an immune response through interaction with cytotoxic T-cells?
Lipopolysaccharide, a molecule only found on some bacteria
What are the products of TCA entry (total per glucose molecule)?
What is another name for the Kreb's/citric acid cyle
Cells that have a single lobed, big nucleus, ruffles, lysosomes, can't proliferate, participate in phagocytosis and antigen display.
What transporter pumps viral proteins into the ER to be displayed on the surface?
Antibodies cross-linked with antigen can form a precipitate
Why use secondary antibodies?
Acetaldehyde causes a depletion of what?
What is a family of lipids bound to oligosaccharides that have parts of their structure that are identical to lipooligosaccharides?
The process of a cell engulfing solid particles.
A protein that binds tightly to specific epitopes for identification and elimination.
How many ATPs are made from the FADH2 molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
What is the the antigen in urine that’s detected in pregnancy tests?
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 1
Part of antibody involved in cell binding
What is pyruvate converted into during fermentation?
What process keeps only the T-cells that adequately bind to MHCs in self cells?
What is another name for scarring of the liver and poor liver function?
What differentiates into T-cells and B-cells?

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