Science Quiz / Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
For previously encountered antigens to give a faster response on subsequent encounters.
What provides an enhanced secondary immune response to a previously encountered antigen?
A specific type of dendritic cell found in the epidermis.
What are the effector cells for B-cells?
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; weird shape
Amino acid with a Hydrogen group
An enzyme system in the blood that can directly kill some foreign cells.
Excess Acetyl CoA can be converted into what?
What is imflammation of the intestine?
What receptors only bind to antigens on display?
How are fats converted into acetyl coa?
Granulocytes that cannot proliferate, and love phagocytosis.
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 2?
What pathway utilizes B-cells to spark an immune response through interaction with helper T-cells?
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of FADH2 in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
High levels of lipids in the blood
A discrete part of an antigen that is antigenic. There can be many of them.
What pathway utilizes normal cells to spark an immune response through interaction with cytotoxic T-cells?
A cell becomes more specific in its structure and function
What base is a part of ATP?
Lipopolysaccharide, a molecule only found on some bacteria
What sugar is a part of ATP?
Antibodies cross-linked with antigen can form a precipitate
What class of MHCs is found on all nucleated cells?
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 3?
What is the basis of lymphocyte production in the bone marrow?
What is another name for electron transport?
Which CD is taken advantage of by HIV?
Macrophage-like cells with long spike and sheet like protrusions.
What is acetyl CoA converted into via the TCA cycle?
What are the products of glycolysis step 1
What process keeps only the T-cells that adequately bind to MHCs in self cells?
Pyruvate is symported into the matrix with what?
What CD is mainly found on cytotoxic T-cells?
has two identical light chains and two identical heavy chains
What condition involves a slowly progressing autoimmune attack on your brain and spinal cord?
Programmed cell death
Cells responsible for humoral immunity
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 4?
Loss of electrons
A self protein that is recognized as an antigen in autoimmune disease
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane theoretically?
Weight/Height^2
What is the breakdown of amino acids?
Acetaldehyde causes a depletion of what?
What is a family of lipids bound to oligosaccharides that have parts of their structure that are identical to lipooligosaccharides?
Some substance capable of inducing an immune response.
What is the name of the process of converting lactate back into glucose?
What does acetyl CoA dump the carbons onto in the first step of the TCA cycle?
Cells divide and become more numerous
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 2
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
What is the the antigen in urine that’s detected in pregnancy tests?
Fatty acids can be converted into what?
Monocytes in the tissue are called?
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of NADH in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
A protein that binds tightly to specific epitopes for identification and elimination.
What is the unit for 1/12th the mass of a Carbon atom?
If the pH is lowered, amino acids protonate and the protein becomes more _____ overall
Putting the antigen on the outside of the cell to display to other cells.
To respond to a wide array of antigens
The breakdown of glucose to yield energy
Formation of acetaldehyde adducts yields what?
Most common coenzyme
A systemic allergic reaction (as opposed to a localized allergic reaction)
What does acetaldehyde trigger secretion of?
How many residues per turn are there on an antibody?
What is ethanol converted into by ADH?
ADP is antiported into the matrix using what substance?
Amino acid with a Thiol group
What transporter pumps viral proteins into the ER to be displayed on the surface?
What is the process by which the immune system is supressed for antigens seen on a fairly regular basis due to eating?
What are the final products from one molecule of glucose that goes through aerobic respiration?
Stands for Immunoglobulin
Another name for stationary phase or gel.
Where do T-cells mature?
Cells respond directly and actively to eliminate antigens
Antibody class that is secreted from B cells; y-shaped
Are MHCs specific?
What is pyruvate converted into during fermentation?
What condition involves a autoimmune attack on your joints?
What process induces apoptosis in T-cells that bind too well to self cells?
What adjective describes the phenomena where you transcribe both parents copies of a particular protein?
Help discriminate between types of pathogens
Affecting many nerves sytemically
Part of antibody where antigens are bound
Multiple antigens cross-link with antibodies
What is the breakdown of fat?
What differentiates into T-cells and B-cells?
How much does the stalk rotate when three protons pass through it?
What is Oxaloacetate converted into?
What are the three types of effector cells for T-cells?
How many protons are required to flow through F0 to generate one ATP by F1?
String of amino acids
What are the products of glycolysis step 2
What is the name of the detergent that unfolds/denatures proteins in electrophoresis?
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 1?
OH- is antiported out of the matrix using what substance?
Using energy to form glucose
Triglycerides can be split into what?
What CD is mainly found on helper T-cells?
Bind to sugars on bacteria
Glycerols can be converted into what?
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
What are the products of glycolysis step 3
Cells that have large nuclei, can proliferate, extensive rough ER
Acetaldehyde increases generation of what?
What connects amino acids into linear chains?
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 1
The process of a cell engulfing solid particles.
Amino acid that is locked into a ring
Antibodies bind to and inactivate antigens
What are the products of TCA entry (total per glucose molecule)?
What is the role of Plasma cells?
Can respond to the one antigen that is present rather than all antigens
Anaerobic metabolic breakdown of a nutrient molecule without net oxidation
Another name for variable domain
How many ATPs are made from the FADH2 molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
Cells that have a single lobed, big nucleus, ruffles, lysosomes, can't proliferate, participate in phagocytosis and antigen display.
Process of turning oxidizable substrates into H20 and CO2
What is the net yield per glucose molecule after the TCA cycle?
What is another name for the Kreb's/citric acid cyle
Cells responsible for cell mediated immunity
What is a substance used for storing energy as a carbohydrate in muscle and the liver?
The vesicle in which the object now resides after phagocytosis.
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 3
Condition in which patient is 20% or more heavier than their ideal weight
What recognizes and binds to all primary antibodies from a given species?
Why use secondary antibodies?
Electrophoresis separates molecules according to?
Where do B-cells go after production?
Process of turning fermentable substrates into Lactate or Ethanol and CO2
What is another name for a MHC?
What recognizes and binds only to the protein of interest?
A receptor whose ligand is an antigen
Finger-like projections that suggest that the cell is reaching out and trying to reach something
A porous polymer, the voids in which are filled with a fluid
Self becomes recognized as foreign
What is another name for scarring of the liver and poor liver function?
If the pH is raised, amino acids de-protonate, and the protein becomes more _____ overall.
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane in reality?
Part of antibody involved in cell binding
What is the pH at which a protein's net charge is zero?
What is another name for liver cells?
Immunity that you are born with
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; y-shaped
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on pancreatic beta cells?
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on the intestinal wall that is exacerbated by ingestion of glutens?
What is the synthesis of amino acids?
Another name for constant domain
What class of MHCs is found on all antigen presenting cells?
How many ATPs are made from the NADH molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
What is a Adenine connected to a Ribose sugar called?
What is required for leukocyte activation?

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