Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2

Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
ADP is antiported into the matrix using what substance?
Electrophoresis separates molecules according to?
What pathway utilizes normal cells to spark an immune response through interaction with cytotoxic T-cells?
What are the products of glycolysis step 3
What is the process by which the immune system is supressed for antigens seen on a fairly regular basis due to eating?
What class of MHCs is found on all nucleated cells?
What is the breakdown of fat?
OH- is antiported out of the matrix using what substance?
What is acetyl CoA converted into via the TCA cycle?
Excess Acetyl CoA can be converted into what?
What is required for leukocyte activation?
Cells respond directly and actively to eliminate antigens
What class of MHCs is found on all antigen presenting cells?
Can respond to the one antigen that is present rather than all antigens
What is a Adenine connected to a Ribose sugar called?
What transporter pumps viral proteins into the ER to be displayed on the surface?
Immunity that you are born with
What does acetyl CoA dump the carbons onto in the first step of the TCA cycle?
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on pancreatic beta cells?
Process of turning fermentable substrates into Lactate or Ethanol and CO2
A discrete part of an antigen that is antigenic. There can be many of them.
Finger-like projections that suggest that the cell is reaching out and trying to reach something
Where do T-cells mature?
What is ethanol converted into by ADH?
What process induces apoptosis in T-cells that bind too well to self cells?
Bind to sugars on bacteria
What is a substance used for storing energy as a carbohydrate in muscle and the liver?
Another name for variable domain
Antibody class that is secreted from B cells; y-shaped
What are the three types of effector cells for T-cells?
Programmed cell death
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 2?
What is the name of the detergent that unfolds/denatures proteins in electrophoresis?
A receptor whose ligand is an antigen
has two identical light chains and two identical heavy chains
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 1?
What process keeps only the T-cells that adequately bind to MHCs in self cells?
What is pyruvate converted into during fermentation?
Using energy to form glucose
What are the effector cells for B-cells?
Acetaldehyde increases generation of what?
The process of a cell engulfing solid particles.
Self becomes recognized as foreign
What condition involves a slowly progressing autoimmune attack on your brain and spinal cord?
Cells that have large nuclei, can proliferate, extensive rough ER
A self protein that is recognized as an antigen in autoimmune disease
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 4?
What is another name for scarring of the liver and poor liver function?
What connects amino acids into linear chains?
What is the basis of lymphocyte production in the bone marrow?
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 3
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
What is the net yield per glucose molecule after the TCA cycle?
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane in reality?
Triglycerides can be split into what?
Loss of electrons
What sugar is a part of ATP?
What is the synthesis of amino acids?
An enzyme system in the blood that can directly kill some foreign cells.
What is the unit for 1/12th the mass of a Carbon atom?
What is the name of the process of converting lactate back into glucose?
Monocytes in the tissue are called?
How many residues per turn are there on an antibody?
High levels of lipids in the blood
A protein that binds tightly to specific epitopes for identification and elimination.
What is the pH at which a protein's net charge is zero?
String of amino acids
What is another name for a MHC?
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 2
What is the the antigen in urine that’s detected in pregnancy tests?
Where do B-cells go after production?
If the pH is raised, amino acids de-protonate, and the protein becomes more _____ overall.
Cells responsible for cell mediated immunity
Anaerobic metabolic breakdown of a nutrient molecule without net oxidation
How many hydrophobic amino acids does it take to cross the cell membrane theoretically?
What is imflammation of the intestine?
Another name for constant domain
Stands for Immunoglobulin
A systemic allergic reaction (as opposed to a localized allergic reaction)
A cell becomes more specific in its structure and function
Formation of acetaldehyde adducts yields what?
Antibodies bind to and inactivate antigens
Why use secondary antibodies?
Cells divide and become more numerous
Part of antibody involved in cell binding
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of NADH in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
What are the products of TCA entry (total per glucose molecule)?
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; y-shaped
The vesicle in which the object now resides after phagocytosis.
The breakdown of glucose to yield energy
Macrophage-like cells with long spike and sheet like protrusions.
How many ATPs are made from the NADH molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
Cells that have a single lobed, big nucleus, ruffles, lysosomes, can't proliferate, participate in phagocytosis and antigen display.
How much does the stalk rotate when three protons pass through it?
What pathway utilizes B-cells to spark an immune response through interaction with helper T-cells?
What is a family of lipids bound to oligosaccharides that have parts of their structure that are identical to lipooligosaccharides?
Amino acid with a Hydrogen group
Help discriminate between types of pathogens
Acetaldehyde causes a depletion of what?
Lipopolysaccharide, a molecule only found on some bacteria
What is another name for the Kreb's/citric acid cyle
What is another name for electron transport?
Glycerols can be converted into what?
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
For previously encountered antigens to give a faster response on subsequent encounters.
What CD is mainly found on cytotoxic T-cells?
What base is a part of ATP?
What is the breakdown of amino acids?
What condition involves a autoimmune attack on your joints?
Granulocytes that cannot proliferate, and love phagocytosis.
Cells responsible for humoral immunity
How many protons are transferred across the inner membrane through respiratory complex 3?
Antibodies cross-linked with antigen can form a precipitate
What does acetaldehyde trigger secretion of?
What condition involves an autoimmune attack on the intestinal wall that is exacerbated by ingestion of glutens?
Are MHCs specific?
Affecting many nerves sytemically
A porous polymer, the voids in which are filled with a fluid
What CD is mainly found on helper T-cells?
What is Oxaloacetate converted into?
What is the role of Plasma cells?
What are the products of glycolysis step 2
What recognizes and binds only to the protein of interest?
Condition in which patient is 20% or more heavier than their ideal weight
Amino acid that is locked into a ring
Pyruvate is symported into the matrix with what?
What provides an enhanced secondary immune response to a previously encountered antigen?
Part of antibody where antigens are bound
How many ATPs are made from the FADH2 molecules from 1 molecule of glucose?
Amino acid with a Thiol group
What recognizes and binds to all primary antibodies from a given species?
What differentiates into T-cells and B-cells?
How many protons are transported across the inner membrane per molecule of FADH2 in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
Which CD is taken advantage of by HIV?
Multiple antigens cross-link with antibodies
Fatty acids can be converted into what?
Most common coenzyme
To respond to a wide array of antigens
What are the reagents of glycolysis step 1
What receptors only bind to antigens on display?
What are the products of glycolysis step 1
What is another name for liver cells?
Some substance capable of inducing an immune response.
Another name for stationary phase or gel.
Putting the antigen on the outside of the cell to display to other cells.
If the pH is lowered, amino acids protonate and the protein becomes more _____ overall
What are the final products from one molecule of glucose that goes through aerobic respiration?
What adjective describes the phenomena where you transcribe both parents copies of a particular protein?
A specific type of dendritic cell found in the epidermis.
Weight/Height^2
Process of turning oxidizable substrates into H20 and CO2
How many protons are required to flow through F0 to generate one ATP by F1?
How are fats converted into acetyl coa?
Antibody class that is stuck on surface of B cells; weird shape

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