Science Quiz / Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
What is Ca2+?
Causes disassembly of microtubules
Double membrane around the nucleus
Where a specific kind of RNA (ribosomal) is being made
Allow specific solutes to cross membrane
Normal though harmful byproduct of oxidative metabolism
Soda straw tubes, made out of tubulins, used for intracellular transport. Very stiff, grow from the + end
Away from the middle
Protein constituents know how to orient themselves to create the cytoskeleton via long filaments
Relates time to the mean squared distance traveled
Proteins that transport solutes together
Twitching
Faces outside world
Basic subunit for filaments
Plus-end directed, toward the periphery
Cause unknown in terms of ALS
Lend lateral strength to tissues, stable, they are not polar
Dynein that is used for cargo transport
Molecular sized apparatus that converts energy to work
Elimination of toxins
The beginning of chemical or physical changes at discrete points in a system. Helps the actin filaments start growing.
Stabilize nerve axons by maintaining girth
A flattened extension of a cell, by which it moves over or adheres to a surface
Type of drugs that treat cancer
Incorrect tracking of the eye
Copying DNA into RNA
Too many copies of genes
Top of “hump” in energy diagram of reaction
Altered vision and confusion
What is DAG?
Microtubule based motors that are minus-end directed
Made of actin and actin-binding proteins, responsible for cell shape, contraction, motility, and cellular transport
Maximum amount of force a motor can generate
Oxidizes proteins in a more harmful and irreversible way
A temporary protrusion of the surface of an ameboid cell for movement and feeding
“Hump” to get over on its way to lower energy
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Two different proteins stuck together
The folded bits in the mitochondria
Molecular motor that takes cargo to center of cell
Acts on ATP to strip off two phosphates turning it into cAMP
Makes branch points on actin filaments and nucleates new filament growth.
Handles Oxidative stress in the body.
Growth by the addition of monomers
Allows a reaction to go faster
Shut down mitosis
Microtubule based motors that are mostly plus-end directed
Same enzyme doing basically the same reaction but in a different way
Breaking apart water (hydrolysis) in the process of breaking protein chains
Dynein that is used for cilliary and flagellar motion
A large chunk of the microtubule disassembles rapidly
What enzymes act upon
Proteins that exchange solutes
Rate of using ATP
An assay with kinesin or dynein and microtubules
Stabilizes microtubules, blocking cell division
Binds the relative cargo
Protein changes its shape in a way to where it no longer functions
Shuttle that promotes nucleotide exchange
Allow very specific ions to cross membranes by creating a channel/tunnel through the cell membrane
Amount of time spent generating force
Interacts with hormone; determines ligand specificity
Binds and hydrolyzes GTP
Notable example of MTOC
Monomer buffer
Key activator of Arp2/3 that is itself activated by G protein coupled receptors.
There is a limit as to how fast an enzyme can go; one substrate move in and products move out before the next substrate moves in
Speed of movement
A substance can be called this if you can put one wavelength in and get a different wavelength out
Energy bearing compound
Small molecules that convey the message from the receptor to the cell interior.
Inherited
The filling in the mitochondria
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Exchanges three sodium ions OUT and two potassium ions IN utilizing one ATP (ATP releases a P, becomes ADP, causes pump to open)
Accelerates the movement of a solute down it’s electrochemical gradient
What does cAMP activate?
What is cAMP?
Break protein chains through hydrolysis (breaking apart water)
Length one step of a motor makes
What is IP3?
Any of various pathologic changes seen in living organisms in response to excessive levels of cytotoxic oxidants and free radicals in the environment.
Faces inside world of body
Using RNA as a template for making protein
A motor is called this if it can walk continuously along a filament without falling off
Protein that forms filaments for muscle contraction
New growth off of the main actin filament
One event makes tons of second messengers
Load bearing filaments
Molecular motor that takes cargo to periphery of cell
Determines G protein specificity
Actin filament stabilizer; leads to liver failure if ingested.
An assay with actin over myosin
Form the tonofilaments of epithelia, found in skin and hair
What SOD converts superoxide into
Force x distance
Connecting a hormone to a very specific effector
Turn things off
Other proteins or molecules that are necessary to keep the enzyme activated
A system that’s based in cytoskeleton of neurons that is responsible for transporting materials such as organelles, vesicles… etc.
Turn things on
Due to multiple copies of a gene the effect of a gene can be enhanced
Control where microtubules form and they bypass the time for nucleation.
Portion that is connected to filament
Monomer concentration [m] at which the rate of monomer addition equals the rate of monomer loss.
Any device that changes some measurable quantity into another measurable quantity
Something that binds to a receptor
Stacking by alternating between alpha and beta tubulins
Feeling of motion (spinning)

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