Science Quiz / Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Molecular motor that takes cargo to periphery of cell
Dynein that is used for cargo transport
An assay with kinesin or dynein and microtubules
Amount of time spent generating force
Key activator of Arp2/3 that is itself activated by G protein coupled receptors.
A motor is called this if it can walk continuously along a filament without falling off
Rate of using ATP
One event makes tons of second messengers
New growth off of the main actin filament
A system that’s based in cytoskeleton of neurons that is responsible for transporting materials such as organelles, vesicles… etc.
Away from the middle
Protein changes its shape in a way to where it no longer functions
Binds and hydrolyzes GTP
Too many copies of genes
Monomer concentration [m] at which the rate of monomer addition equals the rate of monomer loss.
Allow specific solutes to cross membrane
Allows a reaction to go faster
Handles Oxidative stress in the body.
Turn things off
Break protein chains through hydrolysis (breaking apart water)
Two different proteins stuck together
Control where microtubules form and they bypass the time for nucleation.
What is cAMP?
Stabilizes microtubules, blocking cell division
Type of drugs that treat cancer
Inherited
Makes branch points on actin filaments and nucleates new filament growth.
Small molecules that convey the message from the receptor to the cell interior.
There is a limit as to how fast an enzyme can go; one substrate move in and products move out before the next substrate moves in
What is IP3?
Faces inside world of body
Incorrect tracking of the eye
Double membrane around the nucleus
The folded bits in the mitochondria
Soda straw tubes, made out of tubulins, used for intracellular transport. Very stiff, grow from the + end
The filling in the mitochondria
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Protein constituents know how to orient themselves to create the cytoskeleton via long filaments
Determines G protein specificity
What enzymes act upon
Notable example of MTOC
Load bearing filaments
Made of actin and actin-binding proteins, responsible for cell shape, contraction, motility, and cellular transport
Proteins that transport solutes together
Copying DNA into RNA
A temporary protrusion of the surface of an ameboid cell for movement and feeding
Acts on ATP to strip off two phosphates turning it into cAMP
Accelerates the movement of a solute down it’s electrochemical gradient
A substance can be called this if you can put one wavelength in and get a different wavelength out
Causes disassembly of microtubules
Stacking by alternating between alpha and beta tubulins
Something that binds to a receptor
Proteins that exchange solutes
Microtubule based motors that are minus-end directed
Maximum amount of force a motor can generate
Twitching
Exchanges three sodium ions OUT and two potassium ions IN utilizing one ATP (ATP releases a P, becomes ADP, causes pump to open)
Form the tonofilaments of epithelia, found in skin and hair
Stabilize nerve axons by maintaining girth
Turn things on
Shuttle that promotes nucleotide exchange
Basic subunit for filaments
Oxidizes proteins in a more harmful and irreversible way
What is DAG?
Breaking apart water (hydrolysis) in the process of breaking protein chains
Using RNA as a template for making protein
Microtubule based motors that are mostly plus-end directed
Length one step of a motor makes
Faces outside world
“Hump” to get over on its way to lower energy
Dynein that is used for cilliary and flagellar motion
Any of various pathologic changes seen in living organisms in response to excessive levels of cytotoxic oxidants and free radicals in the environment.
A large chunk of the microtubule disassembles rapidly
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
A flattened extension of a cell, by which it moves over or adheres to a surface
Speed of movement
An assay with actin over myosin
Top of “hump” in energy diagram of reaction
What does cAMP activate?
Connecting a hormone to a very specific effector
Cause unknown in terms of ALS
The beginning of chemical or physical changes at discrete points in a system. Helps the actin filaments start growing.
Force x distance
Portion that is connected to filament
Feeling of motion (spinning)
Binds the relative cargo
Where a specific kind of RNA (ribosomal) is being made
Elimination of toxins
Relates time to the mean squared distance traveled
Any device that changes some measurable quantity into another measurable quantity
What is Ca2+?
What SOD converts superoxide into
Altered vision and confusion
Protein that forms filaments for muscle contraction
Molecular motor that takes cargo to center of cell
Plus-end directed, toward the periphery
Actin filament stabilizer; leads to liver failure if ingested.
Allow very specific ions to cross membranes by creating a channel/tunnel through the cell membrane
Monomer buffer
Lend lateral strength to tissues, stable, they are not polar
Energy bearing compound
Same enzyme doing basically the same reaction but in a different way
Growth by the addition of monomers
Other proteins or molecules that are necessary to keep the enzyme activated
Normal though harmful byproduct of oxidative metabolism
Molecular sized apparatus that converts energy to work
Due to multiple copies of a gene the effect of a gene can be enhanced
Interacts with hormone; determines ligand specificity
Shut down mitosis

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