Science Quiz / Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Break protein chains through hydrolysis (breaking apart water)
What is Ca2+?
Too many copies of genes
Altered vision and confusion
Monomer buffer
Determines G protein specificity
Small molecules that convey the message from the receptor to the cell interior.
Faces outside world
Stabilize nerve axons by maintaining girth
Inherited
Breaking apart water (hydrolysis) in the process of breaking protein chains
What is DAG?
Control where microtubules form and they bypass the time for nucleation.
Portion that is connected to filament
Speed of movement
Incorrect tracking of the eye
Force x distance
A substance can be called this if you can put one wavelength in and get a different wavelength out
Same enzyme doing basically the same reaction but in a different way
Copying DNA into RNA
Away from the middle
A flattened extension of a cell, by which it moves over or adheres to a surface
What does cAMP activate?
Stacking by alternating between alpha and beta tubulins
Type of drugs that treat cancer
“Hump” to get over on its way to lower energy
Microtubule based motors that are mostly plus-end directed
Shut down mitosis
The beginning of chemical or physical changes at discrete points in a system. Helps the actin filaments start growing.
Accelerates the movement of a solute down it’s electrochemical gradient
Two different proteins stuck together
Proteins that transport solutes together
Dynein that is used for cilliary and flagellar motion
Interacts with hormone; determines ligand specificity
Acts on ATP to strip off two phosphates turning it into cAMP
Normal though harmful byproduct of oxidative metabolism
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Allow very specific ions to cross membranes by creating a channel/tunnel through the cell membrane
Binds and hydrolyzes GTP
There is a limit as to how fast an enzyme can go; one substrate move in and products move out before the next substrate moves in
Notable example of MTOC
Protein changes its shape in a way to where it no longer functions
Basic subunit for filaments
What SOD converts superoxide into
Form the tonofilaments of epithelia, found in skin and hair
An assay with actin over myosin
New growth off of the main actin filament
Causes disassembly of microtubules
Growth by the addition of monomers
Twitching
Exchanges three sodium ions OUT and two potassium ions IN utilizing one ATP (ATP releases a P, becomes ADP, causes pump to open)
Length one step of a motor makes
What is IP3?
What enzymes act upon
The folded bits in the mitochondria
Load bearing filaments
Oxidizes proteins in a more harmful and irreversible way
Plus-end directed, toward the periphery
Maximum amount of force a motor can generate
Due to multiple copies of a gene the effect of a gene can be enhanced
An assay with kinesin or dynein and microtubules
Relates time to the mean squared distance traveled
Using RNA as a template for making protein
A temporary protrusion of the surface of an ameboid cell for movement and feeding
Double membrane around the nucleus
Made of actin and actin-binding proteins, responsible for cell shape, contraction, motility, and cellular transport
Molecular motor that takes cargo to periphery of cell
Where a specific kind of RNA (ribosomal) is being made
Protein constituents know how to orient themselves to create the cytoskeleton via long filaments
Energy bearing compound
Connecting a hormone to a very specific effector
Turn things off
A system that’s based in cytoskeleton of neurons that is responsible for transporting materials such as organelles, vesicles… etc.
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Protein that forms filaments for muscle contraction
Turn things on
Other proteins or molecules that are necessary to keep the enzyme activated
Faces inside world of body
Any of various pathologic changes seen in living organisms in response to excessive levels of cytotoxic oxidants and free radicals in the environment.
Shuttle that promotes nucleotide exchange
Actin filament stabilizer; leads to liver failure if ingested.
Feeling of motion (spinning)
Allows a reaction to go faster
Allow specific solutes to cross membrane
Binds the relative cargo
One event makes tons of second messengers
The filling in the mitochondria
Stabilizes microtubules, blocking cell division
Proteins that exchange solutes
Amount of time spent generating force
Molecular sized apparatus that converts energy to work
Top of “hump” in energy diagram of reaction
Key activator of Arp2/3 that is itself activated by G protein coupled receptors.
Rate of using ATP
A motor is called this if it can walk continuously along a filament without falling off
What is cAMP?
Lend lateral strength to tissues, stable, they are not polar
Handles Oxidative stress in the body.
Any device that changes some measurable quantity into another measurable quantity
Something that binds to a receptor
Microtubule based motors that are minus-end directed
Soda straw tubes, made out of tubulins, used for intracellular transport. Very stiff, grow from the + end
Cause unknown in terms of ALS
Elimination of toxins
Dynein that is used for cargo transport
Molecular motor that takes cargo to center of cell
Monomer concentration [m] at which the rate of monomer addition equals the rate of monomer loss.
A large chunk of the microtubule disassembles rapidly
Makes branch points on actin filaments and nucleates new filament growth.

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