Science Quiz / Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Amount of time spent generating force
Basic subunit for filaments
Stacking by alternating between alpha and beta tubulins
Made of actin and actin-binding proteins, responsible for cell shape, contraction, motility, and cellular transport
Microtubule based motors that are minus-end directed
Turn things on
One event makes tons of second messengers
Two different proteins stuck together
Shuttle that promotes nucleotide exchange
Molecular motor that takes cargo to center of cell
Allow specific solutes to cross membrane
What is DAG?
Stabilize nerve axons by maintaining girth
Binds and hydrolyzes GTP
Maximum amount of force a motor can generate
Portion that is connected to filament
Form the tonofilaments of epithelia, found in skin and hair
Force x distance
Lend lateral strength to tissues, stable, they are not polar
What is IP3?
Soda straw tubes, made out of tubulins, used for intracellular transport. Very stiff, grow from the + end
What SOD converts superoxide into
A large chunk of the microtubule disassembles rapidly
Molecular sized apparatus that converts energy to work
Acts on ATP to strip off two phosphates turning it into cAMP
Breaking apart water (hydrolysis) in the process of breaking protein chains
Something that binds to a receptor
Interacts with hormone; determines ligand specificity
Twitching
Small molecules that convey the message from the receptor to the cell interior.
A substance can be called this if you can put one wavelength in and get a different wavelength out
Handles Oxidative stress in the body.
Control where microtubules form and they bypass the time for nucleation.
Determines G protein specificity
The beginning of chemical or physical changes at discrete points in a system. Helps the actin filaments start growing.
What enzymes act upon
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Energy bearing compound
Relates time to the mean squared distance traveled
Same enzyme doing basically the same reaction but in a different way
Faces inside world of body
Where a specific kind of RNA (ribosomal) is being made
Break protein chains through hydrolysis (breaking apart water)
Binds the relative cargo
A motor is called this if it can walk continuously along a filament without falling off
Rate of using ATP
Notable example of MTOC
Any device that changes some measurable quantity into another measurable quantity
New growth off of the main actin filament
Top of “hump” in energy diagram of reaction
Connecting a hormone to a very specific effector
Length one step of a motor makes
Shut down mitosis
Protein constituents know how to orient themselves to create the cytoskeleton via long filaments
Exchanges three sodium ions OUT and two potassium ions IN utilizing one ATP (ATP releases a P, becomes ADP, causes pump to open)
The folded bits in the mitochondria
A system that’s based in cytoskeleton of neurons that is responsible for transporting materials such as organelles, vesicles… etc.
Load bearing filaments
What does cAMP activate?
Dynein that is used for cargo transport
An assay with kinesin or dynein and microtubules
A flattened extension of a cell, by which it moves over or adheres to a surface
Normal though harmful byproduct of oxidative metabolism
Feeling of motion (spinning)
Turn things off
Copying DNA into RNA
What is Ca2+?
Type of drugs that treat cancer
A temporary protrusion of the surface of an ameboid cell for movement and feeding
Using RNA as a template for making protein
There is a limit as to how fast an enzyme can go; one substrate move in and products move out before the next substrate moves in
Growth by the addition of monomers
Proteins that transport solutes together
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Accelerates the movement of a solute down it’s electrochemical gradient
Other proteins or molecules that are necessary to keep the enzyme activated
Inherited
Monomer buffer
Allow very specific ions to cross membranes by creating a channel/tunnel through the cell membrane
Away from the middle
Any of various pathologic changes seen in living organisms in response to excessive levels of cytotoxic oxidants and free radicals in the environment.
Protein changes its shape in a way to where it no longer functions
Incorrect tracking of the eye
Causes disassembly of microtubules
An assay with actin over myosin
Cause unknown in terms of ALS
Actin filament stabilizer; leads to liver failure if ingested.
What is cAMP?
Due to multiple copies of a gene the effect of a gene can be enhanced
Monomer concentration [m] at which the rate of monomer addition equals the rate of monomer loss.
“Hump” to get over on its way to lower energy
Altered vision and confusion
Stabilizes microtubules, blocking cell division
Molecular motor that takes cargo to periphery of cell
Faces outside world
The filling in the mitochondria
Oxidizes proteins in a more harmful and irreversible way
Speed of movement
Proteins that exchange solutes
Elimination of toxins
Protein that forms filaments for muscle contraction
Plus-end directed, toward the periphery
Key activator of Arp2/3 that is itself activated by G protein coupled receptors.
Dynein that is used for cilliary and flagellar motion
Makes branch points on actin filaments and nucleates new filament growth.
Allows a reaction to go faster
Microtubule based motors that are mostly plus-end directed
Too many copies of genes
Double membrane around the nucleus

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