Science Quiz / Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2

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QUIZ: Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Stabilizes microtubules, blocking cell division
Protein constituents know how to orient themselves to create the cytoskeleton via long filaments
Same enzyme doing basically the same reaction but in a different way
Determines G protein specificity
Maximum amount of force a motor can generate
A large chunk of the microtubule disassembles rapidly
Plus-end directed, toward the periphery
An assay with kinesin or dynein and microtubules
The beginning of chemical or physical changes at discrete points in a system. Helps the actin filaments start growing.
Relates time to the mean squared distance traveled
The filling in the mitochondria
Breaking apart water (hydrolysis) in the process of breaking protein chains
Made of actin and actin-binding proteins, responsible for cell shape, contraction, motility, and cellular transport
A flattened extension of a cell, by which it moves over or adheres to a surface
Notable example of MTOC
Molecular motor that takes cargo to center of cell
Type of drugs that treat cancer
A substance can be called this if you can put one wavelength in and get a different wavelength out
Makes branch points on actin filaments and nucleates new filament growth.
Handles Oxidative stress in the body.
Accelerates the movement of a solute down it’s electrochemical gradient
A motor is called this if it can walk continuously along a filament without falling off
Lend lateral strength to tissues, stable, they are not polar
Key activator of Arp2/3 that is itself activated by G protein coupled receptors.
Altered vision and confusion
The folded bits in the mitochondria
Microtubule based motors that are mostly plus-end directed
Amount of time spent generating force
Oxidizes proteins in a more harmful and irreversible way
Due to multiple copies of a gene the effect of a gene can be enhanced
Faces inside world of body
Speed of movement
Allows a reaction to go faster
Binds the relative cargo
Top of “hump” in energy diagram of reaction
A temporary protrusion of the surface of an ameboid cell for movement and feeding
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Exchanges three sodium ions OUT and two potassium ions IN utilizing one ATP (ATP releases a P, becomes ADP, causes pump to open)
New growth off of the main actin filament
Normal though harmful byproduct of oxidative metabolism
Force x distance
Away from the middle
Too many copies of genes
“Hump” to get over on its way to lower energy
Twitching
An assay with actin over myosin
Double membrane around the nucleus
Allow specific solutes to cross membrane
There is a limit as to how fast an enzyme can go; one substrate move in and products move out before the next substrate moves in
What is Ca2+?
Soda straw tubes, made out of tubulins, used for intracellular transport. Very stiff, grow from the + end
Microtubule based motors that are minus-end directed
Molecular motor that takes cargo to periphery of cell
Load bearing filaments
Dynein that is used for cargo transport
What is DAG?
Growth by the addition of monomers
Acts on ATP to strip off two phosphates turning it into cAMP
Inherited
Connecting a hormone to a very specific effector
Actin filament stabilizer; leads to liver failure if ingested.
Monomer concentration [m] at which the rate of monomer addition equals the rate of monomer loss.
What SOD converts superoxide into
Protein that forms filaments for muscle contraction
Break protein chains through hydrolysis (breaking apart water)
Protein changes its shape in a way to where it no longer functions
Two different proteins stuck together
Interacts with hormone; determines ligand specificity
Length one step of a motor makes
Cause unknown in terms of ALS
What enzymes act upon
Turn things on
What is cAMP?
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Something that binds to a receptor
Where a specific kind of RNA (ribosomal) is being made
Rate of using ATP
Causes disassembly of microtubules
Faces outside world
Stacking by alternating between alpha and beta tubulins
Portion that is connected to filament
Shuttle that promotes nucleotide exchange
Small molecules that convey the message from the receptor to the cell interior.
One event makes tons of second messengers
Shut down mitosis
Elimination of toxins
Proteins that transport solutes together
Dynein that is used for cilliary and flagellar motion
Binds and hydrolyzes GTP
Turn things off
Any of various pathologic changes seen in living organisms in response to excessive levels of cytotoxic oxidants and free radicals in the environment.
What does cAMP activate?
Monomer buffer
Using RNA as a template for making protein
Proteins that exchange solutes
Form the tonofilaments of epithelia, found in skin and hair
Molecular sized apparatus that converts energy to work
Incorrect tracking of the eye
Control where microtubules form and they bypass the time for nucleation.
Other proteins or molecules that are necessary to keep the enzyme activated
What is IP3?
Stabilize nerve axons by maintaining girth
Energy bearing compound
Feeling of motion (spinning)
Basic subunit for filaments
Copying DNA into RNA
A system that’s based in cytoskeleton of neurons that is responsible for transporting materials such as organelles, vesicles… etc.
Any device that changes some measurable quantity into another measurable quantity
Allow very specific ions to cross membranes by creating a channel/tunnel through the cell membrane

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