Science Quiz / Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2

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Can you name the Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 2?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
The folded bits in the mitochondria
Binds the relative cargo
Form the tonofilaments of epithelia, found in skin and hair
Stabilize nerve axons by maintaining girth
Made of actin and actin-binding proteins, responsible for cell shape, contraction, motility, and cellular transport
Length one step of a motor makes
Cause unknown in terms of ALS
Two different proteins stuck together
Microtubule based motors that are minus-end directed
Protein that forms filaments for muscle contraction
Turn things on
Makes branch points on actin filaments and nucleates new filament growth.
Basic subunit for filaments
New growth off of the main actin filament
Allows a reaction to go faster
The filling in the mitochondria
Other proteins or molecules that are necessary to keep the enzyme activated
Amount of time spent generating force
A motor is called this if it can walk continuously along a filament without falling off
Molecular motor that takes cargo to periphery of cell
What does cAMP activate?
Growth by the addition of monomers
Small molecules that convey the message from the receptor to the cell interior.
Faces inside world of body
Exchanges three sodium ions OUT and two potassium ions IN utilizing one ATP (ATP releases a P, becomes ADP, causes pump to open)
Stacking by alternating between alpha and beta tubulins
Monomer buffer
Incorrect tracking of the eye
Turn things off
Dynein that is used for cargo transport
Energy bearing compound
Proteins that transport solutes together
An assay with kinesin or dynein and microtubules
Handles Oxidative stress in the body.
Where a specific kind of RNA (ribosomal) is being made
Protein constituents know how to orient themselves to create the cytoskeleton via long filaments
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Faces outside world
Top of “hump” in energy diagram of reaction
Accelerates the movement of a solute down it’s electrochemical gradient
Too many copies of genes
A substance can be called this if you can put one wavelength in and get a different wavelength out
Force x distance
Portion that is connected to filament
Speed of movement
Double membrane around the nucleus
Type of drugs that treat cancer
Shut down mitosis
Normal though harmful byproduct of oxidative metabolism
Notable example of MTOC
Altered vision and confusion
Monomer concentration [m] at which the rate of monomer addition equals the rate of monomer loss.
Oxidizes proteins in a more harmful and irreversible way
There is a limit as to how fast an enzyme can go; one substrate move in and products move out before the next substrate moves in
What is DAG?
Rate of using ATP
Relates time to the mean squared distance traveled
Away from the middle
Any device that changes some measurable quantity into another measurable quantity
What is IP3?
Feeling of motion (spinning)
Connecting a hormone to a very specific effector
Microtubule based motors that are mostly plus-end directed
Molecular sized apparatus that converts energy to work
Protein changes its shape in a way to where it no longer functions
Dynein that is used for cilliary and flagellar motion
A flattened extension of a cell, by which it moves over or adheres to a surface
Soda straw tubes, made out of tubulins, used for intracellular transport. Very stiff, grow from the + end
Molecular motor that takes cargo to center of cell
An assay with actin over myosin
Load bearing filaments
Maximum amount of force a motor can generate
Key activator of Arp2/3 that is itself activated by G protein coupled receptors.
Question/DefinitionAnswer/Term
Twitching
A temporary protrusion of the surface of an ameboid cell for movement and feeding
Using RNA as a template for making protein
A system that’s based in cytoskeleton of neurons that is responsible for transporting materials such as organelles, vesicles… etc.
Allow specific solutes to cross membrane
What SOD converts superoxide into
Shuttle that promotes nucleotide exchange
Actin filament stabilizer; leads to liver failure if ingested.
Acts on ATP to strip off two phosphates turning it into cAMP
Any of various pathologic changes seen in living organisms in response to excessive levels of cytotoxic oxidants and free radicals in the environment.
What is cAMP?
A large chunk of the microtubule disassembles rapidly
The beginning of chemical or physical changes at discrete points in a system. Helps the actin filaments start growing.
Interacts with hormone; determines ligand specificity
“Hump” to get over on its way to lower energy
Inherited
Determines G protein specificity
One event makes tons of second messengers
Control where microtubules form and they bypass the time for nucleation.
Breaking apart water (hydrolysis) in the process of breaking protein chains
Allow very specific ions to cross membranes by creating a channel/tunnel through the cell membrane
What is Ca2+?
Plus-end directed, toward the periphery
What enzymes act upon
Elimination of toxins
Proteins that exchange solutes
Same enzyme doing basically the same reaction but in a different way
Causes disassembly of microtubules
Binds and hydrolyzes GTP
Stabilizes microtubules, blocking cell division
Copying DNA into RNA
Break protein chains through hydrolysis (breaking apart water)
Due to multiple copies of a gene the effect of a gene can be enhanced
Lend lateral strength to tissues, stable, they are not polar
Something that binds to a receptor

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