Science Quiz / Cell and Molecular Bio Test 1 Part 1

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Can you name the terms for Test 1?

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Question/DefinitionAnswer/TermExtra Info
The progression of the disease
The ejection of mucus, sputum, or fluids from the trachea and lungs by coughing or spitting.
Physical sign causing bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes.Caused by a lack of oxygen in the blood. Associated with cold temperatures, heart failure, lung diseases, and smothering
Reduction of oxygen supply to a tissue below physiological levels despite adequate perfusion of the tissue by blood.
Build-up of carbon dioxide in the blood produces a shift in the body's pH balance and causes the body's system to become more acidic.Caused by hypoventilation
Reduced or deficient ventilation of the lungs, resulting in reduced aeration of blood in the lungs and an increased level of carbon dioxide in the blood.
The total number of cases of a disease in a given population for a given year.
The extent or rate of occurrence, especially the number of new cases of a disease in a population over a period of time.
Main costs associated with a given disease. (hospitalization, eppipins) Not including lost income from not being able to work…etc.
Cause of disease.
Any of various phosphorous-containing lipids that are composed mainly of fatty acids, a phosphate group, and a simple organic molecule. Also called phosphatide.
Keep membranes fluid at low temperatures and reduces fluidity at high temperatures.
Proteins embedded in the plasma membrane.
Proteins that pass all the way through the plasma membrane.
Proteins that are bound to the outside of the plasma membrane but not a part of it. (like to sit on bilayer)
Proteins that are covalently bound to a phospholipid on the exterior of the plasma membrane. (can flow along surface, but never leave)
Less Hydrogens bound to carbons in fatty acids. Causing double or triple bonds which lead to kinks in the chain.
Acid that is converted into leukotriene A4 by lipoxygenaseCritical in development (pathogenesis) of asthma (attacks)
Taking functions & packing them into one defined region Function of membrane, raises concentrations (need for reactions)
Barrier to the transport of larger molecules especially ones that are polar or charged.
White Blood cells responsible for the immune response of the body.
The process of pushing through the blood vessel wall into the tissue
Leave the tissue to become mast cells. Release substances that increase vascular permeability and recruit other immune cells – inflammation.Highly granular
Generally involved in attacks on parasites and multicellular organisms. Distinct Golgi, distinctive granules, normally few in the circulation.
Cells that wait for a trigger to release their contents through the process of degranulation.
Process by which vesicles full of crystalline structures, granules, go through exocytosis, dumping their contents to the outside.These granules are toxic to eukaryotic, multicellular organisms, and recruit additional white blood cells (cytokines)
Substances released from cells that affect the behavior of neighboring cells; generic term.
Small proteins released from cells that affect the behavior of neighboring cells.
Enzyme found in basophils that converts Arachidonic acid into Leukotriene A4
Specific leukotriene responsible for the problems of asthma
Promote white cell homing - eosinophils in particular, increased vascular permeability, giving rise to edema, bronchiole constriction due to smooth muscle contraction,and mucus secretion by respiratory epithelial cells.
Property of blood capillary walls that allows for the selective exchange of substances.
A condition characterized by an excess of watery fluid collecting in the cavities or tissues of the body.
Any of the minute branches into which a bronchus divides, lead to alveoli.
Outer layer, can refer to skin or the inside of the intestines…etc.
A layer of cells that lines the inside of certain body cavities, for example, blood vessels.
The attraction of leukocytes by chemical means.
Suffix; too many
Suffix; too few
Question/DefinitionAnswer/TermExtra Info
Cells with a true distinct nucleus; i.e. multicellular organisms
Cells without a true distinct nucleus; i.e. bacteria
Producing, i.e. they will regenerate their secretory granulesin reference to Eosinophils
Molecule used for communcationExample: NO
A state of 'suspended animation' that some bacteria can adopt when conditions are not ideal for growth. They are analogous to plant seeds and can germinate into growing bacteria wh
Rigid contraction paralysis.
Muscles completely lose contractability
Most deadly toxins in the world. Cleave synaptobrevin.
Lethal dose for 50% of the population
Biological catalysts
Rate at saturation for a given enzyme concentration in moles per unit time.
Substrate concentration that gives ½ maximal velocity, units of Concentration
The use of light measurements to measure how dark something is.
Inhibitor that binds to the active site.
Inhibitor that binds to an alternate site to change the conformation of the enzyme.
Noncompetitive inhibitor binds to somewhere besides the active site altering the shape of the enzyme.
Part of an enzyme that is used for lowering the activation energy for a particular reaction
Part of an enzyme that serves to bind to an inhibitor in order to regulate the catalytic domain
Structurally and functionally distinct regions of a single protein.
Imply separate proteins that are stuck to one another and work together; one such protein is a _______ of the assembly.
Adding/removing groups or cleaving bonds
Add phosphates to proteins
One protein binds to another, thereby activating the enzymatic activity of one of them.
One substrate aids or impedes catalysis by another, implying multiple catalytic subunits
Membrane proteins that bind to one another and help pull vesicle and cell membranes together.
Specific membrane protein that binds to each other and helps pull a vesicle and cell membrane together. Extends from vesicle membrane
Specific membrane protein that binds to each other and helps pull a vesicle and cell membrane together. Extends from the cell membrane
The vSNARE found in synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitters.
Lining of the gut that absorbs nutrients from digested food.
Neurons responsible for movement.
Cells way of taking in material by forming vesicles with outside fluid inside of them.
Neuron that prevents motor neuron activity
Smaller portion of the toxin. Important part.
Enzyme that cleaves synaptobrevin in the middle
Rate at saturation for 1 enzyme molecule (reactions catalyzed per second per molecule)
What is Arginine?
Enzyme that stores or passes electrons
Causing diarrhea
Low blood pressure
Question/DefinitionAnswer/TermExtra Info
Lack of blood flow
Lack of blood flow from low blood volume
A G protein inhibitor that increased secretion of water in the intestine, which can produce massive diarrhea.
Inhibits G Proteins
The addition of ADP-Ribose to the alpha subunit of the G protein, which turns the phosphorylation of GTP off
Control of function in some way
Modifications that occur after the proteins are translated from RNA
Process of transferring a ribosyl group
Enzyme that transfers groups
Enzyme that breaks water bonds
The addition of a phosphate group
Enzyme that removes Phosphate groups
Guanylyl Cyclase is what type of enzyme?
Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate (cGMP) is what?
Activated by cGMP in order to phosphorylate proteins
Enzyme that converts cGMP and cAMP back into their respective counterparts
What is Cysteine?
Having one dominant and one recessive form of a gene
The likely course of a disease or ailment
Pertaining to cilia on mucus covered surfaces
Mucus and “bad stuff”
Inside of the bronchioles
Difficulty breathing
Blocking of exocrine pancreatic ducts
Condition in which you fail to make or respond to insulin
Inflamation of the joints
Typically -70mV, measured inside relative to outside
Passive or facilitated. Dispersion due to random thermal motion.
Form of transport, Primary or Secondary, requires energy.
Energy from ATP hydrolysis is used directly by the transporter to move a substance
Energy from an electrochemical gradient is used to drive the transport of another
ΔG for ATP Hydrolysis
How many Ca2+ can you transport with one ATP under typical conditions?Intracellular Calcium = .1 uM; Extracellular calcium = 1 mM
Inside of the lumen (hollow organ)
Protein that allows chlorine to flow into/out of the cell membrane
Chloride Channel that is faulty in Cystic Fibrosis

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