Science Quiz / Science 9 Exam Semester 1 2013-14 Review Part 1

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Terms that will be on the exam

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a part of the shore that protrudes into the ocean
180 million years long, dominant life forms = dinosaurs
the decayed organic material in soil
small grooves in the soil formed by flowing runoff
made up of Earth's oceans, lakes, rivers, and ice
formed when a glacial valley empties into a body of water
material moved by erosion
a type of erosion caused when runoff flows in a broad thin layer
the accumulation of fossils and the information they give about the structure, environment, and age of extinct organims
refers to the natural processes that break down rock and other substances at Earth's surface
these preserve environmental evidence of an organism, not the organism itself. things like footprints, burrows, and coprolite.
measures a position in degrees E of the Prime Meridian, up to 360 degrees
a depression (5m to 13km diamter, with depths up to 45 m) formed by a retreating glacier as it leaves a large chunk of ice semi-buried in till
the movement of weathered rock material by wind, water, ice, or gravity
the process by which natural forces move weathered material from one location to another
when a wave becomes unstable, curls, and collapses
the 5 factors that influence the amount of runoff in an area, RAVETYTOLA
preserved remnants of living things and a record of the history of life
a large region of underground rock that is porous enough to act as a reservoir of stored water
a low ridge of till left by the farthest push of a glacier
deposition on the inside of a meander or a bend
fossils whose organic remains have actually been preserved by things like amber, tar pits, and freezing
tree sap
channels formed by rills flowing into each other
a bowl- or canoe-shaped glacial feature 10 to 60m high, and up to 1 km in length, elongated in the direction of the glacier flow
the change in elevation between contour lines
the five factors that influence the formation of soil, CROPT
the flat wide area of land along a river, often the result of extended point bar deposition
a fairly level landform at a high elevation (high elevation, low relief)
the grinding away of rock by smaller rock particles that are carried by wind, water, ice, or gravity
people who believe that life and the universe are random occurrences
the name given to sediment once the agents of erosion deposit it elsewhere
a loop-like bend in a river
soil whose solid components consist of equal parts sand (~40%) and silt (~40%) with a smaller percentage of clay (~20%). it retains both air and water and is best for growing most
a long ridge of underwater sand parallel to the shore
300 million years long, dominant life forms = aquatic invertebrates and vertebrates
the process of mechanical weathering, it results in rock particles whose composition is the same as the rock they came from
formed when water fills a mold, then the water leaks out, leaving behind sediment which hardens to form a replica of the organism
landslides with high water content (as high as 60%). can be triggered by heavy rain, earthquakes, and volcanoes.
when waves hit a beach at an angle, and beach sediment moves along the beach over time in this process
an imaginary line that circles Earth halfway between the North and South poles
the four properties of soil we studied
the process by which wind picks up and removes surface materials
a landscape with lots of sinkholes
refers to the structure of earth's crust and the large-scale processes that occur within it
made up of all living things, it extends into each of the other spheres
groundwater with dissolved minerals
depositions that grow downwards from the ceiling of a cave
0.05mm-0.002mm, more surface area, greater chemical activity, less pore space
the level at which the bedrock is saturated
used to list the symbols on a map or globe and their meanings
an imaginary line that runs from N pole to S pole and passes through Greenwich, England
the very slow downhill movement of rock and soil, often due to the freezing and thawing of water in the cracked layers of rock beneath the soil
the 3D shape of Earth's surface features, determined by elevation relief and landforms
the mixture of sediments deposited by a glacier
scientists who study fossils
form down the middle of a glacier, in the same direction as the glacier's motion
a landscape feature made of till
the high ground between two drainage basins
people who believe that life and the universe are the result of design
Earth's solid, rocky outer layer. It includes separate and distinct tectonic plates that move independently of each other. It includes continents, islands, and the ocean floor
hardened tree sap
a hollowed out depression in a mountain from which glaciers can form and slide downhill.
a large-scale topographical feature that has been formed by Earth's geological processes
a continuously flowing channel usually fed by many gullies
a wide sloping deposit formed by a river that suddenly becomes wider, shallower, and slower. river to river.
4 billion years long, dominant life forms = aquatic microbes and sponges
formed when wave action causes a cave to collapse
leaving soil alone for a year or two, not plowing the land so it can replenish
sudden explosive appearences of biological innovation followed by geologically peorids of biological redundancy
uses rectilinear lines and is easy to read, but it distorts sizes and distances
the original rock
weathered material from local bedrock
refers to the average weather conditions in an area
all worldviews make these (including the scientific method)
formed when a river flows into a still body of water and slows down enough to deposit most of its sediment at its mouth. river to ocean
formed by narrow fast-flowing rivers that rapidly erode the slopes on either side
uses curved lines and is a more accurate representation of Earth's surface, but it is more difficult to read, especially near the edges where it distorts shapes
an explanation as to how/why something happens
rock that allows liquids or gases to seep through it, sometimes at the microscopic level
formed when water flows over hard rock and then onto soft rock, which erodes away
measures a position in degrees N or S of the equator, up to 90 degrees at the poles
the top 50m of a glacier is brittle and fractured
formed when glacial erosion exaggerates cirques and steepens the peaks into these
a deposition that hard water leaves in any household appliance that heats water
the sudden movement of disarticulated rock and soil down a steep slope. can be triggered by earthquakes.
a large area of flat or gently rolling topography, usually associated with grassland (low elevation, low relief)
a framework of lines whose goal is to aid in representing a curved surface as a flat one
the presuppositions, attitudes, and expectations that we use to interpret the world.
a meander that has been cut off from the river, formed during flooding
depositions that grow up from the floor of a cave
the difference in elevation between two points in the same region
a plain away from the coast
on average 35 km thick, primarily granite, less dense
the difference in direction between geographic North and magnetic North
the bending of waves as they approach the shore
a series of shallow depressions in till formed by runoff from a melting glacier
a deposit of wind-blown sand
form from from waves striking the base of a rocky coast
these form along the sides of mountain-valley glaciers
a spherical, 3D model of Earth's surface
the sudden slip of rock and soil together down a slope as a whole mass.
a beach made of pebbles
on average 6 km thick, primarily basalt, more dense
the type of weathering in which rock is physically broken down into smaller pieces
organisms that break down organic remains into humus
weathered material eroded from other locations, most parent material in soil is this
when sections of boulders, gravel, and soil freeze into the bottom of a glacier and get carried along with the glacier
a flat model of Earth's surface
a section of beach that protrudes into the water. they form when an obstruction causes longshore drift to accumulate
if an organism no longer exists
breaks down rock through chemical changes. It takes place on the surface of the rock
>2mm, not considered soil
formed when a glacier grinds up the bedrock underneath it into very fine powder
a layer of soil that differs in color and texture from the layers above or below it
where water that has seeped into a crack in a rock freezes and expands, causing the crack to deepen and widen
water that filters through the soil and into the pore spaces, fractures, and joints of bedrock
0.002mm, more surface area, greatest chemical activity, little pore space, greatest water and nutrient retention
a plain along the seacoast
below the top 50m of a glacier, the pressure on the ice causes this
65 million years long, dominant life forms = mammals
an observation about what happens
a region of wave-deposited sediment along the coast
a testable explanation that covers a wide range of explanations
a contour line labeled with a number indicating actual elevation
larger bodies of flowing water
a fossil in the form of a thin coating of carbon on a rock
when a glacier comes loose from the bedrock and flows much faster than normal (up to 6km per year)
the solid layer of rock beneath the soil
a stream or river that flows into a larger river
the management of soil to prevent its exhaustion or its erosion
a type of reasoning that argues from 'some' to 'all', conclusion = inference (not proof), rational but not logical
the most important factors that determine how quickly weathering happens, they also thus determine rate of soil formation
a glacier that covers much of a continent or large island (>50,000 km2, several km thick), they flow more slowly and in all directions
the entire area whose runoff is collected by a river and its tributary system
a space in the hardened sediment formed when an organism decays
loose weathered material combined with decayed organic material. it contains all 3 states of matter.
an extensive deposit of fine wind-blown sediments (usually from glacial activity)
fossils in which minerals replace existing features
a build up of snow and ice in a high mountain valley
height above sea level
a steep and often vertical column of rock due to the weathering and erosion of sections of headland, it can also form by the collapse of a natural arch
a broad thin layer of till left by a melted glacier
the mixture of gases that surround earth. It is made up of nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, carbon dioxide, and traces of other gaseous elements that are heavy enough to be retained
rainwater that does not get absorbed or evaporated but collects and flows over the land
the steps of the scientific method
a line on a topographical map that connects points of equal elevation
when storm wives pile sediment above sea level on a sand bar
large areas where the topography is similar
a landform of high elevation and high relief
the 3 types of scales on a map
the result of softer rock eroding out from under harder rock
formed in the ground above when the roof of a cave collapses because of extended weathering and erosion
a type of reasoning that argues from 'all' to 'some', conclusion = proof, rational and logical
the loose layer of dead plant material on and in the ground
plowing across the curves of a slope to reduce water erosion
shows the elevation, relief, and slope of the surface features of an area. They also show manmade features.
leaving the soil and plant cover intact as much as possible to reduce water erosion, return soil nutrients, and retain moisture in the soil
the process of chemical weathering, it results in rock particles whose composition is different than the rock they came from
2mm-0.05mm, least surface area, lowest chemical activity, most pore space, greatest air retention
mechanical and chemical weathering occur quickly in one type of climate, and there is another type of climate that only chemical weathering occurs more quickly in

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