Science Quiz / Science 9 Exam Semester 1 2013-14 Review Part 1

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QUIZ: Terms that will be on the exam

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DefinitionTerm
Earth's solid, rocky outer layer. It includes separate and distinct tectonic plates that move independently of each other. It includes continents, islands, and the ocean floor
when waves hit a beach at an angle, and beach sediment moves along the beach over time in this process
a low ridge of till left by the farthest push of a glacier
leaving soil alone for a year or two, not plowing the land so it can replenish
shows the elevation, relief, and slope of the surface features of an area. They also show manmade features.
measures a position in degrees E of the Prime Meridian, up to 360 degrees
people who believe that life and the universe are the result of design
a deposition that hard water leaves in any household appliance that heats water
formed when glacial erosion exaggerates cirques and steepens the peaks into these
measures a position in degrees N or S of the equator, up to 90 degrees at the poles
the bending of waves as they approach the shore
depositions that grow downwards from the ceiling of a cave
form down the middle of a glacier, in the same direction as the glacier's motion
the accumulation of fossils and the information they give about the structure, environment, and age of extinct organims
the sudden movement of disarticulated rock and soil down a steep slope. can be triggered by earthquakes.
if an organism no longer exists
on average 6 km thick, primarily basalt, more dense
the mixture of gases that surround earth. It is made up of nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, carbon dioxide, and traces of other gaseous elements that are heavy enough to be retained
a meander that has been cut off from the river, formed during flooding
on average 35 km thick, primarily granite, less dense
formed when a glacier grinds up the bedrock underneath it into very fine powder
depositions that grow up from the floor of a cave
a series of shallow depressions in till formed by runoff from a melting glacier
a section of beach that protrudes into the water. they form when an obstruction causes longshore drift to accumulate
the four properties of soil we studied
a deposit of wind-blown sand
deposition on the inside of a meander or a bend
a continuously flowing channel usually fed by many gullies
0.002mm, more surface area, greatest chemical activity, little pore space, greatest water and nutrient retention
180 million years long, dominant life forms = dinosaurs
material moved by erosion
the sudden slip of rock and soil together down a slope as a whole mass.
the very slow downhill movement of rock and soil, often due to the freezing and thawing of water in the cracked layers of rock beneath the soil
an extensive deposit of fine wind-blown sediments (usually from glacial activity)
form from from waves striking the base of a rocky coast
a large-scale topographical feature that has been formed by Earth's geological processes
an imaginary line that runs from N pole to S pole and passes through Greenwich, England
when storm wives pile sediment above sea level on a sand bar
an explanation as to how/why something happens
made up of Earth's oceans, lakes, rivers, and ice
a landform of high elevation and high relief
formed in the ground above when the roof of a cave collapses because of extended weathering and erosion
a contour line labeled with a number indicating actual elevation
tree sap
formed by narrow fast-flowing rivers that rapidly erode the slopes on either side
0.05mm-0.002mm, more surface area, greater chemical activity, less pore space
the 3 types of scales on a map
rainwater that does not get absorbed or evaporated but collects and flows over the land
a depression (5m to 13km diamter, with depths up to 45 m) formed by a retreating glacier as it leaves a large chunk of ice semi-buried in till
a type of reasoning that argues from 'some' to 'all', conclusion = inference (not proof), rational but not logical
the presuppositions, attitudes, and expectations that we use to interpret the world.
uses curved lines and is a more accurate representation of Earth's surface, but it is more difficult to read, especially near the edges where it distorts shapes
weathered material eroded from other locations, most parent material in soil is this
made up of all living things, it extends into each of the other spheres
DefinitionTerm
a type of reasoning that argues from 'all' to 'some', conclusion = proof, rational and logical
a build up of snow and ice in a high mountain valley
a plain along the seacoast
the loose layer of dead plant material on and in the ground
the difference in elevation between two points in the same region
scientists who study fossils
the most important factors that determine how quickly weathering happens, they also thus determine rate of soil formation
small grooves in the soil formed by flowing runoff
the change in elevation between contour lines
formed when water flows over hard rock and then onto soft rock, which erodes away
people who believe that life and the universe are random occurrences
a glacier that covers much of a continent or large island (>50,000 km2, several km thick), they flow more slowly and in all directions
fossils whose organic remains have actually been preserved by things like amber, tar pits, and freezing
when sections of boulders, gravel, and soil freeze into the bottom of a glacier and get carried along with the glacier
larger bodies of flowing water
the decayed organic material in soil
the level at which the bedrock is saturated
below the top 50m of a glacier, the pressure on the ice causes this
preserved remnants of living things and a record of the history of life
the flat wide area of land along a river, often the result of extended point bar deposition
these preserve environmental evidence of an organism, not the organism itself. things like footprints, burrows, and coprolite.
the entire area whose runoff is collected by a river and its tributary system
refers to the structure of earth's crust and the large-scale processes that occur within it
uses rectilinear lines and is easy to read, but it distorts sizes and distances
refers to the average weather conditions in an area
groundwater with dissolved minerals
soil whose solid components consist of equal parts sand (~40%) and silt (~40%) with a smaller percentage of clay (~20%). it retains both air and water and is best for growing most
the process of chemical weathering, it results in rock particles whose composition is different than the rock they came from
where water that has seeped into a crack in a rock freezes and expands, causing the crack to deepen and widen
height above sea level
water that filters through the soil and into the pore spaces, fractures, and joints of bedrock
leaving the soil and plant cover intact as much as possible to reduce water erosion, return soil nutrients, and retain moisture in the soil
the process by which wind picks up and removes surface materials
an imaginary line that circles Earth halfway between the North and South poles
the type of weathering in which rock is physically broken down into smaller pieces
a region of wave-deposited sediment along the coast
a flat model of Earth's surface
the grinding away of rock by smaller rock particles that are carried by wind, water, ice, or gravity
large areas where the topography is similar
a steep and often vertical column of rock due to the weathering and erosion of sections of headland, it can also form by the collapse of a natural arch
a stream or river that flows into a larger river
the management of soil to prevent its exhaustion or its erosion
a broad thin layer of till left by a melted glacier
a bowl- or canoe-shaped glacial feature 10 to 60m high, and up to 1 km in length, elongated in the direction of the glacier flow
>2mm, not considered soil
a large area of flat or gently rolling topography, usually associated with grassland (low elevation, low relief)
the movement of weathered rock material by wind, water, ice, or gravity
formed when a river flows into a still body of water and slows down enough to deposit most of its sediment at its mouth. river to ocean
used to list the symbols on a map or globe and their meanings
a line on a topographical map that connects points of equal elevation
loose weathered material combined with decayed organic material. it contains all 3 states of matter.
sudden explosive appearences of biological innovation followed by geologically peorids of biological redundancy
fossils in which minerals replace existing features
the top 50m of a glacier is brittle and fractured
DefinitionTerm
organisms that break down organic remains into humus
a landscape feature made of till
a long ridge of underwater sand parallel to the shore
the name given to sediment once the agents of erosion deposit it elsewhere
a beach made of pebbles
300 million years long, dominant life forms = aquatic invertebrates and vertebrates
a fairly level landform at a high elevation (high elevation, low relief)
a wide sloping deposit formed by a river that suddenly becomes wider, shallower, and slower. river to river.
the difference in direction between geographic North and magnetic North
when a glacier comes loose from the bedrock and flows much faster than normal (up to 6km per year)
the steps of the scientific method
the mixture of sediments deposited by a glacier
a landscape with lots of sinkholes
a space in the hardened sediment formed when an organism decays
the process by which natural forces move weathered material from one location to another
rock that allows liquids or gases to seep through it, sometimes at the microscopic level
65 million years long, dominant life forms = mammals
2mm-0.05mm, least surface area, lowest chemical activity, most pore space, greatest air retention
the result of softer rock eroding out from under harder rock
the process of mechanical weathering, it results in rock particles whose composition is the same as the rock they came from
when a wave becomes unstable, curls, and collapses
the high ground between two drainage basins
a hollowed out depression in a mountain from which glaciers can form and slide downhill.
all worldviews make these (including the scientific method)
the solid layer of rock beneath the soil
a part of the shore that protrudes into the ocean
an observation about what happens
these form along the sides of mountain-valley glaciers
a testable explanation that covers a wide range of explanations
the original rock
a large region of underground rock that is porous enough to act as a reservoir of stored water
formed when wave action causes a cave to collapse
channels formed by rills flowing into each other
a spherical, 3D model of Earth's surface
plowing across the curves of a slope to reduce water erosion
the 5 factors that influence the amount of runoff in an area, RAVETYTOLA
the five factors that influence the formation of soil, CROPT
a framework of lines whose goal is to aid in representing a curved surface as a flat one
formed when a glacial valley empties into a body of water
breaks down rock through chemical changes. It takes place on the surface of the rock
hardened tree sap
a loop-like bend in a river
4 billion years long, dominant life forms = aquatic microbes and sponges
a layer of soil that differs in color and texture from the layers above or below it
the 3D shape of Earth's surface features, determined by elevation relief and landforms
a plain away from the coast
mechanical and chemical weathering occur quickly in one type of climate, and there is another type of climate that only chemical weathering occurs more quickly in
a fossil in the form of a thin coating of carbon on a rock
landslides with high water content (as high as 60%). can be triggered by heavy rain, earthquakes, and volcanoes.
weathered material from local bedrock
a type of erosion caused when runoff flows in a broad thin layer
formed when water fills a mold, then the water leaks out, leaving behind sediment which hardens to form a replica of the organism
refers to the natural processes that break down rock and other substances at Earth's surface

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