Science Quiz / Science 9 Exam Semester 1 2013-14 Review Part 1

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Terms that will be on the exam

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the mixture of gases that surround earth. It is made up of nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, carbon dioxide, and traces of other gaseous elements that are heavy enough to be retained
form from from waves striking the base of a rocky coast
the solid layer of rock beneath the soil
the four properties of soil we studied
formed when glacial erosion exaggerates cirques and steepens the peaks into these
65 million years long, dominant life forms = mammals
the 3 types of scales on a map
loose weathered material combined with decayed organic material. it contains all 3 states of matter.
0.002mm, more surface area, greatest chemical activity, little pore space, greatest water and nutrient retention
height above sea level
a landform of high elevation and high relief
soil whose solid components consist of equal parts sand (~40%) and silt (~40%) with a smaller percentage of clay (~20%). it retains both air and water and is best for growing most
a hollowed out depression in a mountain from which glaciers can form and slide downhill.
a section of beach that protrudes into the water. they form when an obstruction causes longshore drift to accumulate
plowing across the curves of a slope to reduce water erosion
a wide sloping deposit formed by a river that suddenly becomes wider, shallower, and slower. river to river.
a space in the hardened sediment formed when an organism decays
the 5 factors that influence the amount of runoff in an area, RAVETYTOLA
organisms that break down organic remains into humus
a flat model of Earth's surface
a bowl- or canoe-shaped glacial feature 10 to 60m high, and up to 1 km in length, elongated in the direction of the glacier flow
a type of erosion caused when runoff flows in a broad thin layer
a plain away from the coast
a series of shallow depressions in till formed by runoff from a melting glacier
measures a position in degrees E of the Prime Meridian, up to 360 degrees
fossils in which minerals replace existing features
an imaginary line that runs from N pole to S pole and passes through Greenwich, England
a broad thin layer of till left by a melted glacier
depositions that grow up from the floor of a cave
people who believe that life and the universe are the result of design
a region of wave-deposited sediment along the coast
a landscape feature made of till
formed when a river flows into a still body of water and slows down enough to deposit most of its sediment at its mouth. river to ocean
formed when wave action causes a cave to collapse
the decayed organic material in soil
an observation about what happens
weathered material eroded from other locations, most parent material in soil is this
a large region of underground rock that is porous enough to act as a reservoir of stored water
form down the middle of a glacier, in the same direction as the glacier's motion
formed when water flows over hard rock and then onto soft rock, which erodes away
if an organism no longer exists
a part of the shore that protrudes into the ocean
the process by which wind picks up and removes surface materials
rainwater that does not get absorbed or evaporated but collects and flows over the land
people who believe that life and the universe are random occurrences
uses curved lines and is a more accurate representation of Earth's surface, but it is more difficult to read, especially near the edges where it distorts shapes
an imaginary line that circles Earth halfway between the North and South poles
the original rock
a continuously flowing channel usually fed by many gullies
all worldviews make these (including the scientific method)
a beach made of pebbles
the name given to sediment once the agents of erosion deposit it elsewhere
a deposition that hard water leaves in any household appliance that heats water
a line on a topographical map that connects points of equal elevation
a low ridge of till left by the farthest push of a glacier
material moved by erosion
a spherical, 3D model of Earth's surface
fossils whose organic remains have actually been preserved by things like amber, tar pits, and freezing
an extensive deposit of fine wind-blown sediments (usually from glacial activity)
depositions that grow downwards from the ceiling of a cave
these form along the sides of mountain-valley glaciers
on average 6 km thick, primarily basalt, more dense
a glacier that covers much of a continent or large island (>50,000 km2, several km thick), they flow more slowly and in all directions
mechanical and chemical weathering occur quickly in one type of climate, and there is another type of climate that only chemical weathering occurs more quickly in
when sections of boulders, gravel, and soil freeze into the bottom of a glacier and get carried along with the glacier
small grooves in the soil formed by flowing runoff
where water that has seeped into a crack in a rock freezes and expands, causing the crack to deepen and widen
>2mm, not considered soil
a type of reasoning that argues from 'all' to 'some', conclusion = proof, rational and logical
the presuppositions, attitudes, and expectations that we use to interpret the world.
180 million years long, dominant life forms = dinosaurs
the grinding away of rock by smaller rock particles that are carried by wind, water, ice, or gravity
the result of softer rock eroding out from under harder rock
a landscape with lots of sinkholes
leaving the soil and plant cover intact as much as possible to reduce water erosion, return soil nutrients, and retain moisture in the soil
refers to the structure of earth's crust and the large-scale processes that occur within it
the change in elevation between contour lines
when a wave becomes unstable, curls, and collapses
the level at which the bedrock is saturated
larger bodies of flowing water
a type of reasoning that argues from 'some' to 'all', conclusion = inference (not proof), rational but not logical
the five factors that influence the formation of soil, CROPT
the movement of weathered rock material by wind, water, ice, or gravity
the process by which natural forces move weathered material from one location to another
the bending of waves as they approach the shore
a long ridge of underwater sand parallel to the shore
formed when a glacier grinds up the bedrock underneath it into very fine powder
a steep and often vertical column of rock due to the weathering and erosion of sections of headland, it can also form by the collapse of a natural arch
below the top 50m of a glacier, the pressure on the ice causes this
measures a position in degrees N or S of the equator, up to 90 degrees at the poles
leaving soil alone for a year or two, not plowing the land so it can replenish
a build up of snow and ice in a high mountain valley
refers to the average weather conditions in an area
formed by narrow fast-flowing rivers that rapidly erode the slopes on either side
a large-scale topographical feature that has been formed by Earth's geological processes
the very slow downhill movement of rock and soil, often due to the freezing and thawing of water in the cracked layers of rock beneath the soil
groundwater with dissolved minerals
0.05mm-0.002mm, more surface area, greater chemical activity, less pore space
formed when water fills a mold, then the water leaks out, leaving behind sediment which hardens to form a replica of the organism
a contour line labeled with a number indicating actual elevation
the sudden slip of rock and soil together down a slope as a whole mass.
landslides with high water content (as high as 60%). can be triggered by heavy rain, earthquakes, and volcanoes.
the management of soil to prevent its exhaustion or its erosion
the mixture of sediments deposited by a glacier
Earth's solid, rocky outer layer. It includes separate and distinct tectonic plates that move independently of each other. It includes continents, islands, and the ocean floor
rock that allows liquids or gases to seep through it, sometimes at the microscopic level
the loose layer of dead plant material on and in the ground
an explanation as to how/why something happens
refers to the natural processes that break down rock and other substances at Earth's surface
a stream or river that flows into a larger river
4 billion years long, dominant life forms = aquatic microbes and sponges
made up of Earth's oceans, lakes, rivers, and ice
the process of mechanical weathering, it results in rock particles whose composition is the same as the rock they came from
a depression (5m to 13km diamter, with depths up to 45 m) formed by a retreating glacier as it leaves a large chunk of ice semi-buried in till
sudden explosive appearences of biological innovation followed by geologically peorids of biological redundancy
the difference in direction between geographic North and magnetic North
a plain along the seacoast
the 3D shape of Earth's surface features, determined by elevation relief and landforms
when waves hit a beach at an angle, and beach sediment moves along the beach over time in this process
300 million years long, dominant life forms = aquatic invertebrates and vertebrates
these preserve environmental evidence of an organism, not the organism itself. things like footprints, burrows, and coprolite.
tree sap
large areas where the topography is similar
the flat wide area of land along a river, often the result of extended point bar deposition
uses rectilinear lines and is easy to read, but it distorts sizes and distances
2mm-0.05mm, least surface area, lowest chemical activity, most pore space, greatest air retention
the most important factors that determine how quickly weathering happens, they also thus determine rate of soil formation
scientists who study fossils
when a glacier comes loose from the bedrock and flows much faster than normal (up to 6km per year)
the high ground between two drainage basins
a meander that has been cut off from the river, formed during flooding
channels formed by rills flowing into each other
a deposit of wind-blown sand
when storm wives pile sediment above sea level on a sand bar
a layer of soil that differs in color and texture from the layers above or below it
on average 35 km thick, primarily granite, less dense
preserved remnants of living things and a record of the history of life
formed when a glacial valley empties into a body of water
the difference in elevation between two points in the same region
made up of all living things, it extends into each of the other spheres
a fossil in the form of a thin coating of carbon on a rock
hardened tree sap
the top 50m of a glacier is brittle and fractured
a large area of flat or gently rolling topography, usually associated with grassland (low elevation, low relief)
shows the elevation, relief, and slope of the surface features of an area. They also show manmade features.
the process of chemical weathering, it results in rock particles whose composition is different than the rock they came from
used to list the symbols on a map or globe and their meanings
the accumulation of fossils and the information they give about the structure, environment, and age of extinct organims
the type of weathering in which rock is physically broken down into smaller pieces
breaks down rock through chemical changes. It takes place on the surface of the rock
a loop-like bend in a river
the steps of the scientific method
the sudden movement of disarticulated rock and soil down a steep slope. can be triggered by earthquakes.
deposition on the inside of a meander or a bend
weathered material from local bedrock
a testable explanation that covers a wide range of explanations
water that filters through the soil and into the pore spaces, fractures, and joints of bedrock
formed in the ground above when the roof of a cave collapses because of extended weathering and erosion
the entire area whose runoff is collected by a river and its tributary system
a framework of lines whose goal is to aid in representing a curved surface as a flat one
a fairly level landform at a high elevation (high elevation, low relief)

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