Science Quiz / Investigating the early biosphere with isotopes 2

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Near the end of which period was there a big change in isotopes to more reminiscent of modern day?
At which excursion do we see a shift in carbon isotopes?
When was this?
The paper identifying carbon in apetite crystals was disregarded, and instead the inclusions are likely the result of what?
What was it reacting with?
What is an advantage for the Australian rocks?
Sheba, Kromberg, Strelley pool, Hogg-Enoeg and Dresser all have what evidence?
What are stromatolites made out of?
What lives in them?
How far back are they seen?
Schopf 2006 found what?
What were they?
What did Brasier et al 2006 create?
What does the test prove if passed?
What was found to not meet the test?
What is the problem of claiming something to be the result of methanotrophs?
Where is the Fortescue group?
What was found there?
When was this dated to?
What is this said to prove the existence of?
What is a big problem with the ~3.8 Ga Isua evidence?
What is a problem with the ~3.465 Ga Apex chert?
Which was the first place to pass the test?
And when is this dated to?
How many isotopes does sulphur have?
How many protons do they have?
Pilbara had sulphides associated with deposits of light signatures. But what is the problem for it?
What is the first group with light sulphur available?
What happens to Sulphur when Oxygen appears?
What theory means there is a relationship between S33 and S34?
What is the theory related to?
As a result, S33 and S34 data plots on a fractionation line with what slope?
What process generates mass independent fractionation of SO2?
Where does the SO2 come from?
What can it be oxidised to?
What can it be reduced to?
However, when does these processes only occur?
When the atmosphere is more oxic, the weathering of what dominates the Sulphur cycle?
So what is lost?
Before the great oxidation event, which sulphur isotope is seen?
And what does this evidence?
S33 is which isotope?
S34 is which isotope?
Kasting and Ono 2006 traced the great oxygenation event to when?
What 'weak' argument is suggested in the archaean?
What is sulphate reduced to microbially?
How else can this be done?
So to prove it is biological origin, what proportion of 33S is needed?
Dresser found layered sediment of what?
When was this dated to?
Where did the isotopes plot?
The microscopic sulphides were suggestive of what involvement?
The amount of fractionation is to do with what?
If the isotope is lighter, is there more or less fractionation?
When can you get more fractionation than expected?
When can Nickel be useful in fractionation?
Dodd et al 2017 found what filaments?
Where were they from?
When were they from?
However, what are the problems with the evidence?
Nutman et al 2016 found what?
Where were they?
When were they from?
The rocks were from what zone?
What is there chemical evidence for?

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Created May 8, 2017ReportFavoriteNominate

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