Science Quiz / Inferring LUCA and life's timescale

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Can you name the Inferring LUCA and life's timescale?

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HintAnswer
What period is LUCA likely to have appeared in?
E.coli has been used to argue that LUCA was no within a cell, why is this?
Cunnigham et al 2017 stated that it is hard to sample rock from the Phanerozoic for what reason?
Further back in time, what is it instead represented by?
3.8 million years ago was the end of what phase?
What will have happened to the world's oceans during this phase?
How long ago did the earth form?
What proportion of the ocean was contributed to by local nebula?
And what proportion by comets?
What were likely energy sources?
 
 
 
 
Researchers favour what type of atmosphere?
Urey-Miller confirmed who's theory?
What did they state life originally evolved from?
Through stages of assemblage, what did they eventually become?
So what type of theory must it be?
What type of bacteria will this process have formed?
However. hydrothermal vents are an example of what first?
Iron sulphur had what sort of cells?
What property did they have?
HintAnswer
What do carbon complexes then produce?
What did the organics then eventually do?
What can some rely on as an energy source?
 
 
In mineral cell vents, where were the compounds concentrated in?
What happened to the simple monomers?
What did they then form?
What did this process create on the crust?
Eventually what type of compounds were produced?
What type of vents would the mineral cell theory have taken place?
In the lipid world, what evolved first?
And what did they do to compounds?
What did they then self assemble into?
 
What naturally forming compound is used to help weight this hypothesis?
Its bilayer sheet tends to do what?
What are they shown to be capable of?
 
What do they undergo which is like vegetative bacteria?
Where will they have been likely synthesised?
How many genes have been traced back to LUCA?
LUCA is said to be 'half alive' as it was missing genes for what?
HintAnswer
The Wood-Ljungdahl pathway used what to have a metabolic pathway?
What type of respiration would it have done?
It likely lived in high temperatures, so what will it have been?
Because of this, it likely lived in a geochemically active hydrothermal setting, which is likely what sort of setting?
Genes dominated by which alleles are normally found in prokaryotes that have high temperature replication?
 
What type of structures do genes rich in these tend to have?
What can be inferred about the evolution of high temperatures in Eubacteria and Archaea?
So using this, what does this not make LUCA?
Vice and Martin found the opposite of this because they didn't control for what in their analysis?
Which approach instead allowed for the inference of LUCA?
Apex chert in Australia is said to date life to how many years old?
What is possibly preserved in chert 4.4 Ga?
The threads are reminiscent of threads created by what?
What type of mutations accure over time?
Gene sequence differences are proportional to what between two taxa?
If the age of separation is known, what can be determined?
There should be a linear accure since the common ancestor, instead there is a pattern that flattens. What causes this?
Which method doesn't compensate for this?
Hedges et al 2015 stated that LUCA was in which period?
And was before what phase?
Holly Betts has recalculated, and shown that LUCA existed when?
However, the last common ancestor of the domains was when?

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