Science Quiz / Carbonate Sediments

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Can you name the Carbonate Sediments?

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HintAnswer
Carbonate sediment accounts for how much of the stratigraphic record?
Where do they form?
In the pre Cambrian and Palaeozoic, what was dominant over calcite?
What conditions help CaCO3 (limestone) to dissolve?
 
Calcite is what shape?
What is its structure?
 
Aragonite is what shape?
Because of the structure being rotated 30 degrees, what does it cause each Oxygen atom to have?
When was this significant?
What is micrite?
What is the main way that aragonite is preserved?
 
CsMg(CO3)2 is what carbonate mineral?
What shape is it?
What Cation layers alternate in its structure?
 
Layers of what is between them?
What structure does the layer have along the c axis?
What is the difference between it and limestone?
If it is the rock, it is called what?
Which diagenetic environments are they from?
 
What element is common in limestone?
How is dolostone formed?
HintAnswer
Mimetic dolomite is what type of fabric?
Rhombohedral crystals overgrown on inclusion-rich cores is what type of dolomite?
A warpeed lattice of curved crystals faces is what type of dolomite?
Up to how much FeCO3 can it preserve?
What is it associated with the formation of?
 
Sea water has what ratio of Mg to Ca?
What ratio does a river have?
What ratio does formation water have?
Where does synsedimentary dolomite form?
It is associated with the precipitation of what?
In what type of marine sediment can it be found?
In early diagenesis, dolomite can be found how deep?
How can it form here?
 
In late diagenesis, at what depth can it be found?
What type of dolomite is not found here?
What is it associated with?
 
What type of substitution is common in carbonates?
Why will high Mg calcite eventually become low Mg calcite?
If there are Mg rich pore waters, what might the high Mg calcite turn into?
What does Fe2+ substitution form?
What substitutes into the aragonite lattice better than Mg and Fe?
 
For diagnostic staining, what do you cover a thin section slip with?
HintAnswer
What do you then immerse it in?
 
What colour does Ferroan calcite stain?
What colour does Calcite stain?
What colour does Ferroan dolomite stain?
What is not affected by it?
When can classification schemes be applied to dolomite?
What does the Folk scheme show?
And what does it not show?
 
What does the Dunham scheme show?
What does it not show?
What can be found between layers of algal mats?
However. what are the mats easily disturbed by?
What leaves coaser grained sediment at an unnaturally high speed?
Mud mounds in the Palaeozoic contain what?
What type of layering do they form of preferentially sedimented material?
What type of rooves do they have?
What do the bottoms have on them?
What can be used to identify which way up structures are?
What type of environment are tepee structures found in?
How are these polygons formed?
Hard substrates for benthonic communities are called what?
What elemental impressions occur?
 
Interpenetrating pressure solution features are called what?

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