Bad Science

Can you name the Superseded or Obsolete Scientific Theories?

species evolve due to inheritance of traits acquired during an organism's lifetime; originating with namesake French scientist 
offspring may inherit traits of their mother's previous mates; orginating with Aristotle 
life is regularly created from non-living matter; originated with Aristotle  
organisms exist as miniature but fully developed forms that grow into full-sized organisms; sperm believed to contain said miniature beings 
in humans, a mother's mental state can affect the developing fetus 
Stalinist theory of inheritance used to predict miraculous agricultural progress and development of a 'new soviet man'; developed by namesake agronomist 
living beings possess a magnetic fluid; oringinating from a early practitioner of hypnotism 
disease is caused by imbalance in four essential bodily fluids: black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm; originated with Hippocrates 
epidemic diseases are caused by clouds of 'bad air' 
insights into psychological characteristics can be deduced from careful measurement of the human skull 
embryonic development reflects the evolutionary path of an organism; most associated with Ernst Haeckel 
human vision is explained by beams of light produced by one's eyes that illuminate objects 
It is possible to better society through selective breeding 
all matter can be ultimately broken down into four essential components: air, earth, fire, and water, to which Aristotle added aether 
holds that with metaphysical knowledge, one can acquire the ability to transmute base metals into gold and achieve immortality 
the phenomenon of heat is caused by this theory's namesake fluid, said to be weightless and to flow from hot to cold objects. 
there exists this theory's namesake element, which is contained in combustible matter and released with burning 
chemicals produced by living beings require a life spark to be formed and cannot be sythesized though inorganic processes 
Newton's theory that light is composed of particles behaving in accordance to his laws of mechanics 
the phenomena of electricity and magnetism are explained by the flow of weightless electrical and magnetic fluids; held by Benjamin Franklin 
atoms are made of electrons suspended in a positively charged medium, similar to this theory's namesake dessert 
light travels in this theory's namesake medium and is not universally constant 
atoms consist of dense positively chargen nuclei and electrons orbiting the nuclei like planets orbit the sun; originated with Ernest Rutherford 
the earth is a plane or disk suspended in the firmament, commonly held to be true in many cultures 
A spherical earth is the center of the universe, with sun and planets rotating around it in concentric spheres, most associated with Claudius Ptolemaeus 
The sun is the immovable center of the universe around which the planets rotate, with the stars remaining stationary 
the universe is perfectly isotropic in space and time and is neither expanding nor contracting  
geologic features in the world arose suddenly as a result of ancient cataclysmic events such as earthquakes and volcanoes 
the earth is a sphere with a hollow center, as depicted in Jules Verne's A Journey to the Center of the Earth  

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