The Two Congos Explained
What is the Congo? You’ve probably heard of it, but do you know where it is?
Looking at a map of Africa, you may be surprised (or confused!) to see that there are actually two countries that share the Congo name, both which border the Congo River. There is the Republic of the Congo, and then there is the Democratic Republic of the Congo. As we will see, there is much more than just the word “Democratic” that sets these two nations apart.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is the larger of the two Congos. With some 75 million residents, it is Africa’s second largest country by area. It is also considered one of the poorest and most dangerous countries in the world. When people say “Congo”, they are usually referring to the DRC.
Modern humans have been living in the territory around the DRC for thousands of years. From the 14th to the 19th century, the Kingdom of Kongo ruled to the west of the region. When European sailors first encounter the Kingdom of Kongo in the 16th century, the named the Congo River after it. In the eastern part of the DRC was the Kingdom of Luba and the Kingdom of Lunda, each lasting from the 16th/17th centuries to the 19th century. However, the region would go through drastic changes in the 1870s.
Just prior to the onset of the Scramble for Africa, European exploration of the Congo was intensifying. Henry Morton Stanley, under the sponsorship of King Leopold II of Belgium, would be one of the most prominent explorers of this region. Leopold would formally acquire the rights to the Congo territory at the Berlin Conference in 1885, renaming it the Congo Free State, and making it his own private property for exploitation.
Military units would force locals into producing rubber and other natural resources. Nearly half the population would die or be killed. In 1908, the Congo Free State was formally annexed by Belgium, becoming Belgian Congo.
Republic of the Congo
Across the Congo River to the northwest is the Republic of the Congo. Bantu-speaking peoples founded various tribes in the region starting around 1,500 BCE. Several Bantu kingdoms, like the Kongo, the Loango, and the Teke, built trade links all over the Congo River basin.
In the late 15th century, Portuguese explorers reached the mouth of the Congo River. They would establish economic relationships with the inland Bantu kingdoms, trading various commodities, goods, and slaves. The territory that is now the Republic of the Congo would become a major transatlantic trade hub, lasting until the 19th century when European colonization would diminish the power of these Bantu societies.
At the same time that Belgium was attempting to gain sovereignty over the Congo, France also wanted pieces of Africa to exploit. The area north of the Congo River came under French sovereignty in 1880 as a result of treaty between France and King Makoko of the Teke. The territory was confirmed in the Berlin Conference, coming to be called French Congo, then Middle Congo in 1903.
In 1908, France would establish French Equatorial Africa (FEA), comprising of Middle Congo, Gabon, Chad, and the modern Central African Republic. Brazzaville was made the federal capital. Much like in Belgian Congo, French rule of FEA was marked by the exploitment of both people and natural resources.
Both Belgian Congo and Middle Congo would gain their independence in 1960.
Belgian Congo would become the Democratic Republic of Congo. In 1965, Mobutu Sese Seko took power of the country in a coup. He would change the country’s name to Zaire in 1971, establishing a dictatorial one-party state. Despite his suppression of freedoms, Mobutu received a lot of support from the United States because of his anti-communist views. However, during the 1990s, his government began to weaken. After the First Congo War, Mobutu’s 32-year rule came to an end, and Zaire reverted back to its old name, the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Today, the DRC is also known as Congo-Kinshasa, after the name of its capital city.
The People’s Republic of the Congo
The Republic of Congo has also gone through a name change since gaining independence. In 1965, President Massamba-Débat started relations with several communist countries and adopted “scientific socialism” as the country’s constitutional ideology. Massamba-Débat would be deposed in a bloodless coup in 1968, but the new president, Marien Ngouabi, would retain the country’s socialist elements. In 1969, Ngouabi proclaimed the People’s Republic of the Congo, which lasted as a Marxist-Leninist one-party state until 1991, when “People’s” was removed from the official name, and democratic elections were held for the first time.
Like the DRC, the Republic of Congo is sometimes called Congo-Brazzaville (again, taking from the name of its capital city).
What is the Congo?
The Congo is a term that can be used to describe either the Democratic Republic of the Congo or the Republic of the Congo. Both countries are biodiversity hotspots, home to dense rainforests and a multitude of animals. However, while the two countries share a border, their unique histories have shaped the two nations into pretty different places.
The Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) is smaller and a bit more stable. It is a springboard for safaris and travel into the jungles of the north. Brazzaville has even been referred to as the “Little Paris of Africa” due to its French colonial past.
10 kilometers from Brazzaville, across the Congo River, is Kinshasa, the capital of the DRC (Congo-Kinshasa). The DRC has a long history of political turmoil and unrest, dating back to the atrocities of King Leopold II. Years of turmoil and lack of infrastructure have given the DRC a bad reputation throughout the years. However, gradual development and the presence of the UN has led to a small, yet quickly growing tourism industry. Much of the draw to the DRC centers on Virunga National Park, home to the famed mountain gorillas. So hopefully things will continue to improve for the DRC.