discovered/invented | Scientist |

Mathematical basis for computer | |

Developed chemical thermodynamics; introduced concepts of free energy and chemical potential | |

Most widely known for observing that electric currents induce magnetic fields. He shaped post-Kantian philosophy and advances in science throughout the late 19th century. | |

Discovered argon; explained how light scattering is responsible for red color of sunset and blue color of sky | |

Approximated functions with series. | |

Discovered oxygen | |

Invented the refracting telescope | |

The American scientist who discovered electromagnetic induction independently of and at about the same time as Michael Faraday | |

He conducted an expedition to observe the Solar eclipse of 29 May 1919 that provided one of the earliest confirmations of relativity. | |

Discovered radio waves and the photoelectric effect | |

His work included early telescopic studies elucidating the nature of the rings of Saturn and the discovery of its moon Titan, the invention of the pendulum clock and other investig | |

Founding contributions in the fields of statistical mechanics and statistical thermodynamics | |

Developed new methods of classical/analytical mechanics | |

Path integral formulation of quantum field theory | |

French mathematician, mechanician, physicist and philosopher. He was also co-editor with Denis Diderot of the Encyclopédie. | |

Developed second law of thermodynamics, a statement that the entropy of the Universe always increases. | |

Figurehead of the new science of genetics for his study of the inheritance of certain traits in pea plants | |

Electromagnetic Induction | |

He gave the earliest public lecture on the principles behind the laser and the maser and developed the first gravitational wave detectors | |

Creation of a theory of radioactivity | |

Best known as the father of fractal geometry | |

First heliocentric model of the solar system | |

Described a convenient tabular presentation for binomial coefficients | |

Best known as the creator of set theory | |

He created the first vaccine for rabies | |

Accurately measured speed of light; invented the gyroscope; demonstrated the Earth's rotation | |

Formulated the general theory of elasticity in a mathematically usable form (1821) | |

Founded analytic geometry, the bridge between algebra and geometry. | |

Cat thought experiment | |

Francis Crick acknowledged him as the 'father of molecular biology' | |

Discovered a relationship between trigonometric functions and complex exponentials. | |

His studies of heat transfer between solids and fluids brought improvements in boiler and condenser design. | |

A famous example of his leadership in mathematics is his 1900 presentation of a collection of problems that set the course for much of the mathematical research of the 20th century | |

Controlled, liquid-fueled rocketry | |