discovered/invented | Scientist |

Discovered splitting of spectral lines in a strong magnetic field | |

In 1967 invented the twistor theory which maps geometric objects in Minkowski space into the 4-dimensional complex space with the metric signature (2,2). | |

Discovered argon; explained how light scattering is responsible for red color of sunset and blue color of sky | |

Credited with double helix structure of DNA | |

Patents and theoretical work formed the basis of modern alternating current (AC) electric power systems, including the polyphase system of electrical distribution and the AC motor | |

His studies of heat transfer between solids and fluids brought improvements in boiler and condenser design. | |

Creation of a theory of radioactivity | |

Jean Dieudonné called him 'the last of the great mathematicians' | |

Developed second law of thermodynamics, a statement that the entropy of the Universe always increases. | |

Demonstrated existence of the electron | |

Best known as the creator of set theory | |

In 1974, he calculated that black holes should thermally create and emit subatomic particles | |

Devised an interferometer and used it to try to measure Earth's absolute motion | |

Discovery of penicillin launched the modern era of antibiotics | |

He created the first vaccine for rabies | |

Invented a form of symbolic logic in which 'true' or 'false' are the only two greatest possible values | |

Developed empirical formula to describe hydrogen spectrum | |

Detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range today known as x-rays | |

Invented infinitesimal calculus independently of Newton | |

Dutch computer researcher who published on eavesdropping on the contents of a CRT and LCD display. | |

Cat thought experiment | |

First effective polio vaccine | |

First heliocentric model of the solar system | |

Credited with the law of refraction | |

Credited with the most accurate astronomical observations of his time. Work used by his contemporary, Kepler | |

His law relates the distribution of electric charge to the resulting electric field. | |

Worked with Otto Hahn in the discovery of fission | |

Best known for his theorem regarding right triangles. | |

Developed the resonance technique for measuring the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei | |

Matter waves | |

Formulated the general theory of elasticity in a mathematically usable form (1821) | |

He derived the transformation equations subsequently used by Albert Einstein to describe space and time. | |

Developed new methods of classical/analytical mechanics | |

Electromagnetic Induction | |

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