discovered/invented | Scientist |

Significant contributions to game theory, differential geometry, and partial differential equations | |

Influential German mathematician who made lasting contributions to analysis and differential geometry, some of them enabling the later development of general relativity. | |

Developed empirical formula to describe hydrogen spectrum | |

He gave the earliest public lecture on the principles behind the laser and the maser and developed the first gravitational wave detectors | |

Invented the refracting telescope | |

Discovered argon; explained how light scattering is responsible for red color of sunset and blue color of sky | |

His limit describes the maximum mass of a white dwarf star. | |

Mathematical basis for computer | |

Developed second law of thermodynamics, a statement that the entropy of the Universe always increases. | |

Discovery of penicillin launched the modern era of antibiotics | |

He is credited with designing innovative machines, including siege engines and the screw pump that bears his name. | |

Founded qualitative dynamics (the mathematical theory of dynamical systems); created topology; contributed to solution of the three-body problem | |

Improvements to the Newcomen steam engine were fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution | |

Detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range today known as x-rays | |

Remembered today as the creator of a tool still used by biologists to predict the probability of possible genotypes of offspring | |

Pilot wave interpretation of quantum mechanics | |

Matter waves | |

Developed chemical thermodynamics; introduced concepts of free energy and chemical potential | |

The idea is that the local motion of a rotating reference frame is determined by the large scale distribution of matter | |

Navier-_______ Equation for fluid dynamics | |

Discovered splitting of spectral lines in a strong magnetic field | |

Creation of a theory of radioactivity | |

Credited with the law of refraction | |

His work included early telescopic studies elucidating the nature of the rings of Saturn and the discovery of its moon Titan, the invention of the pendulum clock and other investig | |

Author of the astronomical treatise now known as the Almagest | |

Patents and theoretical work formed the basis of modern alternating current (AC) electric power systems, including the polyphase system of electrical distribution and the AC motor | |

Particularly remembered for his work on the development of the first nuclear reactor. A type of particle is named after him. | |

Best known for his role as the scientific director of the Manhattan Project | |

Founding contributions in the fields of statistical mechanics and statistical thermodynamics | |

Harmonic law of planetary motion | |

His Kitab al-Jabr wa-l-Muqabala presented the first systematic solution of linear and quadratic equations. He is considered the founder of algebra | |

Demonstrated existence of the electron | |

Developed new methods of classical/analytical mechanics | |

Devised an interferometer and used it to try to measure Earth's absolute motion | |