discovered/invented | Scientist |

Credited with the law of refraction | |

Devised an interferometer and used it to try to measure Earth's absolute motion | |

Influential German mathematician who made lasting contributions to analysis and differential geometry, some of them enabling the later development of general relativity. | |

Most widely known for observing that electric currents induce magnetic fields. He shaped post-Kantian philosophy and advances in science throughout the late 19th century. | |

Worked with Otto Hahn in the discovery of fission | |

Demonstrated existence of the electron | |

Developed second law of thermodynamics, a statement that the entropy of the Universe always increases. | |

Formulated the general theory of elasticity in a mathematically usable form (1821) | |

Detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range today known as x-rays | |

Invented infinitesimal calculus independently of Newton | |

He is best known for his work on theory of stochastic processes. | |

Path integral formulation of quantum field theory | |

Best known as the father of fractal geometry | |

His Kitab al-Jabr wa-l-Muqabala presented the first systematic solution of linear and quadratic equations. He is considered the founder of algebra | |

He conducted an expedition to observe the Solar eclipse of 29 May 1919 that provided one of the earliest confirmations of relativity. | |

Uncertainty Principle | |

His limit describes the maximum mass of a white dwarf star. | |

Relativity | |

Author of the astronomical treatise now known as the Almagest | |

Remembered today as the creator of a tool still used by biologists to predict the probability of possible genotypes of offspring | |

Predicted the existence of antimatter by combining quantum mechanics with special relativity | |

Improvements to the Newcomen steam engine were fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution | |

Francis Crick acknowledged him as the 'father of molecular biology' | |

'No physical theory of local hidden variables can ever reproduce all of the predictions of quantum mechanics.' | |

In 1967 invented the twistor theory which maps geometric objects in Minkowski space into the 4-dimensional complex space with the metric signature (2,2). | |

First effective polio vaccine | |

Contributed to theoretical nuclear physics, especially concerning the mechanism for energy production in stars. | |

Credited with the most accurate astronomical observations of his time. Work used by his contemporary, Kepler | |

In physics her theorem explains the fundamental connection between symmetry and conservation laws | |

Principle states that for an inviscid flow, an increase in the speed of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy | |

4 Equations of electromagnetism | |

Founding contributions in the fields of statistical mechanics and statistical thermodynamics | |

Incompleteness Theorem | |

Explained wavelength distribution of blackbody radiation | |