discovered/invented | Scientist |

Founded analytic geometry, the bridge between algebra and geometry. | |

Discovered a relationship between trigonometric functions and complex exponentials. | |

Discovered splitting of spectral lines in a strong magnetic field | |

French mathematician, mechanician, physicist and philosopher. He was also co-editor with Denis Diderot of the Encyclopédie. | |

His contributions include the discovery of the cell nucleus and cytoplasmic streaming. | |

Accurately measured speed of light; invented the gyroscope; demonstrated the Earth's rotation | |

Mathematical basis for computer | |

Her most noteworthy work is that on the X-ray diffraction images of DNA. | |

Particularly remembered for his work on the development of the first nuclear reactor. A type of particle is named after him. | |

Invented a form of symbolic logic in which 'true' or 'false' are the only two greatest possible values | |

His work included early telescopic studies elucidating the nature of the rings of Saturn and the discovery of its moon Titan, the invention of the pendulum clock and other investig | |

Originated the concept of a programmable computer | |

Influential German mathematician who made lasting contributions to analysis and differential geometry, some of them enabling the later development of general relativity. | |

Relativity | |

Invented the microscope | |

Developed empirical formula to describe hydrogen spectrum | |

Predicted the existence of antimatter by combining quantum mechanics with special relativity | |

Devised an interferometer and used it to try to measure Earth's absolute motion | |

First effective polio vaccine | |

Developed the principle of least action of classical mechanics | |

Founding contributions in the fields of statistical mechanics and statistical thermodynamics | |

first version of the law of conservation of mass | |

Jean Dieudonné called him 'the last of the great mathematicians' | |

4 Equations of electromagnetism | |

Best known for his role as the scientific director of the Manhattan Project | |

Founded qualitative dynamics (the mathematical theory of dynamical systems); created topology; contributed to solution of the three-body problem | |

Model of the atom | |

Most widely known for observing that electric currents induce magnetic fields. He shaped post-Kantian philosophy and advances in science throughout the late 19th century. | |

Worked with Otto Hahn in the discovery of fission | |

Preeminent rocket engineer of the 20th century | |

Principle states that for an inviscid flow, an increase in the speed of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy | |

Best known as the father of fractal geometry | |

His studies of heat transfer between solids and fluids brought improvements in boiler and condenser design. | |

His limit describes the maximum mass of a white dwarf star. | |