AP Biology- Tour of the Cell

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DefinitionTerm
located between the plasma membrane and primary cell wall that has a strong and durable matrix for cell protection and support
process of engulfing solid particles (food particles or smaller organisms)
an oxidative organelle bounded by a single membrane that contains enzymes that transfer hydrogen to oxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide which is then converted to water
microscope used for the internal ultrastructure of cells
a thin layer rich in sticky polysaccharides, pectins, which glues adjacent cells together
extracellular structure of plant cells
contains most of the cell's genes
a double lipid bilayer with pore complexes that encloses the nucleus
thing and flexible wall first secreted by a young plant cell
consists of a small core protein with many carbohydrate chains attached
sites of photosynthesis
anchors the microtubular extensions like the cilia and flagella
two intertwined strands of actin which maintains the cell shape via tension bearing elements, changes in cell shape, muscle contraction, cytoplasmic streaming, cell motility, and c
inner membrane infoldings within the mitochondrion
flattened, interconnected sacs within the chloroplast
main ingredient: glycoproteins
each stack of thylakoids
microtubular extenstion that has an undulating motion that generates force in the same direction as its axis
two subunits (large and small) made of rRNA and protein which carry out protein synthesis
where rRNA is synthesized
site of cellular respiration
plastids containing pigments which give fruits their orange-yellow hues
the process of taking cells apart then separating major organelles based on the components' sizes and densities
a network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm which organizes the structures and activities of the cell (support, motility, and regulation)
the family related to plant organelles
microtubular extension that moves in an oar-like rhythm perpendicular to its axis
process of recycling the cell's own organic material
the circular flow of cytoplasm within cells
the narrow region between the inner and outer membranes
synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbohydrates, detoxification of drugs and poisons, storage for Ca+
anchoring junctions that fastens cells together into strong sheets
plastids containing green pigments and other enzymes and molecules to aid the photosynthetic production of sugar
center of manufacturing, warehousing, sorting, and shipping; modification and storage; secretion
extensive network of membranes
a complex of proteins and DNA (makes up the chromosomes)
protein synthesis and membrane 'factory'
an example of a glycoprotein which bind to cell surface receptors
model in which the cisternae of the Golgi progresses from the cis to trans face of the Golgi, carrying and modifying the cargo as they move
the system that involves the synthesis of proteins and transport into membranes and organelles or out of the cell, metabolism and movement of lipids, and detoxification of poisons
fibrous proteins that maintains the cell shape, anchors the nucleus and other organelles, and forms the nuclear lamina
DefinitionTerm
a membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes used to digest macromolecules or autodigestion
used to pump out excess water from the cell to maintain a suitable concentration of ions and molecules within the cell
specialized peroxisomes found in fat storing tissues of plant seeds to initiate the conversion of fatty acids to sugar
microscope in which visible light is passed through the specimen then through glass lenses
cell surface receptor proteins that transmit signals between the ECM and the cytoskeleton
long, thin projections from the surface of the cell to increase surface area
channels perforated in cell walls where cytosol passes through and connects the adjacent cells
composed of nine sets of triplet microtubules necessary for cell division
the plasma membranes of neighboring cells are tightly pressed against each other bound by specific proteins to form a continuous seal (prevent leakage)
colorless plastids that store starch in roots and tubers
holds important compounds (proteins), main repository of inorganic ions, disposal sites for metabolic by-products, color pigments, contain poisonous compounds, main role in cell gr
the region in a prokaryotic cell where DNA is concentrated
cellular extensions
structures only visible during cell division, carrying the gene information
region near the nucleus, considered the microtubule organizing center
the semifluid, jellylike substance in which organelles and other components are found
protein that is interdigitated with thicker filaments; acts as a microfilament based motor protein so that projections walk along the actin filaments
region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane
sacs made of membrane
the space enclosed by the inner membrane containing many enzymes, mDNA, and ribosomes
large motor proteins responsible for the bending movements of the organelle (caused by changes in shape of the protein with ATP providing energy for the changes)
each tubulin protein made of two subunits (alpha and beta)
proteins with carbohydrates covalently bonded on them
selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and wastes
sacs and tubules making up the ER
changes in cell location and limited movements of parts of the cell
a netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus by supporting the envelope
the outer cytoplasmic layer of the cell, a semisolid
microscope that uses a beam of electrons through a specimen or onto its surface instead of visible light
these proteins bring about the bending of cilia and flagella by gripping microtubules within the organelles and sliding them against each other
the metabolic process that generates ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels
the fluid outside the thylakoids that contains the DNA, ribosomes, and enzymes
formed via phagocytosis
communicating junctions which provide cytoplasmic channels from one cell to an adjacent cell
most abundant glycoprotein in the ECM which forms strong fibers outside the cells
microscope mainly used for a detailed study of the surface of a specimen
globular protein that makes up microfilaments
a framework of fibers extending throughout the nuclear interior
hollow tubes which maintains the cell shape (compression-resisting girders), cell motility, chromosome movements in cell division, and organelle movement

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