AP Biology- Tour of the Cell

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the process of taking cells apart then separating major organelles based on the components' sizes and densities
flattened, interconnected sacs within the chloroplast
most abundant glycoprotein in the ECM which forms strong fibers outside the cells
site of cellular respiration
a thin layer rich in sticky polysaccharides, pectins, which glues adjacent cells together
holds important compounds (proteins), main repository of inorganic ions, disposal sites for metabolic by-products, color pigments, contain poisonous compounds, main role in cell gr
hollow tubes which maintains the cell shape (compression-resisting girders), cell motility, chromosome movements in cell division, and organelle movement
main ingredient: glycoproteins
a double lipid bilayer with pore complexes that encloses the nucleus
communicating junctions which provide cytoplasmic channels from one cell to an adjacent cell
the region in a prokaryotic cell where DNA is concentrated
model in which the cisternae of the Golgi progresses from the cis to trans face of the Golgi, carrying and modifying the cargo as they move
formed via phagocytosis
extracellular structure of plant cells
region near the nucleus, considered the microtubule organizing center
process of recycling the cell's own organic material
a network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm which organizes the structures and activities of the cell (support, motility, and regulation)
thing and flexible wall first secreted by a young plant cell
microscope mainly used for a detailed study of the surface of a specimen
consists of a small core protein with many carbohydrate chains attached
colorless plastids that store starch in roots and tubers
selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and wastes
sacs and tubules making up the ER
the space enclosed by the inner membrane containing many enzymes, mDNA, and ribosomes
the circular flow of cytoplasm within cells
the semifluid, jellylike substance in which organelles and other components are found
microscope that uses a beam of electrons through a specimen or onto its surface instead of visible light
large motor proteins responsible for the bending movements of the organelle (caused by changes in shape of the protein with ATP providing energy for the changes)
an example of a glycoprotein which bind to cell surface receptors
center of manufacturing, warehousing, sorting, and shipping; modification and storage; secretion
cellular extensions
where rRNA is synthesized
specialized peroxisomes found in fat storing tissues of plant seeds to initiate the conversion of fatty acids to sugar
used to pump out excess water from the cell to maintain a suitable concentration of ions and molecules within the cell
the fluid outside the thylakoids that contains the DNA, ribosomes, and enzymes
fibrous proteins that maintains the cell shape, anchors the nucleus and other organelles, and forms the nuclear lamina
a framework of fibers extending throughout the nuclear interior
a complex of proteins and DNA (makes up the chromosomes)
composed of nine sets of triplet microtubules necessary for cell division
microscope in which visible light is passed through the specimen then through glass lenses
extensive network of membranes
contains most of the cell's genes
long, thin projections from the surface of the cell to increase surface area
region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane
microtubular extension that moves in an oar-like rhythm perpendicular to its axis
process of engulfing solid particles (food particles or smaller organisms)
structures only visible during cell division, carrying the gene information
plastids containing green pigments and other enzymes and molecules to aid the photosynthetic production of sugar
the plasma membranes of neighboring cells are tightly pressed against each other bound by specific proteins to form a continuous seal (prevent leakage)
inner membrane infoldings within the mitochondrion
sacs made of membrane
microscope used for the internal ultrastructure of cells
globular protein that makes up microfilaments
an oxidative organelle bounded by a single membrane that contains enzymes that transfer hydrogen to oxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide which is then converted to water
plastids containing pigments which give fruits their orange-yellow hues
protein synthesis and membrane 'factory'
cell surface receptor proteins that transmit signals between the ECM and the cytoskeleton
a netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus by supporting the envelope
each stack of thylakoids
changes in cell location and limited movements of parts of the cell
synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbohydrates, detoxification of drugs and poisons, storage for Ca+
these proteins bring about the bending of cilia and flagella by gripping microtubules within the organelles and sliding them against each other
two subunits (large and small) made of rRNA and protein which carry out protein synthesis
each tubulin protein made of two subunits (alpha and beta)
sites of photosynthesis
microtubular extenstion that has an undulating motion that generates force in the same direction as its axis
the metabolic process that generates ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels
proteins with carbohydrates covalently bonded on them
located between the plasma membrane and primary cell wall that has a strong and durable matrix for cell protection and support
protein that is interdigitated with thicker filaments; acts as a microfilament based motor protein so that projections walk along the actin filaments
anchors the microtubular extensions like the cilia and flagella
a membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes used to digest macromolecules or autodigestion
two intertwined strands of actin which maintains the cell shape via tension bearing elements, changes in cell shape, muscle contraction, cytoplasmic streaming, cell motility, and c
channels perforated in cell walls where cytosol passes through and connects the adjacent cells
the outer cytoplasmic layer of the cell, a semisolid
anchoring junctions that fastens cells together into strong sheets
the system that involves the synthesis of proteins and transport into membranes and organelles or out of the cell, metabolism and movement of lipids, and detoxification of poisons
the family related to plant organelles
the narrow region between the inner and outer membranes

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