AP Biology- Tour of the Cell

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selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and wastes
sites of photosynthesis
the narrow region between the inner and outer membranes
formed via phagocytosis
specialized peroxisomes found in fat storing tissues of plant seeds to initiate the conversion of fatty acids to sugar
channels perforated in cell walls where cytosol passes through and connects the adjacent cells
each tubulin protein made of two subunits (alpha and beta)
hollow tubes which maintains the cell shape (compression-resisting girders), cell motility, chromosome movements in cell division, and organelle movement
plastids containing green pigments and other enzymes and molecules to aid the photosynthetic production of sugar
the process of taking cells apart then separating major organelles based on the components' sizes and densities
each stack of thylakoids
located between the plasma membrane and primary cell wall that has a strong and durable matrix for cell protection and support
region near the nucleus, considered the microtubule organizing center
protein that is interdigitated with thicker filaments; acts as a microfilament based motor protein so that projections walk along the actin filaments
the plasma membranes of neighboring cells are tightly pressed against each other bound by specific proteins to form a continuous seal (prevent leakage)
a thin layer rich in sticky polysaccharides, pectins, which glues adjacent cells together
a double lipid bilayer with pore complexes that encloses the nucleus
the semifluid, jellylike substance in which organelles and other components are found
thing and flexible wall first secreted by a young plant cell
process of engulfing solid particles (food particles or smaller organisms)
two intertwined strands of actin which maintains the cell shape via tension bearing elements, changes in cell shape, muscle contraction, cytoplasmic streaming, cell motility, and c
protein synthesis and membrane 'factory'
structures only visible during cell division, carrying the gene information
center of manufacturing, warehousing, sorting, and shipping; modification and storage; secretion
the fluid outside the thylakoids that contains the DNA, ribosomes, and enzymes
large motor proteins responsible for the bending movements of the organelle (caused by changes in shape of the protein with ATP providing energy for the changes)
the space enclosed by the inner membrane containing many enzymes, mDNA, and ribosomes
a membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes used to digest macromolecules or autodigestion
colorless plastids that store starch in roots and tubers
microscope in which visible light is passed through the specimen then through glass lenses
model in which the cisternae of the Golgi progresses from the cis to trans face of the Golgi, carrying and modifying the cargo as they move
sacs made of membrane
anchoring junctions that fastens cells together into strong sheets
an oxidative organelle bounded by a single membrane that contains enzymes that transfer hydrogen to oxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide which is then converted to water
where rRNA is synthesized
most abundant glycoprotein in the ECM which forms strong fibers outside the cells
synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbohydrates, detoxification of drugs and poisons, storage for Ca+
process of recycling the cell's own organic material
two subunits (large and small) made of rRNA and protein which carry out protein synthesis
sacs and tubules making up the ER
site of cellular respiration
an example of a glycoprotein which bind to cell surface receptors
composed of nine sets of triplet microtubules necessary for cell division
anchors the microtubular extensions like the cilia and flagella
plastids containing pigments which give fruits their orange-yellow hues
cell surface receptor proteins that transmit signals between the ECM and the cytoskeleton
the circular flow of cytoplasm within cells
these proteins bring about the bending of cilia and flagella by gripping microtubules within the organelles and sliding them against each other
the outer cytoplasmic layer of the cell, a semisolid
the family related to plant organelles
microscope that uses a beam of electrons through a specimen or onto its surface instead of visible light
the metabolic process that generates ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels
extensive network of membranes
a framework of fibers extending throughout the nuclear interior
used to pump out excess water from the cell to maintain a suitable concentration of ions and molecules within the cell
microscope used for the internal ultrastructure of cells
microtubular extenstion that has an undulating motion that generates force in the same direction as its axis
a network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm which organizes the structures and activities of the cell (support, motility, and regulation)
the region in a prokaryotic cell where DNA is concentrated
changes in cell location and limited movements of parts of the cell
holds important compounds (proteins), main repository of inorganic ions, disposal sites for metabolic by-products, color pigments, contain poisonous compounds, main role in cell gr
a netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus by supporting the envelope
long, thin projections from the surface of the cell to increase surface area
cellular extensions
extracellular structure of plant cells
consists of a small core protein with many carbohydrate chains attached
microscope mainly used for a detailed study of the surface of a specimen
region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane
fibrous proteins that maintains the cell shape, anchors the nucleus and other organelles, and forms the nuclear lamina
globular protein that makes up microfilaments
microtubular extension that moves in an oar-like rhythm perpendicular to its axis
inner membrane infoldings within the mitochondrion
flattened, interconnected sacs within the chloroplast
proteins with carbohydrates covalently bonded on them
the system that involves the synthesis of proteins and transport into membranes and organelles or out of the cell, metabolism and movement of lipids, and detoxification of poisons
main ingredient: glycoproteins
contains most of the cell's genes
a complex of proteins and DNA (makes up the chromosomes)
communicating junctions which provide cytoplasmic channels from one cell to an adjacent cell

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