Legislative Process-Budgeting & Legislative-Executive

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Methods of Congress reining in the President: ________ strategies
Some say that the amount of legislation passed in this scenario is the same as other times, but quality does not equal quantity
In the healthcare bill, Dems added a .9% surcharge to these taxes
The deficit reduction _______ ____ placed any money saved from a bill in to eventually pay off the debt
GRH gave this organization the power to enforce sequestration
1966-1973 was known as the _ ______ _____ ___ because the process fell apart.
How were the Clinton tax increases added to save the unpopularity?
Decade that small deficits became common
Which President didnt have much Hill experience, leading to his VP's role increasing?
GRH focused attention on this rather than the budgetary process
Who did FDR endorse over Walter George (a New Deal skeptic)
Is inside lobbying (bargaining) more likely with a popular or unpopular President?
This is the model of the presidency of Teddy, if its not prohibited in the Constitution, he can do it
This rule bars extraneous matter and threats to Social Security from reconciliation bills
Teddy coined this term, a tool of the president
Did the Supercommittee have the full support of the President or party leaders?
The Budget Act changed the fiscal year from ______ to October
Presidents change agency policy through
Non-entitlement domestic spending has ________ since 1980.
GRH II changed the enforcer to ____ because of the Supreme Court
1947 National Defense Act & 2004 Creation of Director of National Intelligence strengthened whom?
This was the result of tensions between Nixon and the Democratic Congress
Longer name of the Budget Act
Methods of Congress reining in the President: Periodic ________, used most often with regards to defense
Tech and globalization have _______ the President with regard to international affairs
Are Legislative-Executive Relations a zero-sum game?
Legislative Resources of Presidents: Partisan base in _______
This can be event specific, statutory, or on a whole program
Part of the pork to pass this treaty was making Charlotte an international airport
President can social lobby by offering to _______ in the district for the legislator
The veto threat has an increased value due to increased
The 1987 agreement between Reagan and Congress set how many different spending ceilings?
These two committees deal with taxes
OIRA employed these to stop agencies from administering out of step policies
This case represented how broad of a grant of authority Congress can give to the executive
Rule that automatically increases the debt ceiling upon adoption of a budget
A smart program director will alert a committee ____ of modifications in a program
In 2011, new House rule that says that new mandatory spending is offset with existing cuts (minus obamacare and tax cuts)
Crises, ambitious staff or committee chair, divided govt, or lots of time lead to more
Govt taxing and spending policy is better known as what type of policy?
Forces that shape the fate of nominees: ________ (opposition wants to stall until they are in power)
Methods of Congress reining in the President: Designing ______
With regard to administration factoring in decision making, did seniority matter?
Good way for a President to use Congress to get the public's attention
LBJ's visit to Phil Landrum's district allowed him to beat back a challenge from
__% of households pay more in payroll taxes than income
In professionalized legislatures, members of this party are less likely to run
During the most polarized Senate (05-06), nominees had a __% chance of confirmation
The _______ voter seeks to place checks on both parties power
This model of the presidency involves blowing off Congress on treaties and preferring viewing the States as a parliamentary system
Bill Clinton scandal that kept his first 2 AG's from confirmation
Which President started a formal process for starting the legislative process?
In what year were taxes in the highest bracket reduced from 70 to 50 with a 23% across the board cut
Model of the Presidency in which Congress is the most powerful
GOP tactic to slow down federal spending
These are the sessions held by Congress to keep from allowing recess appointments
What % of the budget is on entitlements?
In 2004, Congress passed the creation of this to decide what information to publish when
__% of veto overrides are successful
Founders assumed that which branch would be dominant?
Which party would have less administration initiative?
Of the 13 sitting Democrats FDR challenged, how many lost their seats?
Year in which FDR gained in a midterm
This was passed as part of the Contract with America and was ruled unconstitutional
How many budgets does GA pass every year?
Divided government, unpopular President, and no international conflict are conditions in which _____ are likely
In 1941, the Joint Committee on the Reduction of Federal Expenditures got together to analyze numbers from the
The President has to initiate the budget because of the Budget and Accounting Act of
Name a Dem Member of the Gang of 6
When a President impounds to permanently withhold spending, requires authorization by both Houses.
Most defeated nominations occur in
The President has to deliver an economic message to Congress because of the Employment Act of
Average wait for Court of Appeals nomination is _ months
How many concurrent budget resolutions have been passed on time since 1976?
Does the President's party factoring his decision into theirs always translate into votes?
Temporarily delaying spending, but can be overruled by Congress
Going public by Presidents has increased because executives now have less of an _________ advantage
Clinton legitimized his tax increases by saying they were for
He held the first TV oversight hearing on organized crime
Informal rolls of the President include strengthening ______ bonds, responding to public ________, and balancing personal ________
Variations from the submitted budget of an agency
This theory of judicial selection states that ideological conflict is omnipresent
In 1980, Carter and Democratic leaders added reconciliation instructions to the
Extremism or wrongdoing lead to unconfirmed
Since the 1970s, there are now inspector generals within
What was the earnings threshold on the 2013 Bush tax cut extensions?
How many years after GRH I did GRH II pass?
Which President returned to Reagan's policy of many return letters?
Act that created the CBO and ended nongermane budget ammendments. Set 20 hour debate limit on budget and reconciliation.
2009 PAYGO changes allow ________ bills to meet the requirement
This Supreme Court case claimed that the President is best suited for dealing with international affairs?
This rule requires 60 votes for legislation that would cause a revenue loss beyond the 10 year window of the budget
In 1946, the Joint Committee on the Legislative Budget came together to create a
The Social Security Reform Act of 1983 served to raise the minimum retirement age to __ and increase the
These are taxes or tax breaks that require passing anew each year
Is there a norm allowing minority reports from the Appropriations Committee?
Ways to score a President: From each member in relation to the President, reported in CQ now
Liberals thought the Budget Act would increase
Average wait for a Federal Trial Court judge is _ months
Nominations are approved by the Senate __% of the time
This act requires a 48 hour notification of any 60+ day military committment
1982 tax hikes were accomplished through
What % of the budget is defense spending?
This disposes of the year's surplus in GA (since fiscal year is from July to July
In the 1908s, the GOP capitalized on the fear of creeping deficits, and deficits didnt go higher than ______'s last year
Conservatives thought the Budget Act would
Methods of Congress reining in the President: _______, police patrol and fire alarm
The Violence Against Women Act and a law upping penalties for drug deals near a public school were struck down because their language was too
Bill that created the House and Senate budget committees
In what year was the budget balanced?
Signing statements, executive agreements, and recess appointments are examples of Presidential
This type of Presidential lobbying is about taking credit and issuing blame
1993 Clinton Budget Plan name
In the aftermath of the Civil War, each ______ needed to be specifically mentioned in law
This theory is correct in that nominations have always been political, but it does not predict new rule expoitations
What bill ensured 1 trillion in cuts over 10 years and created a supercommittee to cut another 1.2 trillion?
Best time for oversight is during a bill's _____
Before 1974, for budgetary data, Congress was fully reliant on information form the
Forces that shape the fate of nominees: ________ & ________ (divided govt, 84% passed in unified, 66% passed under divided, split benches)
Since 1789, Congress has overridden _% of vetos
GA fiscal year begins in
In 1946, the Joint Committee on the Legislative Budget came up with a plan to pass a _____ ___ _____ resolution on public debt if est expenditures were to be > est receipts.
Administration ______ affects how (and how often) proposals are structured
In what year did Congress push the sequestration targets back and set off a stock market crash?
Congress often uses _______ as bargaining chips
Required all spending proposals to be revenue neutral and created the PAYGO rule to make sure of it
This amendment said no money for abortions
Divided non-entitlement spending into 3 areas, and to only apply sequestration to that category
This act was the first to focus on spending limits (adjusted for inflation) rather than deficit reduction
If a President does not have strong _______, Congressmen will be less likely to support him.
The Economic Growth and Tax Relief Act of 2001 is better known as the
This President required all agencies to create a policy office
Legislative Resources of Presidents: Formal _____
Margorie Margoilies-Mezvinsky cast the deciding vote on this and lost her seat
Created categorical sequestration
OMB was created because of a __ fold increase in spending post WWI
What is the term for Nixon's unilateral spending cuts on federal programs?
This type of government leads to less oversight
Which Act created the CBO?
This thesis deals with the President's differing success rates in foreign and domestic issues
These statements, politicized by W, communicate how the President will enforce a law
Start of the fiscal year date
Did productivity increase more in the Reagan years than in the Clinton years?
There is only weak evidence showing that this matters in judicial appointments
A President can make frequent use of _______ when lobbying votes
In what year did the House adopt the Senate's PAYGO rules?
Legislative Resources of Presidents: National ______ Organization
Who has a shorter timetable, the President or Congress?
In 2009, PAYGO was changed to allow for this type of spending
Grover Norquist's tax pledge is known as the
__% of federal receipts are payroll taxes and __% of federal receipts are income taxes
Who gained the most power from the Budget Enforcement Act of 1990?
Veto threats need to be used sparingly to maintain
W created _____ ______, return letters for existing policy
In GA which committee has a permanent staff?
Name a problem with applying the Wilsonian model to the States
These allow for spending at last years level or a % of last year's level (how Congress funds the govt)
This created the Congressional Budget process
By 2002 not passing these became normal.
From 1821-1921, the budget process can be characterized as
How does the Senate enforce PAYGO?
Before 1921, did the President have any power with the budget?
Al Gore came up with the idea of the _______ as a place to take the surplus and hide it away
This OMB function deals with approving executive proposals for Congress
Televised speeches from here are the riskiest type of Presidential outside lobbying
Who was BO's 'regulation czar' for his 'libertarian paternalism' views?
Advantages of admin over lobbyists: easier to ________, and not obligated to be direct
Who traded LBJ breaking civil rights fillibusters for appointment powers?
Reasons for low admin power: Antipathy between ______
Name a governor that made frequent use of GA's line item veto
In 1921, what agency was created?
Biggest Tax Increase in American History
Under CBICA, the Senate and House Budget Committees have to develop the
Maximum spending in GA is set by
LBJ's conservative Democratic point person on the Great Society
Threat of a ______ can rein in the bureaucracy
Which president adopted the idea that deficits dont matter?
The deference norm was most pronouncedly broken somewhere between ____ and _____
1974 calendar: Final budget resolution with spending ceilings
Methods of Congress reining in the President: Advise and consent on _______
3 keys to Presidential Power: keeping Congress off ________ and staying ______
10 million/year that can be dipped into by the governor for various needs
This theory of judicial selection states that there is an ideological breaking point in which deference broke (Bork, Brown v Board)
This type of Presidential lobbying is known as 'going public'
What was the bill that caused the 2013 sequestration?
In the cases of intraadministration conflict, did Congress side with the agency or the White House more often?
Who shifted decision making powers in the budget process from committees to party leaders?
GA's version of the OMB
During a government _______, the executive typically inconveniences people to blame the legislature
Legislators claim that they have a __________ role in government
When Congress passes budget bills now, theyre
Advantages of admin over lobbyists: ________ and Prestige
President has a responsibility to set an
Which President created the Council on Competitiveness?
Do ideas more often come from Congress or the President?
President's lobbying arm
This was first introduced to give Hoover the power to overhaul the exec branch
Was the Supercommittee allowed to touch entitlements?
HW's Cabinet nomination to go down
The Supercommittee was actually the Joint Select Committee on
Methods of Congress reining in the President: _______ ________ guide the courts on how the policy was supposed to be executed
Name an organization started by executive order
Presidents must cooperate with Congressional leadership for their political _______
Does intraadministration conflict exist?
A secret, private committee in GA where budget decisions are made
The Legislative Budget Office in GA predates the
What used to be ignored by committees who didnt want to cut spending?
This type of oversight is more common since the 1970s
Name one circuit that has easy confirmation processes
Recess appointments require a _ day recess
The GOP held federal appropriations bill and the ______ _________ under hostage unless Clinton would sign their budget
Recess appointments last until the next
Why didnt the Budget Enforcement Act of 1990 have an immediate impact on the deficit?
Which President offered a deal to legislators that voted for his package (he wouldnt campaign against them)
In what year was the attempted 'grand bargain'?
Reasons for low admin power: ________ differences
Voters perceive different strengths between the
Do more junior or senior members pay more attention to the administration?
1974 calendar: time period in which individual bills authorizing and appropriating federal programs
Vetoes can also be a sign of political
For a nomination to pass, the majority leader must call the Senate into _____ session
Control of this is how Presidents secure and extend power
Which GA governor kept his own scorecards for legislators?
Process of connecting the first budget with the 2nd
OMB Central Clearance has been more politicized since
What was added to the Clinton tax hikes to please conservative Dems?
INS v Chadha ruled this to be unconstitutional
Advantages of admin over lobbyists: Executive _________ Advantage
The President's party always views actions of the other party as attempts to ________ the President
This was the 1985 attempt at sequestration that was designed to hit a balanced budget in 5 years (20% per year)
Richard Neustadt's book read by JFK
Kingdon argues that factors believed to be structural are actually
Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 was better known as __________ _________ _______ (____) I
This bill gave the President power to present Congress with executive branch department spending estimates and spending requests
Which Budget led to earmark reform?
Ex Parte Milligan showed an extension of Presidential power in a time of
Which legislator had his aircraft support for a trip pulled after blocking a W proposal on Dubai?
Formal name for tax loopholes is tax
Legislative Resources of Presidents: White House _____
First budget resolution sets a ______
This President used the most vetoes
Model of the Presidency as first among equals
1974 calendar: month with prelimenary budget resolution and spending targets
Ways to score a President: batting average of Presidential policy passing in Congress
President for whom the norm of automatic Cabinet confirmations was broken
Is party voting for the President's party more of a function of administration or Congressional leadership?
Most frequent communication tool of an administration
What type of Budget Act legalized impoundment was struck down by the courts?
Reagan authorized ____ to review proposed regulatory rules on a Cost-Benefit Analysis
This 1996 Budget compromise attempted to get a balanced budget by 2002.
Has GA ever had 2 Budget offices?
This President re-empowered OMB and reined back OIRA, opening it to interest groups
Agencies are designed to meet _____ specific Congress's policy goals
This famous Act included sunset provisions
First state with a line item veto
House GOP eliminated this rule in 2011
Which President used his first months most effectively?
This act phased in a 2 bracket tax system
SSI, Medicare, Medicaid are known as
If the President's Party is in control, an OMB thumbs down can ____ a bill
How many govt shutdowns happened in the 90s?
When were the Bush tax cuts set to expire?
What tax increase was accepted quietly to offset spending growth.
Low presidential approval, strong opposition, and bipartisan support are all factors increasing the likelihood of an
Name a GOP Member of the Gang of 6
What bill provided that reconciliation would be used at the start of the budget process?
Model of the Presidency as equal with the legislature
Which bill reformed earmarks?
Of payroll taxes and income taxes, which one is paid by all wage earners?
Forces that shape the fate of nominees: _______ (passing the Senate Judiciary, blue slips, need for a home-state advocate)
Simpson Bowles not coming to a vote led to the
For most of Congressional history, were revenue and spending treated together?
The payroll tax is _______, meaning that a bigger burden is on the poor
In 1972, which Magazine declared a Constitutional crisis based on Nixon's impoundment?
Successful Presidents ______ ideas
Low _____ _______ taxes reinforce wealth maldistribution
3 keys to Presidential Power: Keeping a good reputation amongst the __ or ______ class
Everything is revenue neutral and cuts can only come from the Defense, Domestic, or INTL buckets
Election years and social welfare bills are associated with using a ___
The budget was +/- ________ in the years following WW2
What term now refers to any bill ordered by May budget resolutions?
This type of lobbying fosters partisanship and opposition counter-moves
How the budget got through in 85, 86, and 87 to avoid sequestration
Congress moved to cut which President's WH staff?
President's budget compromise commission
Does GA have a balanced budget law?
Legislative Resources of Presidents: Patronage and ______
Legislative Resources of Presidents: _______ & public approval
A veto override takes _/_ of each house of Congress to be successful
Which President attempted to put budgeting back in Congress's court and failed?
Another communication tool of an administration
According to Kingdon, does administration importance rise as the session continues?
1980s- Supreme Court decided that these stand as long as they dont directly violate statute
Does the Concurrent budget resolution have the full force of law?
The Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 created the
Which Title of CBICA regulated Presidential impoundments
Did the Supercommitte have any moderates?
What was allowed to expire to have the Bush tax cuts?
This is Congress offering the President power with strings attached (Congress avoids policymaking but retains power)
Legislative Resources of Presidents: Leftover resources from the _______

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