Legislative Process-Budgeting & Legislative-Executive

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How many budgets does GA pass every year?
First budget resolution sets a ______
Who was BO's 'regulation czar' for his 'libertarian paternalism' views?
OMB was created because of a __ fold increase in spending post WWI
In 2004, Congress passed the creation of this to decide what information to publish when
This was passed as part of the Contract with America and was ruled unconstitutional
In what year was the budget balanced?
Govt taxing and spending policy is better known as what type of policy?
GA fiscal year begins in
This type of government leads to less oversight
Process of connecting the first budget with the 2nd
Liberals thought the Budget Act would increase
How many concurrent budget resolutions have been passed on time since 1976?
Agencies are designed to meet _____ specific Congress's policy goals
In what year were taxes in the highest bracket reduced from 70 to 50 with a 23% across the board cut
Who shifted decision making powers in the budget process from committees to party leaders?
Was the Supercommittee allowed to touch entitlements?
What tax increase was accepted quietly to offset spending growth.
Year in which FDR gained in a midterm
Divided non-entitlement spending into 3 areas, and to only apply sequestration to that category
In the aftermath of the Civil War, each ______ needed to be specifically mentioned in law
This case represented how broad of a grant of authority Congress can give to the executive
Variations from the submitted budget of an agency
How many years after GRH I did GRH II pass?
GRH gave this organization the power to enforce sequestration
A smart program director will alert a committee ____ of modifications in a program
Which President returned to Reagan's policy of many return letters?
Methods of Congress reining in the President: Periodic ________, used most often with regards to defense
Most frequent communication tool of an administration
House GOP eliminated this rule in 2011
By 2002 not passing these became normal.
This act requires a 48 hour notification of any 60+ day military committment
A veto override takes _/_ of each house of Congress to be successful
What % of the budget is defense spending?
__% of households pay more in payroll taxes than income
Ways to score a President: From each member in relation to the President, reported in CQ now
Required all spending proposals to be revenue neutral and created the PAYGO rule to make sure of it
Who did FDR endorse over Walter George (a New Deal skeptic)
When were the Bush tax cuts set to expire?
This bill gave the President power to present Congress with executive branch department spending estimates and spending requests
Forces that shape the fate of nominees: ________ (opposition wants to stall until they are in power)
What type of Budget Act legalized impoundment was struck down by the courts?
Legislative Resources of Presidents: Patronage and ______
Nominations are approved by the Senate __% of the time
Everything is revenue neutral and cuts can only come from the Defense, Domestic, or INTL buckets
Legislative Resources of Presidents: Formal _____
Some say that the amount of legislation passed in this scenario is the same as other times, but quality does not equal quantity
Forces that shape the fate of nominees: _______ (passing the Senate Judiciary, blue slips, need for a home-state advocate)
Extremism or wrongdoing lead to unconfirmed
1993 Clinton Budget Plan name
This type of oversight is more common since the 1970s
A President can make frequent use of _______ when lobbying votes
Before 1921, did the President have any power with the budget?
Of payroll taxes and income taxes, which one is paid by all wage earners?
This was first introduced to give Hoover the power to overhaul the exec branch
A secret, private committee in GA where budget decisions are made
Another communication tool of an administration
Legislative Resources of Presidents: Leftover resources from the _______
Administration ______ affects how (and how often) proposals are structured
This rule bars extraneous matter and threats to Social Security from reconciliation bills
What is the term for Nixon's unilateral spending cuts on federal programs?
1974 calendar: time period in which individual bills authorizing and appropriating federal programs
Since 1789, Congress has overridden _% of vetos
Name a governor that made frequent use of GA's line item veto
What was allowed to expire to have the Bush tax cuts?
These statements, politicized by W, communicate how the President will enforce a law
When Congress passes budget bills now, theyre
This is the model of the presidency of Teddy, if its not prohibited in the Constitution, he can do it
Clinton legitimized his tax increases by saying they were for
1966-1973 was known as the _ ______ _____ ___ because the process fell apart.
This President required all agencies to create a policy office
Model of the Presidency as equal with the legislature
How does the Senate enforce PAYGO?
Maximum spending in GA is set by
When a President impounds to permanently withhold spending, requires authorization by both Houses.
Which President attempted to put budgeting back in Congress's court and failed?
Low presidential approval, strong opposition, and bipartisan support are all factors increasing the likelihood of an
Who traded LBJ breaking civil rights fillibusters for appointment powers?
In 1921, what agency was created?
In what year did Congress push the sequestration targets back and set off a stock market crash?
Since the 1970s, there are now inspector generals within
LBJ's conservative Democratic point person on the Great Society
In what year did the House adopt the Senate's PAYGO rules?
How the budget got through in 85, 86, and 87 to avoid sequestration
Rule that automatically increases the debt ceiling upon adoption of a budget
Reagan authorized ____ to review proposed regulatory rules on a Cost-Benefit Analysis
Temporarily delaying spending, but can be overruled by Congress
Richard Neustadt's book read by JFK
10 million/year that can be dipped into by the governor for various needs
INS v Chadha ruled this to be unconstitutional
The Budget Act changed the fiscal year from ______ to October
Are Legislative-Executive Relations a zero-sum game?
Why didnt the Budget Enforcement Act of 1990 have an immediate impact on the deficit?
Under CBICA, the Senate and House Budget Committees have to develop the
Do more junior or senior members pay more attention to the administration?
Congress moved to cut which President's WH staff?
The deference norm was most pronouncedly broken somewhere between ____ and _____
This theory of judicial selection states that there is an ideological breaking point in which deference broke (Bork, Brown v Board)
Name one circuit that has easy confirmation processes
This is Congress offering the President power with strings attached (Congress avoids policymaking but retains power)
OIRA employed these to stop agencies from administering out of step policies
Does GA have a balanced budget law?
In 1946, the Joint Committee on the Legislative Budget came up with a plan to pass a _____ ___ _____ resolution on public debt if est expenditures were to be > est receipts.
There is only weak evidence showing that this matters in judicial appointments
Most defeated nominations occur in
Did productivity increase more in the Reagan years than in the Clinton years?
Is there a norm allowing minority reports from the Appropriations Committee?
First state with a line item veto
GRH focused attention on this rather than the budgetary process
Methods of Congress reining in the President: ________ strategies
Is inside lobbying (bargaining) more likely with a popular or unpopular President?
3 keys to Presidential Power: Keeping a good reputation amongst the __ or ______ class
Signing statements, executive agreements, and recess appointments are examples of Presidential
In what year was the attempted 'grand bargain'?
The Supercommittee was actually the Joint Select Committee on
Tech and globalization have _______ the President with regard to international affairs
Does intraadministration conflict exist?
This act phased in a 2 bracket tax system
Legislators claim that they have a __________ role in government
Decade that small deficits became common
In 1980, Carter and Democratic leaders added reconciliation instructions to the
Recess appointments require a _ day recess
HW's Cabinet nomination to go down
What used to be ignored by committees who didnt want to cut spending?
Which President offered a deal to legislators that voted for his package (he wouldnt campaign against them)
This type of lobbying fosters partisanship and opposition counter-moves
OMB Central Clearance has been more politicized since
This act was the first to focus on spending limits (adjusted for inflation) rather than deficit reduction
President's budget compromise commission
In the healthcare bill, Dems added a .9% surcharge to these taxes
__% of federal receipts are payroll taxes and __% of federal receipts are income taxes
How many govt shutdowns happened in the 90s?
What % of the budget is on entitlements?
The Social Security Reform Act of 1983 served to raise the minimum retirement age to __ and increase the
Model of the Presidency as first among equals
Advantages of admin over lobbyists: Executive _________ Advantage
Which Act created the CBO?
Good way for a President to use Congress to get the public's attention
GOP tactic to slow down federal spending
Forces that shape the fate of nominees: ________ & ________ (divided govt, 84% passed in unified, 66% passed under divided, split benches)
SSI, Medicare, Medicaid are known as
Successful Presidents ______ ideas
Methods of Congress reining in the President: Designing ______
W created _____ ______, return letters for existing policy
This type of Presidential lobbying is about taking credit and issuing blame
Does the President's party factoring his decision into theirs always translate into votes?
This Supreme Court case claimed that the President is best suited for dealing with international affairs?
These are taxes or tax breaks that require passing anew each year
Ex Parte Milligan showed an extension of Presidential power in a time of
With regard to administration factoring in decision making, did seniority matter?
This was the 1985 attempt at sequestration that was designed to hit a balanced budget in 5 years (20% per year)
Presidents change agency policy through
Non-entitlement domestic spending has ________ since 1980.
Founders assumed that which branch would be dominant?
Methods of Congress reining in the President: Advise and consent on _______
Name a GOP Member of the Gang of 6
These are the sessions held by Congress to keep from allowing recess appointments
The deficit reduction _______ ____ placed any money saved from a bill in to eventually pay off the debt
Methods of Congress reining in the President: _______ ________ guide the courts on how the policy was supposed to be executed
President can social lobby by offering to _______ in the district for the legislator
Best time for oversight is during a bill's _____
1974 calendar: month with prelimenary budget resolution and spending targets
Name a problem with applying the Wilsonian model to the States
The President's party always views actions of the other party as attempts to ________ the President
The Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 created the
Advantages of admin over lobbyists: ________ and Prestige
Legislative Resources of Presidents: Partisan base in _______
Legislative Resources of Presidents: National ______ Organization
This disposes of the year's surplus in GA (since fiscal year is from July to July
Is party voting for the President's party more of a function of administration or Congressional leadership?
The Violence Against Women Act and a law upping penalties for drug deals near a public school were struck down because their language was too
In 1946, the Joint Committee on the Legislative Budget came together to create a
If the President's Party is in control, an OMB thumbs down can ____ a bill
Which President used his first months most effectively?
Threat of a ______ can rein in the bureaucracy
Average wait for a Federal Trial Court judge is _ months
The Legislative Budget Office in GA predates the
This President used the most vetoes
What bill ensured 1 trillion in cuts over 10 years and created a supercommittee to cut another 1.2 trillion?
The GOP held federal appropriations bill and the ______ _________ under hostage unless Clinton would sign their budget
3 keys to Presidential Power: keeping Congress off ________ and staying ______
Has GA ever had 2 Budget offices?
President for whom the norm of automatic Cabinet confirmations was broken
Ways to score a President: batting average of Presidential policy passing in Congress
Advantages of admin over lobbyists: easier to ________, and not obligated to be direct
Bill that created the House and Senate budget committees
Which Budget led to earmark reform?
LBJ's visit to Phil Landrum's district allowed him to beat back a challenge from
__% of veto overrides are successful
2009 PAYGO changes allow ________ bills to meet the requirement
Which legislator had his aircraft support for a trip pulled after blocking a W proposal on Dubai?
This amendment said no money for abortions
In GA which committee has a permanent staff?
Control of this is how Presidents secure and extend power
Longer name of the Budget Act
Who has a shorter timetable, the President or Congress?
This famous Act included sunset provisions
Which President created the Council on Competitiveness?
Conservatives thought the Budget Act would
Simpson Bowles not coming to a vote led to the
In 2009, PAYGO was changed to allow for this type of spending
Who gained the most power from the Budget Enforcement Act of 1990?
Which President started a formal process for starting the legislative process?
Average wait for Court of Appeals nomination is _ months
This OMB function deals with approving executive proposals for Congress
Reasons for low admin power: Antipathy between ______
For a nomination to pass, the majority leader must call the Senate into _____ session
Voters perceive different strengths between the
GA's version of the OMB
Divided government, unpopular President, and no international conflict are conditions in which _____ are likely
Created categorical sequestration
Did the Supercommittee have the full support of the President or party leaders?
If a President does not have strong _______, Congressmen will be less likely to support him.
Al Gore came up with the idea of the _______ as a place to take the surplus and hide it away
The 1987 agreement between Reagan and Congress set how many different spending ceilings?
According to Kingdon, does administration importance rise as the session continues?
Grover Norquist's tax pledge is known as the
Did the Supercommitte have any moderates?
Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 was better known as __________ _________ _______ (____) I
In 2011, new House rule that says that new mandatory spending is offset with existing cuts (minus obamacare and tax cuts)
During a government _______, the executive typically inconveniences people to blame the legislature
This was the result of tensions between Nixon and the Democratic Congress
The payroll tax is _______, meaning that a bigger burden is on the poor
Low _____ _______ taxes reinforce wealth maldistribution
1980s- Supreme Court decided that these stand as long as they dont directly violate statute
1974 calendar: Final budget resolution with spending ceilings
These allow for spending at last years level or a % of last year's level (how Congress funds the govt)
President's lobbying arm
Kingdon argues that factors believed to be structural are actually
The _______ voter seeks to place checks on both parties power
Which party would have less administration initiative?
This created the Congressional Budget process
What was the bill that caused the 2013 sequestration?
Crises, ambitious staff or committee chair, divided govt, or lots of time lead to more
Which Title of CBICA regulated Presidential impoundments
Bill Clinton scandal that kept his first 2 AG's from confirmation
Formal name for tax loopholes is tax
What was the earnings threshold on the 2013 Bush tax cut extensions?
The Economic Growth and Tax Relief Act of 2001 is better known as the
Part of the pork to pass this treaty was making Charlotte an international airport
Veto threats need to be used sparingly to maintain
This thesis deals with the President's differing success rates in foreign and domestic issues
The veto threat has an increased value due to increased
Which GA governor kept his own scorecards for legislators?
Congress often uses _______ as bargaining chips
Of the 13 sitting Democrats FDR challenged, how many lost their seats?
Biggest Tax Increase in American History
Which President didnt have much Hill experience, leading to his VP's role increasing?
Teddy coined this term, a tool of the president
In 1941, the Joint Committee on the Reduction of Federal Expenditures got together to analyze numbers from the
GRH II changed the enforcer to ____ because of the Supreme Court
In 1972, which Magazine declared a Constitutional crisis based on Nixon's impoundment?
Recess appointments last until the next
This rule requires 60 votes for legislation that would cause a revenue loss beyond the 10 year window of the budget
1982 tax hikes were accomplished through
What bill provided that reconciliation would be used at the start of the budget process?
Which bill reformed earmarks?
1947 National Defense Act & 2004 Creation of Director of National Intelligence strengthened whom?
This President re-empowered OMB and reined back OIRA, opening it to interest groups
This type of Presidential lobbying is known as 'going public'
Election years and social welfare bills are associated with using a ___
In the cases of intraadministration conflict, did Congress side with the agency or the White House more often?
Legislative Resources of Presidents: _______ & public approval
Televised speeches from here are the riskiest type of Presidential outside lobbying
The budget was +/- ________ in the years following WW2
Methods of Congress reining in the President: _______, police patrol and fire alarm
This model of the presidency involves blowing off Congress on treaties and preferring viewing the States as a parliamentary system
Name an organization started by executive order
Model of the Presidency in which Congress is the most powerful
Margorie Margoilies-Mezvinsky cast the deciding vote on this and lost her seat
This theory is correct in that nominations have always been political, but it does not predict new rule expoitations
The President has to initiate the budget because of the Budget and Accounting Act of
These two committees deal with taxes
Reasons for low admin power: ________ differences
Presidents must cooperate with Congressional leadership for their political _______
Informal rolls of the President include strengthening ______ bonds, responding to public ________, and balancing personal ________
The President has to deliver an economic message to Congress because of the Employment Act of
In the 1908s, the GOP capitalized on the fear of creeping deficits, and deficits didnt go higher than ______'s last year
Going public by Presidents has increased because executives now have less of an _________ advantage
Does the Concurrent budget resolution have the full force of law?
He held the first TV oversight hearing on organized crime
Which president adopted the idea that deficits dont matter?
What term now refers to any bill ordered by May budget resolutions?
Start of the fiscal year date
Legislative Resources of Presidents: White House _____
What was added to the Clinton tax hikes to please conservative Dems?
Name a Dem Member of the Gang of 6
President has a responsibility to set an
This can be event specific, statutory, or on a whole program
This 1996 Budget compromise attempted to get a balanced budget by 2002.
Do ideas more often come from Congress or the President?
From 1821-1921, the budget process can be characterized as
Vetoes can also be a sign of political
During the most polarized Senate (05-06), nominees had a __% chance of confirmation
Before 1974, for budgetary data, Congress was fully reliant on information form the
For most of Congressional history, were revenue and spending treated together?
Act that created the CBO and ended nongermane budget ammendments. Set 20 hour debate limit on budget and reconciliation.
How were the Clinton tax increases added to save the unpopularity?
In professionalized legislatures, members of this party are less likely to run
This theory of judicial selection states that ideological conflict is omnipresent

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