Legislative Process-Budgeting & Legislative-Executive

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Grover Norquist's tax pledge is known as the
GRH gave this organization the power to enforce sequestration
According to Kingdon, does administration importance rise as the session continues?
In 2004, Congress passed the creation of this to decide what information to publish when
Did productivity increase more in the Reagan years than in the Clinton years?
Advantages of admin over lobbyists: Executive _________ Advantage
A smart program director will alert a committee ____ of modifications in a program
Since 1789, Congress has overridden _% of vetos
Does the President's party factoring his decision into theirs always translate into votes?
The veto threat has an increased value due to increased
Year in which FDR gained in a midterm
Teddy coined this term, a tool of the president
What term now refers to any bill ordered by May budget resolutions?
House GOP eliminated this rule in 2011
This type of Presidential lobbying is known as 'going public'
Non-entitlement domestic spending has ________ since 1980.
Signing statements, executive agreements, and recess appointments are examples of Presidential
This was the 1985 attempt at sequestration that was designed to hit a balanced budget in 5 years (20% per year)
There is only weak evidence showing that this matters in judicial appointments
Methods of Congress reining in the President: _______, police patrol and fire alarm
In professionalized legislatures, members of this party are less likely to run
What was the bill that caused the 2013 sequestration?
During a government _______, the executive typically inconveniences people to blame the legislature
Divided non-entitlement spending into 3 areas, and to only apply sequestration to that category
Most frequent communication tool of an administration
This is the model of the presidency of Teddy, if its not prohibited in the Constitution, he can do it
Before 1974, for budgetary data, Congress was fully reliant on information form the
Legislative Resources of Presidents: Patronage and ______
Which President returned to Reagan's policy of many return letters?
For a nomination to pass, the majority leader must call the Senate into _____ session
Which Budget led to earmark reform?
Congress moved to cut which President's WH staff?
Presidents change agency policy through
Is there a norm allowing minority reports from the Appropriations Committee?
Televised speeches from here are the riskiest type of Presidential outside lobbying
Average wait for a Federal Trial Court judge is _ months
With regard to administration factoring in decision making, did seniority matter?
First budget resolution sets a ______
__% of households pay more in payroll taxes than income
3 keys to Presidential Power: Keeping a good reputation amongst the __ or ______ class
By 2002 not passing these became normal.
In 1946, the Joint Committee on the Legislative Budget came up with a plan to pass a _____ ___ _____ resolution on public debt if est expenditures were to be > est receipts.
Al Gore came up with the idea of the _______ as a place to take the surplus and hide it away
Which President started a formal process for starting the legislative process?
This rule bars extraneous matter and threats to Social Security from reconciliation bills
Legislative Resources of Presidents: Formal _____
3 keys to Presidential Power: keeping Congress off ________ and staying ______
The payroll tax is _______, meaning that a bigger burden is on the poor
Conservatives thought the Budget Act would
1993 Clinton Budget Plan name
Kingdon argues that factors believed to be structural are actually
Name a problem with applying the Wilsonian model to the States
How were the Clinton tax increases added to save the unpopularity?
When a President impounds to permanently withhold spending, requires authorization by both Houses.
SSI, Medicare, Medicaid are known as
Formal name for tax loopholes is tax
OMB was created because of a __ fold increase in spending post WWI
This type of lobbying fosters partisanship and opposition counter-moves
How many years after GRH I did GRH II pass?
Decade that small deficits became common
This Supreme Court case claimed that the President is best suited for dealing with international affairs?
OIRA employed these to stop agencies from administering out of step policies
A veto override takes _/_ of each house of Congress to be successful
The Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 created the
This amendment said no money for abortions
The deficit reduction _______ ____ placed any money saved from a bill in to eventually pay off the debt
The Social Security Reform Act of 1983 served to raise the minimum retirement age to __ and increase the
Who has a shorter timetable, the President or Congress?
This created the Congressional Budget process
Which President offered a deal to legislators that voted for his package (he wouldnt campaign against them)
Why didnt the Budget Enforcement Act of 1990 have an immediate impact on the deficit?
How many concurrent budget resolutions have been passed on time since 1976?
Did the Supercommitte have any moderates?
Does GA have a balanced budget law?
Model of the Presidency as first among equals
Legislative Resources of Presidents: _______ & public approval
This was passed as part of the Contract with America and was ruled unconstitutional
This President used the most vetoes
Nominations are approved by the Senate __% of the time
The Violence Against Women Act and a law upping penalties for drug deals near a public school were struck down because their language was too
This was first introduced to give Hoover the power to overhaul the exec branch
What type of Budget Act legalized impoundment was struck down by the courts?
This OMB function deals with approving executive proposals for Congress
President can social lobby by offering to _______ in the district for the legislator
Which President attempted to put budgeting back in Congress's court and failed?
1980s- Supreme Court decided that these stand as long as they dont directly violate statute
This President re-empowered OMB and reined back OIRA, opening it to interest groups
Who gained the most power from the Budget Enforcement Act of 1990?
When were the Bush tax cuts set to expire?
Variations from the submitted budget of an agency
In 2011, new House rule that says that new mandatory spending is offset with existing cuts (minus obamacare and tax cuts)
Another communication tool of an administration
Vetoes can also be a sign of political
Does the Concurrent budget resolution have the full force of law?
2009 PAYGO changes allow ________ bills to meet the requirement
Legislative Resources of Presidents: Leftover resources from the _______
Advantages of admin over lobbyists: ________ and Prestige
This model of the presidency involves blowing off Congress on treaties and preferring viewing the States as a parliamentary system
Biggest Tax Increase in American History
Legislative Resources of Presidents: White House _____
The Supercommittee was actually the Joint Select Committee on
Margorie Margoilies-Mezvinsky cast the deciding vote on this and lost her seat
Which President used his first months most effectively?
What bill provided that reconciliation would be used at the start of the budget process?
Name a GOP Member of the Gang of 6
In GA which committee has a permanent staff?
Who shifted decision making powers in the budget process from committees to party leaders?
GA's version of the OMB
In 1972, which Magazine declared a Constitutional crisis based on Nixon's impoundment?
Ways to score a President: batting average of Presidential policy passing in Congress
Required all spending proposals to be revenue neutral and created the PAYGO rule to make sure of it
Under CBICA, the Senate and House Budget Committees have to develop the
This thesis deals with the President's differing success rates in foreign and domestic issues
Successful Presidents ______ ideas
This type of government leads to less oversight
When Congress passes budget bills now, theyre
LBJ's conservative Democratic point person on the Great Society
What was the earnings threshold on the 2013 Bush tax cut extensions?
This act phased in a 2 bracket tax system
The deference norm was most pronouncedly broken somewhere between ____ and _____
Start of the fiscal year date
This can be event specific, statutory, or on a whole program
This President required all agencies to create a policy office
Recess appointments require a _ day recess
Methods of Congress reining in the President: ________ strategies
1974 calendar: month with prelimenary budget resolution and spending targets
Legislative Resources of Presidents: Partisan base in _______
Who traded LBJ breaking civil rights fillibusters for appointment powers?
Ways to score a President: From each member in relation to the President, reported in CQ now
This theory of judicial selection states that ideological conflict is omnipresent
HW's Cabinet nomination to go down
Name one circuit that has easy confirmation processes
In what year was the attempted 'grand bargain'?
Extremism or wrongdoing lead to unconfirmed
Voters perceive different strengths between the
Some say that the amount of legislation passed in this scenario is the same as other times, but quality does not equal quantity
What used to be ignored by committees who didnt want to cut spending?
The Budget Act changed the fiscal year from ______ to October
Name an organization started by executive order
Did the Supercommittee have the full support of the President or party leaders?
These allow for spending at last years level or a % of last year's level (how Congress funds the govt)
This bill gave the President power to present Congress with executive branch department spending estimates and spending requests
INS v Chadha ruled this to be unconstitutional
Has GA ever had 2 Budget offices?
President's lobbying arm
In what year did the House adopt the Senate's PAYGO rules?
Average wait for Court of Appeals nomination is _ months
Temporarily delaying spending, but can be overruled by Congress
In the cases of intraadministration conflict, did Congress side with the agency or the White House more often?
These statements, politicized by W, communicate how the President will enforce a law
A secret, private committee in GA where budget decisions are made
1974 calendar: Final budget resolution with spending ceilings
1966-1973 was known as the _ ______ _____ ___ because the process fell apart.
Simpson Bowles not coming to a vote led to the
Name a Dem Member of the Gang of 6
This type of Presidential lobbying is about taking credit and issuing blame
Reasons for low admin power: Antipathy between ______
The President's party always views actions of the other party as attempts to ________ the President
Maximum spending in GA is set by
President's budget compromise commission
Methods of Congress reining in the President: Periodic ________, used most often with regards to defense
Which bill reformed earmarks?
President has a responsibility to set an
During the most polarized Senate (05-06), nominees had a __% chance of confirmation
The _______ voter seeks to place checks on both parties power
Model of the Presidency as equal with the legislature
GRH focused attention on this rather than the budgetary process
What was allowed to expire to have the Bush tax cuts?
Name a governor that made frequent use of GA's line item veto
Which Act created the CBO?
Divided government, unpopular President, and no international conflict are conditions in which _____ are likely
Threat of a ______ can rein in the bureaucracy
Control of this is how Presidents secure and extend power
Congress often uses _______ as bargaining chips
Do ideas more often come from Congress or the President?
Methods of Congress reining in the President: Designing ______
10 million/year that can be dipped into by the governor for various needs
Forces that shape the fate of nominees: _______ (passing the Senate Judiciary, blue slips, need for a home-state advocate)
The Legislative Budget Office in GA predates the
These two committees deal with taxes
Agencies are designed to meet _____ specific Congress's policy goals
Bill Clinton scandal that kept his first 2 AG's from confirmation
From 1821-1921, the budget process can be characterized as
Longer name of the Budget Act
Model of the Presidency in which Congress is the most powerful
Legislators claim that they have a __________ role in government
Everything is revenue neutral and cuts can only come from the Defense, Domestic, or INTL buckets
How many budgets does GA pass every year?
Forces that shape the fate of nominees: ________ (opposition wants to stall until they are in power)
How does the Senate enforce PAYGO?
In 1946, the Joint Committee on the Legislative Budget came together to create a
The GOP held federal appropriations bill and the ______ _________ under hostage unless Clinton would sign their budget
Rule that automatically increases the debt ceiling upon adoption of a budget
In 1941, the Joint Committee on the Reduction of Federal Expenditures got together to analyze numbers from the
What % of the budget is defense spending?
Advantages of admin over lobbyists: easier to ________, and not obligated to be direct
These are taxes or tax breaks that require passing anew each year
Which GA governor kept his own scorecards for legislators?
If the President's Party is in control, an OMB thumbs down can ____ a bill
Founders assumed that which branch would be dominant?
In what year were taxes in the highest bracket reduced from 70 to 50 with a 23% across the board cut
What % of the budget is on entitlements?
This was the result of tensions between Nixon and the Democratic Congress
Forces that shape the fate of nominees: ________ & ________ (divided govt, 84% passed in unified, 66% passed under divided, split benches)
GRH II changed the enforcer to ____ because of the Supreme Court
Of payroll taxes and income taxes, which one is paid by all wage earners?
In what year did Congress push the sequestration targets back and set off a stock market crash?
Was the Supercommittee allowed to touch entitlements?
What bill ensured 1 trillion in cuts over 10 years and created a supercommittee to cut another 1.2 trillion?
GA fiscal year begins in
In what year was the budget balanced?
What tax increase was accepted quietly to offset spending growth.
Created categorical sequestration
Before 1921, did the President have any power with the budget?
What was added to the Clinton tax hikes to please conservative Dems?
GOP tactic to slow down federal spending
Bill that created the House and Senate budget committees
Clinton legitimized his tax increases by saying they were for
Methods of Congress reining in the President: _______ ________ guide the courts on how the policy was supposed to be executed
This theory of judicial selection states that there is an ideological breaking point in which deference broke (Bork, Brown v Board)
Which president adopted the idea that deficits dont matter?
The budget was +/- ________ in the years following WW2
This act was the first to focus on spending limits (adjusted for inflation) rather than deficit reduction
What is the term for Nixon's unilateral spending cuts on federal programs?
President for whom the norm of automatic Cabinet confirmations was broken
In 1980, Carter and Democratic leaders added reconciliation instructions to the
The 1987 agreement between Reagan and Congress set how many different spending ceilings?
How the budget got through in 85, 86, and 87 to avoid sequestration
In 1921, what agency was created?
For most of Congressional history, were revenue and spending treated together?
Crises, ambitious staff or committee chair, divided govt, or lots of time lead to more
The President has to deliver an economic message to Congress because of the Employment Act of
This act requires a 48 hour notification of any 60+ day military committment
Reagan authorized ____ to review proposed regulatory rules on a Cost-Benefit Analysis
Best time for oversight is during a bill's _____
These are the sessions held by Congress to keep from allowing recess appointments
Which legislator had his aircraft support for a trip pulled after blocking a W proposal on Dubai?
If a President does not have strong _______, Congressmen will be less likely to support him.
W created _____ ______, return letters for existing policy
Are Legislative-Executive Relations a zero-sum game?
This case represented how broad of a grant of authority Congress can give to the executive
This is Congress offering the President power with strings attached (Congress avoids policymaking but retains power)
He held the first TV oversight hearing on organized crime
Good way for a President to use Congress to get the public's attention
The Economic Growth and Tax Relief Act of 2001 is better known as the
Low _____ _______ taxes reinforce wealth maldistribution
Is party voting for the President's party more of a function of administration or Congressional leadership?
Act that created the CBO and ended nongermane budget ammendments. Set 20 hour debate limit on budget and reconciliation.
This 1996 Budget compromise attempted to get a balanced budget by 2002.
Liberals thought the Budget Act would increase
Presidents must cooperate with Congressional leadership for their political _______
Does intraadministration conflict exist?
Legislative Resources of Presidents: National ______ Organization
Methods of Congress reining in the President: Advise and consent on _______
In the healthcare bill, Dems added a .9% surcharge to these taxes
Veto threats need to be used sparingly to maintain
Part of the pork to pass this treaty was making Charlotte an international airport
Election years and social welfare bills are associated with using a ___
Is inside lobbying (bargaining) more likely with a popular or unpopular President?
Going public by Presidents has increased because executives now have less of an _________ advantage
Reasons for low admin power: ________ differences
1947 National Defense Act & 2004 Creation of Director of National Intelligence strengthened whom?
Who was BO's 'regulation czar' for his 'libertarian paternalism' views?
Of the 13 sitting Democrats FDR challenged, how many lost their seats?
__% of federal receipts are payroll taxes and __% of federal receipts are income taxes
In 2009, PAYGO was changed to allow for this type of spending
Recess appointments last until the next
__% of veto overrides are successful
First state with a line item veto
1982 tax hikes were accomplished through
This famous Act included sunset provisions
1974 calendar: time period in which individual bills authorizing and appropriating federal programs
Which President didnt have much Hill experience, leading to his VP's role increasing?
Most defeated nominations occur in
A President can make frequent use of _______ when lobbying votes
Low presidential approval, strong opposition, and bipartisan support are all factors increasing the likelihood of an
LBJ's visit to Phil Landrum's district allowed him to beat back a challenge from
Which Title of CBICA regulated Presidential impoundments
Informal rolls of the President include strengthening ______ bonds, responding to public ________, and balancing personal ________
Which party would have less administration initiative?
Administration ______ affects how (and how often) proposals are structured
Since the 1970s, there are now inspector generals within
Do more junior or senior members pay more attention to the administration?
Govt taxing and spending policy is better known as what type of policy?
Ex Parte Milligan showed an extension of Presidential power in a time of
Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 was better known as __________ _________ _______ (____) I
Process of connecting the first budget with the 2nd
Who did FDR endorse over Walter George (a New Deal skeptic)
In the 1908s, the GOP capitalized on the fear of creeping deficits, and deficits didnt go higher than ______'s last year
In the aftermath of the Civil War, each ______ needed to be specifically mentioned in law
This theory is correct in that nominations have always been political, but it does not predict new rule expoitations
OMB Central Clearance has been more politicized since
Which President created the Council on Competitiveness?
The President has to initiate the budget because of the Budget and Accounting Act of
This type of oversight is more common since the 1970s
How many govt shutdowns happened in the 90s?
Tech and globalization have _______ the President with regard to international affairs
Richard Neustadt's book read by JFK
This rule requires 60 votes for legislation that would cause a revenue loss beyond the 10 year window of the budget
This disposes of the year's surplus in GA (since fiscal year is from July to July

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Created Mar 11, 2013ReportNominate
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