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He held the first TV oversight hearing on organized crime
What bill provided that reconciliation would be used at the start of the budget process?
Recess appointments last until the next
Which President returned to Reagan's policy of many return letters?
By 2002 not passing these became normal.
First state with a line item veto
Nominations are approved by the Senate __% of the time
3 keys to Presidential Power: Keeping a good reputation amongst the __ or ______ class
President's budget compromise commission
In 1972, which Magazine declared a Constitutional crisis based on Nixon's impoundment?
The President has to deliver an economic message to Congress because of the Employment Act of
A veto override takes _/_ of each house of Congress to be successful
In the aftermath of the Civil War, each ______ needed to be specifically mentioned in law
Agencies are designed to meet _____ specific Congress's policy goals
Does GA have a balanced budget law?
In 1946, the Joint Committee on the Legislative Budget came up with a plan to pass a _____ ___ _____ resolution on public debt if est expenditures were to be > est receipts.
SSI, Medicare, Medicaid are known as
When a President impounds to permanently withhold spending, requires authorization by both Houses.
Most defeated nominations occur in
Low presidential approval, strong opposition, and bipartisan support are all factors increasing the likelihood of an
Margorie Margoilies-Mezvinsky cast the deciding vote on this and lost her seat
__% of households pay more in payroll taxes than income
Which President attempted to put budgeting back in Congress's court and failed?
1993 Clinton Budget Plan name
Non-entitlement domestic spending has ________ since 1980.
This amendment said no money for abortions
This type of oversight is more common since the 1970s
Al Gore came up with the idea of the _______ as a place to take the surplus and hide it away
Methods of Congress reining in the President: _______ ________ guide the courts on how the policy was supposed to be executed
Good way for a President to use Congress to get the public's attention
From 1821-1921, the budget process can be characterized as
Signing statements, executive agreements, and recess appointments are examples of Presidential
Did the Supercommittee have the full support of the President or party leaders?
Is there a norm allowing minority reports from the Appropriations Committee?
This can be event specific, statutory, or on a whole program
What used to be ignored by committees who didnt want to cut spending?
Divided government, unpopular President, and no international conflict are conditions in which _____ are likely
This President re-empowered OMB and reined back OIRA, opening it to interest groups
This theory of judicial selection states that there is an ideological breaking point in which deference broke (Bork, Brown v Board)
Name a GOP Member of the Gang of 6
Legislative Resources of Presidents: Partisan base in _______
Start of the fiscal year date
Which President created the Council on Competitiveness?
Part of the pork to pass this treaty was making Charlotte an international airport
Everything is revenue neutral and cuts can only come from the Defense, Domestic, or INTL buckets
OMB Central Clearance has been more politicized since
This rule bars extraneous matter and threats to Social Security from reconciliation bills
Reagan authorized ____ to review proposed regulatory rules on a Cost-Benefit Analysis
HW's Cabinet nomination to go down
First budget resolution sets a ______
In what year did the House adopt the Senate's PAYGO rules?
Under CBICA, the Senate and House Budget Committees have to develop the
GA fiscal year begins in
This act was the first to focus on spending limits (adjusted for inflation) rather than deficit reduction
The GOP held federal appropriations bill and the ______ _________ under hostage unless Clinton would sign their budget
House GOP eliminated this rule in 2011
The Legislative Budget Office in GA predates the
In what year did Congress push the sequestration targets back and set off a stock market crash?
Is party voting for the President's party more of a function of administration or Congressional leadership?
Veto threats need to be used sparingly to maintain
Of the 13 sitting Democrats FDR challenged, how many lost their seats?
Was the Supercommittee allowed to touch entitlements?
Administration ______ affects how (and how often) proposals are structured
These statements, politicized by W, communicate how the President will enforce a law
Since 1789, Congress has overridden _% of vetos
Methods of Congress reining in the President: ________ strategies
In 2011, new House rule that says that new mandatory spending is offset with existing cuts (minus obamacare and tax cuts)
When were the Bush tax cuts set to expire?
Formal name for tax loopholes is tax
Variations from the submitted budget of an agency
This is the model of the presidency of Teddy, if its not prohibited in the Constitution, he can do it
Grover Norquist's tax pledge is known as the
GRH gave this organization the power to enforce sequestration
In what year was the attempted 'grand bargain'?
Tech and globalization have _______ the President with regard to international affairs
This thesis deals with the President's differing success rates in foreign and domestic issues
Some say that the amount of legislation passed in this scenario is the same as other times, but quality does not equal quantity
Crises, ambitious staff or committee chair, divided govt, or lots of time lead to more
Does the Concurrent budget resolution have the full force of law?
In the healthcare bill, Dems added a .9% surcharge to these taxes
In the cases of intraadministration conflict, did Congress side with the agency or the White House more often?
Which President offered a deal to legislators that voted for his package (he wouldnt campaign against them)
__% of veto overrides are successful
For most of Congressional history, were revenue and spending treated together?
A President can make frequent use of _______ when lobbying votes
Act that created the CBO and ended nongermane budget ammendments. Set 20 hour debate limit on budget and reconciliation.
Best time for oversight is during a bill's _____
In 2009, PAYGO was changed to allow for this type of spending
Average wait for a Federal Trial Court judge is _ months
Advantages of admin over lobbyists: Executive _________ Advantage
Did the Supercommitte have any moderates?
This bill gave the President power to present Congress with executive branch department spending estimates and spending requests
Low _____ _______ taxes reinforce wealth maldistribution
Name one circuit that has easy confirmation processes
Simpson Bowles not coming to a vote led to the
Legislative Resources of Presidents: Patronage and ______
Is inside lobbying (bargaining) more likely with a popular or unpopular President?
What was added to the Clinton tax hikes to please conservative Dems?
Bill that created the House and Senate budget committees
This model of the presidency involves blowing off Congress on treaties and preferring viewing the States as a parliamentary system
PlayPlaywright
GA's version of the OMB
Name a problem with applying the Wilsonian model to the States
This OMB function deals with approving executive proposals for Congress
The veto threat has an increased value due to increased
In 1941, the Joint Committee on the Reduction of Federal Expenditures got together to analyze numbers from the
President can social lobby by offering to _______ in the district for the legislator
What term now refers to any bill ordered by May budget resolutions?
In 1921, what agency was created?
How many budgets does GA pass every year?
Does intraadministration conflict exist?
1974 calendar: time period in which individual bills authorizing and appropriating federal programs
Reasons for low admin power: ________ differences
What tax increase was accepted quietly to offset spending growth.
Which legislator had his aircraft support for a trip pulled after blocking a W proposal on Dubai?
This 1996 Budget compromise attempted to get a balanced budget by 2002.
These are the sessions held by Congress to keep from allowing recess appointments
1974 calendar: Final budget resolution with spending ceilings
Liberals thought the Budget Act would increase
Congress often uses _______ as bargaining chips
1966-1973 was known as the _ ______ _____ ___ because the process fell apart.
GRH focused attention on this rather than the budgetary process
Which GA governor kept his own scorecards for legislators?
What is the term for Nixon's unilateral spending cuts on federal programs?
Legislative Resources of Presidents: Leftover resources from the _______
Legislators claim that they have a __________ role in government
Which Act created the CBO?
This rule requires 60 votes for legislation that would cause a revenue loss beyond the 10 year window of the budget
LBJ's visit to Phil Landrum's district allowed him to beat back a challenge from
This disposes of the year's surplus in GA (since fiscal year is from July to July
Of payroll taxes and income taxes, which one is paid by all wage earners?
What % of the budget is defense spending?
Govt taxing and spending policy is better known as what type of policy?
Founders assumed that which branch would be dominant?
For a nomination to pass, the majority leader must call the Senate into _____ session
__% of federal receipts are payroll taxes and __% of federal receipts are income taxes
Which President used his first months most effectively?
Name a governor that made frequent use of GA's line item veto
Created categorical sequestration
This Supreme Court case claimed that the President is best suited for dealing with international affairs?
10 million/year that can be dipped into by the governor for various needs
How many govt shutdowns happened in the 90s?
Televised speeches from here are the riskiest type of Presidential outside lobbying
Methods of Congress reining in the President: Advise and consent on _______
The Social Security Reform Act of 1983 served to raise the minimum retirement age to __ and increase the
Kingdon argues that factors believed to be structural are actually
Required all spending proposals to be revenue neutral and created the PAYGO rule to make sure of it
This famous Act included sunset provisions
Who gained the most power from the Budget Enforcement Act of 1990?
President for whom the norm of automatic Cabinet confirmations was broken
The budget was +/- ________ in the years following WW2
When Congress passes budget bills now, theyre
Who did FDR endorse over Walter George (a New Deal skeptic)
If the President's Party is in control, an OMB thumbs down can ____ a bill
Has GA ever had 2 Budget offices?
Advantages of admin over lobbyists: easier to ________, and not obligated to be direct
The 1987 agreement between Reagan and Congress set how many different spending ceilings?
If a President does not have strong _______, Congressmen will be less likely to support him.
Most frequent communication tool of an administration
GRH II changed the enforcer to ____ because of the Supreme Court
In 1946, the Joint Committee on the Legislative Budget came together to create a
According to Kingdon, does administration importance rise as the session continues?
What was allowed to expire to have the Bush tax cuts?
Who traded LBJ breaking civil rights fillibusters for appointment powers?
Model of the Presidency as first among equals
Control of this is how Presidents secure and extend power
Vetoes can also be a sign of political
How the budget got through in 85, 86, and 87 to avoid sequestration
Legislative Resources of Presidents: National ______ Organization
1974 calendar: month with prelimenary budget resolution and spending targets
Before 1921, did the President have any power with the budget?
This was first introduced to give Hoover the power to overhaul the exec branch
The Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 created the
LBJ's conservative Democratic point person on the Great Society
How many years after GRH I did GRH II pass?
This was the 1985 attempt at sequestration that was designed to hit a balanced budget in 5 years (20% per year)
Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 was better known as __________ _________ _______ (____) I
Reasons for low admin power: Antipathy between ______
Temporarily delaying spending, but can be overruled by Congress
The Budget Act changed the fiscal year from ______ to October
The deficit reduction _______ ____ placed any money saved from a bill in to eventually pay off the debt
These two committees deal with taxes
President has a responsibility to set an
This act phased in a 2 bracket tax system
Methods of Congress reining in the President: Designing ______
This is Congress offering the President power with strings attached (Congress avoids policymaking but retains power)
1982 tax hikes were accomplished through
1947 National Defense Act & 2004 Creation of Director of National Intelligence strengthened whom?
In what year were taxes in the highest bracket reduced from 70 to 50 with a 23% across the board cut
Presidents must cooperate with Congressional leadership for their political _______
In 2004, Congress passed the creation of this to decide what information to publish when
Which President didnt have much Hill experience, leading to his VP's role increasing?
Election years and social welfare bills are associated with using a ___
Ways to score a President: From each member in relation to the President, reported in CQ now
This President used the most vetoes
Divided non-entitlement spending into 3 areas, and to only apply sequestration to that category
During a government _______, the executive typically inconveniences people to blame the legislature
Biggest Tax Increase in American History
Ex Parte Milligan showed an extension of Presidential power in a time of
The Supercommittee was actually the Joint Select Committee on
This President required all agencies to create a policy office
PlayPlaywright
Which president adopted the idea that deficits dont matter?
Legislative Resources of Presidents: Formal _____
Teddy coined this term, a tool of the president
In what year was the budget balanced?
With regard to administration factoring in decision making, did seniority matter?
This created the Congressional Budget process
This was passed as part of the Contract with America and was ruled unconstitutional
What was the earnings threshold on the 2013 Bush tax cut extensions?
Legislative Resources of Presidents: White House _____
Model of the Presidency in which Congress is the most powerful
What bill ensured 1 trillion in cuts over 10 years and created a supercommittee to cut another 1.2 trillion?
Model of the Presidency as equal with the legislature
Voters perceive different strengths between the
OIRA employed these to stop agencies from administering out of step policies
Name a Dem Member of the Gang of 6
Which bill reformed earmarks?
Methods of Congress reining in the President: Periodic ________, used most often with regards to defense
Conservatives thought the Budget Act would
Methods of Congress reining in the President: _______, police patrol and fire alarm
Congress moved to cut which President's WH staff?
Decade that small deficits became common
In professionalized legislatures, members of this party are less likely to run
The President's party always views actions of the other party as attempts to ________ the President
Forces that shape the fate of nominees: _______ (passing the Senate Judiciary, blue slips, need for a home-state advocate)
Do ideas more often come from Congress or the President?
President's lobbying arm
What type of Budget Act legalized impoundment was struck down by the courts?
There is only weak evidence showing that this matters in judicial appointments
This type of Presidential lobbying is about taking credit and issuing blame
What % of the budget is on entitlements?
Recess appointments require a _ day recess
Informal rolls of the President include strengthening ______ bonds, responding to public ________, and balancing personal ________
Forces that shape the fate of nominees: ________ & ________ (divided govt, 84% passed in unified, 66% passed under divided, split benches)
Another communication tool of an administration
Forces that shape the fate of nominees: ________ (opposition wants to stall until they are in power)
During the most polarized Senate (05-06), nominees had a __% chance of confirmation
This type of government leads to less oversight
Legislative Resources of Presidents: _______ & public approval
These allow for spending at last years level or a % of last year's level (how Congress funds the govt)
Why didnt the Budget Enforcement Act of 1990 have an immediate impact on the deficit?
How does the Senate enforce PAYGO?
Bill Clinton scandal that kept his first 2 AG's from confirmation
Threat of a ______ can rein in the bureaucracy
These are taxes or tax breaks that require passing anew each year
Who has a shorter timetable, the President or Congress?
Longer name of the Budget Act
A smart program director will alert a committee ____ of modifications in a program
Clinton legitimized his tax increases by saying they were for
Maximum spending in GA is set by
GOP tactic to slow down federal spending
Rule that automatically increases the debt ceiling upon adoption of a budget
Richard Neustadt's book read by JFK
The payroll tax is _______, meaning that a bigger burden is on the poor
Before 1974, for budgetary data, Congress was fully reliant on information form the
This type of Presidential lobbying is known as 'going public'
W created _____ ______, return letters for existing policy
The _______ voter seeks to place checks on both parties power
OMB was created because of a __ fold increase in spending post WWI
The Violence Against Women Act and a law upping penalties for drug deals near a public school were struck down because their language was too
Process of connecting the first budget with the 2nd
The deference norm was most pronouncedly broken somewhere between ____ and _____
What was the bill that caused the 2013 sequestration?
This theory of judicial selection states that ideological conflict is omnipresent
This was the result of tensions between Nixon and the Democratic Congress
The President has to initiate the budget because of the Budget and Accounting Act of
Presidents change agency policy through
In 1980, Carter and Democratic leaders added reconciliation instructions to the
Who was BO's 'regulation czar' for his 'libertarian paternalism' views?
Which President started a formal process for starting the legislative process?
Does the President's party factoring his decision into theirs always translate into votes?
Which Title of CBICA regulated Presidential impoundments
2009 PAYGO changes allow ________ bills to meet the requirement
Do more junior or senior members pay more attention to the administration?
Did productivity increase more in the Reagan years than in the Clinton years?
This case represented how broad of a grant of authority Congress can give to the executive
Ways to score a President: batting average of Presidential policy passing in Congress
In GA which committee has a permanent staff?
Who shifted decision making powers in the budget process from committees to party leaders?
The Economic Growth and Tax Relief Act of 2001 is better known as the
This type of lobbying fosters partisanship and opposition counter-moves
This theory is correct in that nominations have always been political, but it does not predict new rule expoitations
INS v Chadha ruled this to be unconstitutional
Year in which FDR gained in a midterm
Which Budget led to earmark reform?
Advantages of admin over lobbyists: ________ and Prestige
How were the Clinton tax increases added to save the unpopularity?
Extremism or wrongdoing lead to unconfirmed
Name an organization started by executive order
Since the 1970s, there are now inspector generals within
3 keys to Presidential Power: keeping Congress off ________ and staying ______
Average wait for Court of Appeals nomination is _ months
Which party would have less administration initiative?
Going public by Presidents has increased because executives now have less of an _________ advantage
In the 1908s, the GOP capitalized on the fear of creeping deficits, and deficits didnt go higher than ______'s last year
This act requires a 48 hour notification of any 60+ day military committment
Successful Presidents ______ ideas
How many concurrent budget resolutions have been passed on time since 1976?
Are Legislative-Executive Relations a zero-sum game?
1980s- Supreme Court decided that these stand as long as they dont directly violate statute
A secret, private committee in GA where budget decisions are made

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