Physical Activity and Health

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TheoryResearcherYear
training decreases CETP1993
obestiy = increased fatty acid metabolites in muscle = increased PKC theta = increased serine phosphorylation of IRS-12000
training decreases apoB2004
exercise and insulin work together to produce maximum GLUT4 translocation... exercise increases AS160 phosphorylation and thus insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation2009
HDL inhibits adhesion molecules1998
LPL is high following a normally fatty meal in active rats but not inactive rats2006
weight loss decreases leptin2009
ERSCD in old caused by plaque rupture... plaque rupture caused by increased macroghage and lipid content of plaque and decreased smooth muscle content1993
this benefit is gone after 24 hours2004
increased walking speed = decreased coronary heart disease1990
travel by foot has decreased by 25%, travel by bike has decreased 33%, travel by car has increased by 70% since 19762002
ApoA makes LDL resistant to oxidation2000
training causes lower total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and circulating TG and higher HDL cholesterol1999
exercise prevents muscle loss during weight loss1991
PYY injection decreases energy intake2002
sIgA predicted URTI occurance in swimmers2000
chylomicrons have 45 times the affinity for LPL than VLDLs1999
exercise increases glucose uptake independent of insulin or insulin signalling1995
leptin injection decreases energy intake and decreases fat mass but not free fat mass1999
exercise decreases ghrelin and increases PYY2009
high apoB-apoA ratio increases the thickness of vessel walls and causes atherosclerosis2004
coronary heart disease is decreased in bus conductors compared to drivers1953
neutrophils have a biphasic response to intense acute exericse. lymphocytes have a monophasic response1992
exercise increases adiponectin2006
TheoryResearcherYear
increased exercise intensity = decreased energy intake1997
increased exercise intensity = decreased clotting time2003
obesity = decreased adiponectin = decreased AMPK = decreased fat oxidation in muscles1999
acute exercise decreases plassminogen activator inhibitor2001
diabetes and CVD carry the same risk of death... the two together carry 5x the risk of having neither2001
pie charts showing causes of exercise related sudden cardiac death1999
training increases LPL gene expression1994
eating carbohydrates prevents the increase in cortisol2006
exercise+diet and exercise alone are better than diet alone at maintaining weight loss1996
training decreases blood pressure via decreased sympathetic nerve activity1994
ox-LDL and ox-VLDL increase macrophage protein migration and monocyte chemotaxis in rabbits1997
increased TG = increased coronary heart disease2007
exercise causes hypoglycaemia which increase cortisol. cortisol increases IL10 and inhibits IL121997
walking decreases the lipaemic response for 15 hours2008
exercising 12 hours before a high fat meal gives the greatest benefit to lipaemic respone1998
ghrelin is switched off by insulin2001
obesity and inactivity are not decreasing2003
TNF alpha causes decreased GLUT4 translocation2000
exercise does not decrease ghrelin2007
trained people have higher IMTG than untrained as they use fat as a fuel2001
training decreases neutrophil count and phagocytic capacity1996
runners have lower cholesterol and higher HDL than controls1996
the colder the exercise environment, the higher the ghrelin2005
acute exercise increases plasminogen activator2001
TheoryResearcherYear
smoking and inactivity carry the same risk1996
high cholesterol, high fasting glucose, smoking, low fitness and hypertension increase mortality1996
guidelines for avoiding ERSCD1995; 2004
healthy life and life expectancy are diverging2006
VLDLs transfer cholesterol to LDL and HDL... LDLs are hydrolised and become smaller and denser while HDLs are catabolised by the kindneys1990
exercise DOES decrease ghrelin2007
fat and sautrated fat intake decreased from 1988 to 19992003
wieght loss increases ghrelin2003
people sit too much and should do more non-exercise physical activity2008
the number of insulin receptors does not change in humans with training... autophosphorylation of insulin receptors and IRS-1 increases with training1993
ox-LDL is a strong stimulant for white blood cell adhesion1990
training increases eNOS expression and thus basal NO2001
energy intake decreased from 1976 to 20042004
increased insulin causes vasconstriction in the absence of NO2002
fitness is more important than activity when battling cardiovascular disease1989
50% increase in statin use from 1997 to 20022004
macrophages consume cholesterol from LDL and VLDLs1990
increased activity = decreased occurance of T2DM1994
increased intensity = increased platelet count1995
lipids and TNF alpha increase serine phosphorylation of IRS-1. Thus IP3K is not activated = no eNOS activation2003
obesity = decreased insulin sensitivity and signalling1995
exercise = increased hydroxybutyrate = decreased VLDL secretion2000
exercise decreases glycogen which increases IL6 in muscles. IL6 increases IL10 which increases the TH2 response2001
exercise is better than diet at maintaining weight loss1989

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