Chapter 9

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taste: direct depolarization thru Na+ channels
damage to outer or middle ear, disruption of ossicles or tympanic membrane, impedment of sound
papillae on front of tongue, each contain one taste bud, mushroom shaped
3 chambers of cochlea (outer to in)
contains inner and outer hair cells that transduce the pressure waves
two muscles
shape of ears will alter the spectrum of the sound
purpose of nose
Firing rate of auditory nerve fibers over time
dorsal part of nasal cavity. contains receptors, supporting cells, and basal cells. direct connection to the olfactory bulb
detects horizontal position
specialized organ in all lower animals that is sensitive to hormones and other chemicals
olfaction pathway
btw scala media and scala tympani. Thin/narrow at base, thick/wide at apex. Moves due to pressure waves in cochlear fluid. Organ of corti moves w/it.
chamber the hair cells are located
Location of vibration of the basilar membrane indicates frequency of sound, Hair cells will be maximally stimulated at location of vibration
general smell sensation of a particular quality
taste: acids relaese H+ ions, direct depolarization
detect rotation of head in 3 directions
protrusions of taste receptor cells in the taste pore
T1R receptors stimulate T1R2 and T1R3 metabotropic receptors, indirect
offset motion of the BM and TM, stereocilia of IHCs are displaced and K+ ion channels open depolarizing the hair cell, Depolarization opens voltage gated Ca++ ion channels, trigger
primary transducers, one row, Transduce the pressure waves in the cochlear fluid into electrical energy
meaty savory flavor, responds to amino acids, indirect
ridges in mucosa cavity that direct air flow towards the cilia in the epithelium
damage to inner ear, destruction of nerve VIII or hair cells
dendrites in mucosa cavity, extend through epitheilum to receptors and then to olfactory bulb
papillae on sides of tongue, contain several taste buds, leaf-shaped
specific aromatic chemical that evokes a smell sensation
anterior projection from brain. organized into dendrites called glomeruli that connect with mitral cells and project to the brain
thin hair fibers sit atop hair cells, extend into the fluid of the scala media, Contain tiny ion channels that open when the stereocilia are displaced
Basilar membrane is displaced by diff frequencies along its length. high freq at base, low freq at apex
Afferent auditory pathway
gustatory pathway
recieve info from glomeruli in the olfactory bulb and project to the rest of the brain
Prosthetic device to bypass damaged hearing mechanisms, Transmitter sends coded signal across the skin to a receiver implanted under the skin behind the ear
units/dendrites in olfactory bulb that connect to mitral cells
3 rows, do not detect sound, role in frequency tuning, amplification, and loudness adjustment
theory: each odorant has specific shape that have multiple chemical components that can bind w/multiple receptors
T2R family of 30 receptors cannot distinguish btw levels of this taste, indirect
branch of nerve VIII, 90% of neurons are afferent from IHCs,
detects vertical position and acceleration of the head
25% of pop, use PTC strip to tell
papillae on back of tongue, each have several taste buds, v-shaped
sits atop organ of corti and is hinged at a diff point than BM, differential movement creates fluid shear in scala media

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