Chapter 9

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Location of vibration of the basilar membrane indicates frequency of sound, Hair cells will be maximally stimulated at location of vibration
protrusions of taste receptor cells in the taste pore
specialized organ in all lower animals that is sensitive to hormones and other chemicals
general smell sensation of a particular quality
two muscles
units/dendrites in olfactory bulb that connect to mitral cells
papillae on sides of tongue, contain several taste buds, leaf-shaped
3 chambers of cochlea (outer to in)
chamber the hair cells are located
ridges in mucosa cavity that direct air flow towards the cilia in the epithelium
gustatory pathway
olfaction pathway
contains inner and outer hair cells that transduce the pressure waves
detect rotation of head in 3 directions
thin hair fibers sit atop hair cells, extend into the fluid of the scala media, Contain tiny ion channels that open when the stereocilia are displaced
Prosthetic device to bypass damaged hearing mechanisms, Transmitter sends coded signal across the skin to a receiver implanted under the skin behind the ear
taste: acids relaese H+ ions, direct depolarization
theory: each odorant has specific shape that have multiple chemical components that can bind w/multiple receptors
anterior projection from brain. organized into dendrites called glomeruli that connect with mitral cells and project to the brain
branch of nerve VIII, 90% of neurons are afferent from IHCs,
Afferent auditory pathway
sits atop organ of corti and is hinged at a diff point than BM, differential movement creates fluid shear in scala media
25% of pop, use PTC strip to tell
3 rows, do not detect sound, role in frequency tuning, amplification, and loudness adjustment
recieve info from glomeruli in the olfactory bulb and project to the rest of the brain
btw scala media and scala tympani. Thin/narrow at base, thick/wide at apex. Moves due to pressure waves in cochlear fluid. Organ of corti moves w/it.
offset motion of the BM and TM, stereocilia of IHCs are displaced and K+ ion channels open depolarizing the hair cell, Depolarization opens voltage gated Ca++ ion channels, trigger
papillae on back of tongue, each have several taste buds, v-shaped
damage to inner ear, destruction of nerve VIII or hair cells
damage to outer or middle ear, disruption of ossicles or tympanic membrane, impedment of sound
detects vertical position and acceleration of the head
T1R receptors stimulate T1R2 and T1R3 metabotropic receptors, indirect
taste: direct depolarization thru Na+ channels
Basilar membrane is displaced by diff frequencies along its length. high freq at base, low freq at apex
shape of ears will alter the spectrum of the sound
papillae on front of tongue, each contain one taste bud, mushroom shaped
primary transducers, one row, Transduce the pressure waves in the cochlear fluid into electrical energy
Firing rate of auditory nerve fibers over time
detects horizontal position
purpose of nose
dorsal part of nasal cavity. contains receptors, supporting cells, and basal cells. direct connection to the olfactory bulb
meaty savory flavor, responds to amino acids, indirect
T2R family of 30 receptors cannot distinguish btw levels of this taste, indirect
specific aromatic chemical that evokes a smell sensation
dendrites in mucosa cavity, extend through epitheilum to receptors and then to olfactory bulb

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