Sec 1A Torts Cases

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financial harm: no knowledge of particular use, therefore no duty
econ harm: if foreseeable, can recover
police: no duty re: specific threats
Med Mal: national standard > similar localities test
Applies Birkner test for scope of employment --> vicarious liability
No liability when result would be crushing liability
products: rejects privity; duty of care to end users
res ipsa to smoke out which doc was negligent
Adequate precautions against foreseeable risks = no liability
conscious disregard for others --> punitive damages
warnings: enough to say 'serious injury' don't need to be specific
negligent sterilization: limited-recovery rule; but if birth defects, special expenses
FDA requires waning--> exception to learned intermediary doctrine
expert med testimony --> causation
legal, but inherently dangerous activity: liable
no proof of elapsed time --> no constructive notice
Falling barrel = res ipsa
Independent contractor: Apparent Auhority --> vicarious liability
danger is obvious and necessary--> assumption of risk
Jury decides reasonable precautions for crossing train tracks
drinking buddies --> special relationship; start helping --> special relationship
duty to fetus which will result in a child
B < PL
No lights on buggy: negligence per se
No special relationship --> no aff duty
state of the art: ex ante approach
'shocks the conscious' --> overrule compensatory damages
shift burden for causation to Ds in special cases
Standard of care: get out of car, look/listen for trains
false information --> liable for resulting harm
established: lawful act + ordinary care = no liability
qualified immunity for govt
Duty to protect patrons on commercial prop? Balancing test
defective design for autos: compare to other similar models
rape behind untrimmed hedges: not foreseeable
mental suffering: doesn't require physical impact, but does require physical manifestation
no relationship if far away --> no duty
econ harm: surrounding businesses can't recover lost profits
govt employee: ministerial/discretionary distinction
Negligent entrustment = not ok
Chem spill: use negligence, not SL
fungible product: liability by market share
GM design defect, but P was responsible too
Dillon standard doesn't apply to mother + kidnapped baby in hospital
knowingly encountering a risk created by D --> secondary assumption of risk
road surface, lack of signs: discretionary act -->liablity
bring something onto land -->mischief-->you're responsible
firefighter rule doesn't apply beyond premises liability
complex product: use risk/utility
Jury should decide if airline is negligent for falling luggage
Baller scientist gets disfigured: high non-pecuniary damages upheld
no licensee/invitee distinction: both reasonable care
Asbestos: physical contact =/= physical impact
spare tire flew off truck = res ipsa
bible study group: licensee not invitee
motorcycle w/ no leg guards --> design defect
mental distress: lack of physical manifestation OK; standard: ordinary sensitive person
constructive notice of danger --> negligence
causation: must show reasonable certainty for cause
SL for products
Eggshell P rule
Med experts can testify --> educate jury about med mal res ipsa
cannot recover for loss of enjoyment of life w/o cog. awareness
Suing your parents is OK
when statute: private action must be consistent w/ legislative scheme
Common carriers required to exercise reasonable care NOT extraordinary care
mental distress: dillon standard
foreseeability: probable consequences standard
safety statute = negligence per se; rule of the road doesn't
punitive: single-digit multiplier
extreme event: only reasonable for damages that were foreseeable
release form for ski resort unenforceable
Non-commercial social host has no duty towards 3rd parties injured by drunk minors
failure to follow industry standard doesn't establish negligence
Docs: no comparative negligence for Ps
Therapist has duty to protect threatened victim
careless + some foreseeable harm = responsible for all resulting harm

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