Ernest Rutherford

_{Father of nuclear physics; discovered the nucleus of atoms}

Niels Bohr

_{Devised the 'planetary' and 'step' theories of atomic structure}

Albert Einstein

_{Developed the general and special theories of relativity}

Isaac Newton

_{Groundbreaking work in calculus, physical laws of motion, and gravity}

Galileo Galilei

_{Greatly strengthened and popularized the theory that Earth orbits the Sun}

Leonhard Euler

_{Pioneer in mathematical analysis, graph theory, and mechanics}

René Descartes

_{Philosopher and mathematician; 'I think therefore I am'}

Christian Doppler

_{Proposed the Doppler effect, explaining relative change in sound}

Edwin Hubble

_{Proved the universe is expanding}

Dmitri Mendeleev

_{Discovered the periodic properties of elements, creating the periodic table}

Marie Curie

_{Groundbreaking research on radioactivity}

Euclid

_{Fundamental work in mathematics such as number theory}

Carl Linnaeus

_{The father of modern taxonomy (i.e. the naming of species)}

Frederick Banting

_{Won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for the discovery of insulin}

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar

_{Nobel Prize winner; theorized the late evolutionary stages of massive stars}

Shen Kuo

_{First person to record the use of a magnetic compass system}

Luis Miramontes

_{Co-inventor of the first oral birth control pills}

Eratosthenes

_{Devised the first known system of latitude and longitude}