Introduction to genetics

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Lecture 1
The purine bases (space separated) 
The pyrimidine bases (space separated) 
The sugar in DNA 
The number of amino acids 
Enzyme that adds nucleotides to DNA and has a 'proof-reading' function 
Lecture 2
The process that converts DNA to RNA 
The enzyme required for the above process 
The process that converts RNA to protein 
The methylated guanine structure added to the 5' end of an mRNA molecule to protect it and for initiation of the above process 
The structure added to the 3' end of an mRNA molecule to give stability 
These are spliced out of mRNA molecules during processing 
The nucleotide that replaces thymine in RNA 
The sugar in RNA 
An mRNA strand can code for more than one protein in these organisms 
A large complex of RNA and protein molecules used to synthesise proteins 
Number of subunits in the above organelle 
mRNA is used to make protein as soon as it is made in these organisms 
mRNA is transported out of the nucleus before being used to make protein in these organisms 
A short chain of RNA which has a loop and stem structure and attaches to amino acids and is used in protein synthesis 
Lecture 3
All of the genes (whether or not they are expressed) and all of the non-coding DNA 
All of the genes that are being used to make RNA from DNA 
All of the genes that are being used to synthesise protein 
Non-genetically determined but includes all of the metabolites 
The percentage of base pairs in the human genome that codes for genes 
The percentage of base pairs in the human genome that is introns 
The enzyme used to produce cDNA (complementary DNA) from mRNA 
Pieces of DNA that can jump from one chromosomal location to another 
Lecture 4
Changes in the genome of an organism that provide genetic variation 
Amino acid substitution occurs in the (x) chain of haemoglobin in people with sickle cell anaemia 
Valine replaces which amino acid in the above example 
Carriers of the sickle cell trait are heterozygous and are protected against this disease 
A group of inherited defects of production in the alpha or beta chains of haemoglobin leading to abnormal ratios 
The above genetic defect is common in this area as incidence of malaria is high 
Changes to DNA involving single nucleotide changes 
A substitution involving a change from a pyrimidine to pyrimidine or purine to purine base. 
A substitution involving a change from a pyrimidine to purine or purine to pyrimidine base 
Occurs if deletions or insertions of bases that are not in groups of 3 occur 
The order of a block of DNA is reversed as the DNA breaks and is repaired (there is a 50% chance of the fragment being the wrong way round after rejoining) 
Part of a chromosome is moved to a new location as the DNA breaks and is rejoined 
In Down Syndrome trisomy of this chromosome is seen 
After the DNA is altered, new codons code for the same amino acid so there is no change in the protein 
After the DNA is altered, new codons code for a different amino acid so there is a change in the primary structure of the protein 
A chemical or radiation that causes changes in DNA 
An in vitro test used to detect environmental examples of the above 
The species used in the above test Salmonella typhimurium 
The strain of the above species used 
Chemical which the above mutant is unable to synthsise 
Lecture 5
Making a genetically identical organism (the process that forms identical twins) 
Making multiple copies of a gene 
The first step of the above process: to obtain the DNA fragment containing the gene 
The above is carried out by this type of enzyme 
Recognition sites of the above enzymes are (x) - the same on both strands 
An enzyme that joins two fragments of DNA 
An independently replicating piece of DNA such as a plasmid, into which the foreign gene is inserted 
The process by which competent bacterial cells take up plasmids 
The process by which a DNA fragment is recombined into the genome of a (bacterio)phage 
Organisms that carry genes that were inserted into the genome by genetic recombination 
Product of introduction of extra genes into bacteria used to treat type 1 diabetes 
In blue/white selection the inserted DNA fragment disrupts synthesis of beta galactosidase. What colour are colonies that have taken up the DNA 
Lecture 6
A unit containing several genes that are involved in the same metabolic pathway (found in prokaryotes) 
DNA binding proteins that recognise and bind to specific sites on double stranded DNA 
Tortoiseshell cats are females with random (x) 

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