AS Computing revision

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DefinitionTerm
An electronic circuit that connects to a systems bus and an I/O device; it provides the correct voltages and currents for the system bus and the I/O device.
Breaks a problem into smaller problems that are easier to work on.
Protects the name or logo used to identify a business or product.
Random Access Memory; volatile main memory in which the locations can be accessed directly in any order with the same access time for all writing and reading operations.
Protects how an invention works or what it does.
A set of linked documents associated with a particular person, organisation or topic that is held on a computer system and can be accessed as part of the World Wide Web.
A given where it is not immediately obvious how to reach the goal.
A description in a programming language of a process that achieves some useful result.
The list of drawing commands that recreate a vector graphic.
Heading, paragraphs, line breaks, hypertext links, lists and embedded media.
The output is true if either input is true but not if both inputs are true.
Handles all the physical details of interfacing with the cable including the network interface card and a device driver.
The part of a machine code instruction that denotes the basic machine operation, e.g. ADD.
Establishing the limits or rules about what can and cannot be done when solving a problem. These limits are a type of constraint.
The process of breaking a problem down through successive steps into smaller problems.
The output is true only when all inputs are false.
An electrical signal with voltage changes that are abrupt or in discrete steps.
Software designed to support one specific task.
A collection of values of the same ordinal type with no associated order.
The number of digits in a binary word.
Someone who processes data on behalf of a data controller.
Allows the CPU to communicate with peripherals.
Digital-to-Analogue Converter; converts a digital signal into an equivalent analogue signal.
A collection of protocol layers; each layer is responsible for part of the process governed by the stack.
The study of natural and artificial information processes.
An initial situation.
The time from the start of one storage device access to the time when the next access can be started.
A number with a decimal point and a fractional part.
Read-Only Memory; non-volatile main memory that cannot be written to once it is set up.
A variable declared in a program block and accessible only within the program block.
The smallest addressable area or smallest solid block of colour in an image.
A whole number
Code that resembles a programming language but that uses less strict syntax to express an algorithm and s independent of any real programming language.
A quantity expressed as the number of dots/pixels per inch or centimetre.
When a program does not compile because of a syntax error or textual errors.
Protects how something looks.
A network of computer networks and computers using unique IP addresses and TCP/IP.
A server that translates fully qualified domain names into IP addresses.
A set of parallel wires connecting independent components of a computer system.
A register assigned a specific role by the processor designer. Programmers may use some but not all dedicated registers.
Used to select any HTNL element that has a class attribute.
When the program crashes or gets stuck in a loop.
The number of signal wires or lines allocated to the bus.
A whole composed of parts in orderly arrangement.
Data passes both ways at the same time.
Any letter, numeral or symbol in the given character set, such as the ASCII character set.
Without guessing a solution before confirming it.
An ordered set of values.
Returns True or False.
Connects networks that use the same link layer protocol.
When the programmer has made a mistake and the program output is incorrect.
A number system that uses the digits 0 to 9 and the letters A to F.
Contains mostly unprintable characters.
A data structure that groups a number of variables.
A unique address that identifies a computer or other electronic device on a network.
Something that shows the data entered and the result from the program, e.g. a screenshot.
A unique name given to a variable, a procedure, a function, etc.
A high-level programming language that took the language Basic and redefined it to work with Microsoft’s .Net framework.
The part of the routine that lists the parameters used to pass data into and out of the routine.
A group of bytes.
A number system that uses the digits 0 to 9.
Software where the owner places restrictions on its use, copying and modification.
A group of 8 bits.
A very fast memory location inside the processor or I/O controller.
Temporary port numbers used by client processes; they lie in the range 49152 to 65535.
The output is the inverse of the input.
The set of a bit patterns or binary codes for the machine operations that a processor has been designed to perform.
DefinitionTerm
A binary digit; it can be 0 or 1.
Software that can be used for many different tasks.
A list of planned tests with their data or referring to a set of test data.
A name that identifies one or more IP addresses, e.g. the domain name Microsoft.com represents several IP addresses.
A set of system objectives.
Analyses and executes a high-level program a line at a time.
A desired outcome.
An electrical signal that varies in a continuous manner.
An equation that expresses a Boolean output Q in terms of Boolean inputs X,Y,Z, etc., to which one or more Boolean functions, such as OR, AND and NOT, are applied.
A binary code that a machine can understand and execute.
Pulse Code Modulation; a process for coding sampled analogue signals by recording the height of each sample in a binary electrical equivalent.
A subdivision of a track.
A separate addressable area of main memory.
Created when the pixels of an image are mapped to positions in memory that store binary codes representing the colour of each pixel.
The main highway connecting the processor, main memory and I/O controllers; it is made up of a data bus, an address bus and a control bus.
A combination of a host IP address and a port number.
A visual effect such as text colour, font size or background colour.
An indented, numbered list of steps produced by stepwise refinement.
A software process that requests and uses the service provided by a server.
The starting page for a web site; it often has links to other parts of the site.
Written for a customer’s specific need.
Sample at a frequency at least twice the rate of the highest frequency in the sampled signal.
The value of the calling code’s variable is copied to the routine’s parameter.
A selector that is an HTML tag; it targets every instance of an element.
The HTML code to create a web page.
An individual who is the subject of personal data.
The number of bits used to represent the colour of a single pixel in a bitmapped image.
A computer device that is not part of the CPU. It can be external (e.g. mouse, keyboard, printer, monitor, memory stick or scanner) or internal, such as a CD-ROM drive.
NOT, AND, OR.
A sequence of printable characters, organised line by line; it can be opened and read in a text editor.
Can be one of two possible values, True or False.
A unique numeric code corresponding to a location in memory.
A document on the World Wide Web written in HTML and displayed in a web browser.
Electronic/electrical circuits that a computer is assembled from. The platform in which the software executes.
Returns only the whole number part of a division.
Of a vector graphic object, describes things such as the size, direction, thickness, shading, font size or typeface.
May have two discrete possible values, e.g. true or false.
Use digital means to generate audio signals resembling instrument sounds of the human voice.
A language that has English-like keywords and commands to express the basic constructs of sequence, selection (decision) and repetition (iteration).
A program translated into machine code before it is executed on a digital computer.
A protocol stack for TCP/IP; it has an application layer, a transport layer, a network layer and a link layer.
Handles the details of a particular networking application, e.g. a web browser using HTTP.
The output is true if either or both inputs are true.
Data that relates to a living individual who can be identified from it.
A high-level programming language based on C++ and developed specifically for Microsoft’s .Net framework.
Placeholders for variables supplied at call time.
A value that does not change throughout the program.
A description, independent of any programming language, of a process that achieves some task. It is a step-by-step procedure for solving a problem.
Universally known port numbers used by servers; they lie in the range 0 to 1023.
A self-contained entity that results when a problem is divided into sub problems; each module corresponds to a sub problem.
A variable declared at the beginning of a program and accessible from anywhere in the program.
A program must be resident in main memory to be executed; it is processed by fetching machine code instructions in sequence from main memory and executing them, one at a time, in t
Adds source and destination IP addresses to packets on their way from the transport layer to the link layer, and removes source and destination IP addresses from packets on their w
Pulsed Amplitude Modulation; a process that samples analogue signals at regular time intervals and produces electrical pulses of height proportional to the original signal’s ampl
The difference between the original amplitude and it’s sampled value.
Software that displays a web page by rendering the HTML elements.
A sequence of zero or more characters.
A table that shows the result of applying the logical function to all possible combinations of inputs.
A set of agreed signals, codes and rules for data exchange between systems.
Updating a program to correct faults or improve features.
A quantity expressed as the number of pixels per row by the number of pixels per column.
Someone who determines why and how personal data is processed.
Application of control technologies to limit the use of digital media.
A link from one web page to another; a hypertext link.
Illegally breaking into a computer system; programming in an unstructured way.
Translate assembly language program into machine code.
A routine that does not return a value; a procedure call is a statement in it’s own right, not part of an expression.
DefinitionTerm
Defines an ordered set of values such as integer, character, Boolean and enumerated types; real numbers are not of ordinal type.
An electronic circuit that performs a Boolean function.
Permanent storage memory not directly connected to the processor; also called backing storage.
A software process that provides a service requested by a client.
A private computer network used to share information or operations within an organisation.
The part of machine code instruction that represents a single item of binary data or the address of a single item of binary data.
Of a processor, the frequency in megahertz or gigahertz at which the processor executes instructions.
Data that takes the form of discrete values.
The variable inside the routine uses a reference to the source memory location. The reference is the variable passed as a parameter.
Squeezes data into a smaller number of bytes than the data would occupy if uncompressed.
Consists of sequences of instructions called programs that can be understood and executed by hardware.
A+B=(A'.B')' and A.B=(A'+B')'
A way of describing an FSM graphically. Each state is represented by a circle and each transition by an arrow labelled with the input that causes the transition plus any output res
Analogue-to-Digital Converter; converts an analogue signal into an equivalent digital signal.
Uniform Resource Locator; a URI that identifies a resource by it’s network location.
A system for representing negative numbers.
Consecutive steps or groups of steps processed one after another in the order that they arise.
Shows the effect on the current state of an FSM of particular inputs and any corresponding output.
A client software process initiates a request for a service from a server software process, and the server responds to that request.
Used to challenge assumptions, establish facts and rules and define the boundaries of problem solving.
A routine that is called as part of an expression and returns a value.
The act or process of calculating or determining something by mathematical, logical or interactive methods.
A machine that consists of a fixed set of possible states with a set of allowable inputs that change the state and a set of possible outputs.
Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory; its contents may be altered but writing is about 100 times slower than reading.
A system that does not involve computers.
A high-level programming language designed to teach students structured programming.
The smallest unit of transfer between a computer and a disk; a disk sector.
Musical Information Digital Interface; a way of representing the sounds made by an instrument.
A component of a vector graphic, such as a line, a rectangle or a circle.
A table that shows the outcome for a given logical condition.
Protects material, such as literature, art, music, sound recordings, films and broadcasts.
A variable that is part of a record.
Record geometric and other information about the objects that make up an image.
Things that can be used to reach a goal and impose constraints.
A program that runs in a text-based window into which the user types and which displays text output from the computer.
A very restricted subset of the English Language.
The output is true if any input is false.
A decision-making step.
Uniform Resource Identifier; specifies how to access a resource on the internet.
A step or sequence of steps that are repeated until some condition is satisfied or while some condition is satisfied.
Universal Serial Bus; allows peripherals to be connected using a standard interface socket.
Fully Qualified Domain Name; it consists of a host ID and domain name.
A body of text, graphics, etc., stored in a machine-readable form and structured so that a reader can cross-refer between related items of information.
A branch of computing that studies the use f computers to perform computational processes normally associated with the human intellect.
A hardware unit that sends or receives data or stores data by communicating with the processor and main memory through an I/O controller.
A register not assigned a specific role by the processor designer. Programmers may use general-purpose registers.
A location in memory that contains one or more data values.
A system that is unlikely to malfunction.
One of the concentric rings on a platter of a hard disk.
The study of a complex process in order to improve its efficiency.
Measures what can and cannot be computed.
A named field that appears inside an HTML tag.
Memory that is directly addressable by the processor.
An address for a software process.
The output is true if all inputs are true.
A check made by a program to see that the data entered is reasonable.
An operation that assigns a value to a variable.
A number system that uses two digits, 0 and 1.
A careful step-by-step simulation on paper of how an algorithm would be executed by a computer.
Data that takes the form of discrete values.
Illegally breaking into a computer system.
Connects networks that use different link layer protocols.
Translates high level language code into object code. Or. A program that translates source code into executable object code.
Hypertext Markup Language; the language used to write web pages. It consists of text that defines the content of the page and tags that define how the content should be structured.
Comma-Separated Values files; a text file with one record per line and the fields of each record separated by commas.

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