AS Computing revision

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DefinitionTerm
Universal Serial Bus; allows peripherals to be connected using a standard interface socket.
A variable that is part of a record.
Read-Only Memory; non-volatile main memory that cannot be written to once it is set up.
A high-level programming language that took the language Basic and redefined it to work with Microsoft’s .Net framework.
A step or sequence of steps that are repeated until some condition is satisfied or while some condition is satisfied.
Shows the effect on the current state of an FSM of particular inputs and any corresponding output.
Permanent storage memory not directly connected to the processor; also called backing storage.
The variable inside the routine uses a reference to the source memory location. The reference is the variable passed as a parameter.
Protects material, such as literature, art, music, sound recordings, films and broadcasts.
A data structure that groups a number of variables.
A set of system objectives.
Consists of sequences of instructions called programs that can be understood and executed by hardware.
An indented, numbered list of steps produced by stepwise refinement.
Hypertext Markup Language; the language used to write web pages. It consists of text that defines the content of the page and tags that define how the content should be structured.
Translate assembly language program into machine code.
The time from the start of one storage device access to the time when the next access can be started.
The number of signal wires or lines allocated to the bus.
Allows the CPU to communicate with peripherals.
The output is true if either or both inputs are true.
The study of natural and artificial information processes.
The part of the routine that lists the parameters used to pass data into and out of the routine.
A+B=(A'.B')' and A.B=(A'+B')'
The smallest unit of transfer between a computer and a disk; a disk sector.
A server that translates fully qualified domain names into IP addresses.
Pulse Code Modulation; a process for coding sampled analogue signals by recording the height of each sample in a binary electrical equivalent.
A private computer network used to share information or operations within an organisation.
Can be one of two possible values, True or False.
A quantity expressed as the number of dots/pixels per inch or centimetre.
Adds source and destination IP addresses to packets on their way from the transport layer to the link layer, and removes source and destination IP addresses from packets on their w
A collection of protocol layers; each layer is responsible for part of the process governed by the stack.
The part of machine code instruction that represents a single item of binary data or the address of a single item of binary data.
Musical Information Digital Interface; a way of representing the sounds made by an instrument.
Consecutive steps or groups of steps processed one after another in the order that they arise.
The smallest addressable area or smallest solid block of colour in an image.
Application of control technologies to limit the use of digital media.
A branch of computing that studies the use f computers to perform computational processes normally associated with the human intellect.
A routine that does not return a value; a procedure call is a statement in it’s own right, not part of an expression.
An operation that assigns a value to a variable.
A register not assigned a specific role by the processor designer. Programmers may use general-purpose registers.
A set of parallel wires connecting independent components of a computer system.
A software process that requests and uses the service provided by a server.
A body of text, graphics, etc., stored in a machine-readable form and structured so that a reader can cross-refer between related items of information.
When the programmer has made a mistake and the program output is incorrect.
Returns only the whole number part of a division.
Comma-Separated Values files; a text file with one record per line and the fields of each record separated by commas.
Memory that is directly addressable by the processor.
Written for a customer’s specific need.
The list of drawing commands that recreate a vector graphic.
A location in memory that contains one or more data values.
The output is true if any input is false.
Temporary port numbers used by client processes; they lie in the range 49152 to 65535.
The difference between the original amplitude and it’s sampled value.
A very restricted subset of the English Language.
A program translated into machine code before it is executed on a digital computer.
Analyses and executes a high-level program a line at a time.
The set of a bit patterns or binary codes for the machine operations that a processor has been designed to perform.
A sequence of zero or more characters.
A component of a vector graphic, such as a line, a rectangle or a circle.
Any letter, numeral or symbol in the given character set, such as the ASCII character set.
A computer device that is not part of the CPU. It can be external (e.g. mouse, keyboard, printer, monitor, memory stick or scanner) or internal, such as a CD-ROM drive.
A high-level programming language based on C++ and developed specifically for Microsoft’s .Net framework.
Protects how something looks.
May have two discrete possible values, e.g. true or false.
A table that shows the outcome for a given logical condition.
Someone who determines why and how personal data is processed.
Random Access Memory; volatile main memory in which the locations can be accessed directly in any order with the same access time for all writing and reading operations.
A description, independent of any programming language, of a process that achieves some task. It is a step-by-step procedure for solving a problem.
DefinitionTerm
Uniform Resource Locator; a URI that identifies a resource by it’s network location.
Electronic/electrical circuits that a computer is assembled from. The platform in which the software executes.
An ordered set of values.
A binary digit; it can be 0 or 1.
The value of the calling code’s variable is copied to the routine’s parameter.
Protects the name or logo used to identify a business or product.
A subdivision of a track.
A system for representing negative numbers.
Data that relates to a living individual who can be identified from it.
A name that identifies one or more IP addresses, e.g. the domain name Microsoft.com represents several IP addresses.
A unique address that identifies a computer or other electronic device on a network.
A desired outcome.
Defines an ordered set of values such as integer, character, Boolean and enumerated types; real numbers are not of ordinal type.
Things that can be used to reach a goal and impose constraints.
The output is true only when all inputs are false.
A routine that is called as part of an expression and returns a value.
A number with a decimal point and a fractional part.
A system that does not involve computers.
A language that has English-like keywords and commands to express the basic constructs of sequence, selection (decision) and repetition (iteration).
Measures what can and cannot be computed.
Digital-to-Analogue Converter; converts a digital signal into an equivalent analogue signal.
Software that can be used for many different tasks.
Someone who processes data on behalf of a data controller.
A network of computer networks and computers using unique IP addresses and TCP/IP.
A table that shows the result of applying the logical function to all possible combinations of inputs.
Created when the pixels of an image are mapped to positions in memory that store binary codes representing the colour of each pixel.
A variable declared at the beginning of a program and accessible from anywhere in the program.
A machine that consists of a fixed set of possible states with a set of allowable inputs that change the state and a set of possible outputs.
Translates high level language code into object code. Or. A program that translates source code into executable object code.
Analogue-to-Digital Converter; converts an analogue signal into an equivalent digital signal.
Protects how an invention works or what it does.
A combination of a host IP address and a port number.
Sample at a frequency at least twice the rate of the highest frequency in the sampled signal.
Updating a program to correct faults or improve features.
Connects networks that use different link layer protocols.
Of a processor, the frequency in megahertz or gigahertz at which the processor executes instructions.
When a program does not compile because of a syntax error or textual errors.
Fully Qualified Domain Name; it consists of a host ID and domain name.
A hardware unit that sends or receives data or stores data by communicating with the processor and main memory through an I/O controller.
Uniform Resource Identifier; specifies how to access a resource on the internet.
An address for a software process.
The number of digits in a binary word.
Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory; its contents may be altered but writing is about 100 times slower than reading.
The study of a complex process in order to improve its efficiency.
A software process that provides a service requested by a client.
A whole number
An electronic circuit that performs a Boolean function.
A way of describing an FSM graphically. Each state is represented by a circle and each transition by an arrow labelled with the input that causes the transition plus any output res
A named field that appears inside an HTML tag.
A set of linked documents associated with a particular person, organisation or topic that is held on a computer system and can be accessed as part of the World Wide Web.
A visual effect such as text colour, font size or background colour.
A program that runs in a text-based window into which the user types and which displays text output from the computer.
A protocol stack for TCP/IP; it has an application layer, a transport layer, a network layer and a link layer.
Pulsed Amplitude Modulation; a process that samples analogue signals at regular time intervals and produces electrical pulses of height proportional to the original signal’s ampl
Illegally breaking into a computer system.
A separate addressable area of main memory.
Used to challenge assumptions, establish facts and rules and define the boundaries of problem solving.
Handles all the physical details of interfacing with the cable including the network interface card and a device driver.
A careful step-by-step simulation on paper of how an algorithm would be executed by a computer.
A client software process initiates a request for a service from a server software process, and the server responds to that request.
The part of a machine code instruction that denotes the basic machine operation, e.g. ADD.
Without guessing a solution before confirming it.
Establishing the limits or rules about what can and cannot be done when solving a problem. These limits are a type of constraint.
A binary code that a machine can understand and execute.
Squeezes data into a smaller number of bytes than the data would occupy if uncompressed.
An electrical signal that varies in a continuous manner.
Software that displays a web page by rendering the HTML elements.
DefinitionTerm
Connects networks that use the same link layer protocol.
The main highway connecting the processor, main memory and I/O controllers; it is made up of a data bus, an address bus and a control bus.
A number system that uses the digits 0 to 9.
An individual who is the subject of personal data.
The output is true if all inputs are true.
The output is true if either input is true but not if both inputs are true.
A quantity expressed as the number of pixels per row by the number of pixels per column.
An initial situation.
Placeholders for variables supplied at call time.
A whole composed of parts in orderly arrangement.
The output is the inverse of the input.
A value that does not change throughout the program.
A self-contained entity that results when a problem is divided into sub problems; each module corresponds to a sub problem.
Of a vector graphic object, describes things such as the size, direction, thickness, shading, font size or typeface.
Breaks a problem into smaller problems that are easier to work on.
A system that is unlikely to malfunction.
A register assigned a specific role by the processor designer. Programmers may use some but not all dedicated registers.
A program must be resident in main memory to be executed; it is processed by fetching machine code instructions in sequence from main memory and executing them, one at a time, in t
Heading, paragraphs, line breaks, hypertext links, lists and embedded media.
The act or process of calculating or determining something by mathematical, logical or interactive methods.
A link from one web page to another; a hypertext link.
Software designed to support one specific task.
The number of bits used to represent the colour of a single pixel in a bitmapped image.
A sequence of printable characters, organised line by line; it can be opened and read in a text editor.
Returns True or False.
Data passes both ways at the same time.
An electrical signal with voltage changes that are abrupt or in discrete steps.
Something that shows the data entered and the result from the program, e.g. a screenshot.
A collection of values of the same ordinal type with no associated order.
Code that resembles a programming language but that uses less strict syntax to express an algorithm and s independent of any real programming language.
The HTML code to create a web page.
Data that takes the form of discrete values.
Used to select any HTNL element that has a class attribute.
When the program crashes or gets stuck in a loop.
An electronic circuit that connects to a systems bus and an I/O device; it provides the correct voltages and currents for the system bus and the I/O device.
The starting page for a web site; it often has links to other parts of the site.
A unique numeric code corresponding to a location in memory.
A number system that uses two digits, 0 and 1.
A group of bytes.
A list of planned tests with their data or referring to a set of test data.
The process of breaking a problem down through successive steps into smaller problems.
A decision-making step.
A document on the World Wide Web written in HTML and displayed in a web browser.
A set of agreed signals, codes and rules for data exchange between systems.
Record geometric and other information about the objects that make up an image.
Use digital means to generate audio signals resembling instrument sounds of the human voice.
Illegally breaking into a computer system; programming in an unstructured way.
An equation that expresses a Boolean output Q in terms of Boolean inputs X,Y,Z, etc., to which one or more Boolean functions, such as OR, AND and NOT, are applied.
One of the concentric rings on a platter of a hard disk.
A high-level programming language designed to teach students structured programming.
Handles the details of a particular networking application, e.g. a web browser using HTTP.
A check made by a program to see that the data entered is reasonable.
A very fast memory location inside the processor or I/O controller.
A group of 8 bits.
Universally known port numbers used by servers; they lie in the range 0 to 1023.
Software where the owner places restrictions on its use, copying and modification.
NOT, AND, OR.
A variable declared in a program block and accessible only within the program block.
A number system that uses the digits 0 to 9 and the letters A to F.
A selector that is an HTML tag; it targets every instance of an element.
A description in a programming language of a process that achieves some useful result.
Contains mostly unprintable characters.
A unique name given to a variable, a procedure, a function, etc.
A given where it is not immediately obvious how to reach the goal.
Data that takes the form of discrete values.

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