AS Computing revision

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DefinitionTerm
Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory; its contents may be altered but writing is about 100 times slower than reading.
Uniform Resource Identifier; specifies how to access a resource on the internet.
The output is true if either input is true but not if both inputs are true.
A set of agreed signals, codes and rules for data exchange between systems.
Analyses and executes a high-level program a line at a time.
Illegally breaking into a computer system.
A set of parallel wires connecting independent components of a computer system.
Without guessing a solution before confirming it.
Protects how an invention works or what it does.
Handles all the physical details of interfacing with the cable including the network interface card and a device driver.
A branch of computing that studies the use f computers to perform computational processes normally associated with the human intellect.
Software that can be used for many different tasks.
The output is the inverse of the input.
A desired outcome.
A table that shows the result of applying the logical function to all possible combinations of inputs.
Translate assembly language program into machine code.
A language that has English-like keywords and commands to express the basic constructs of sequence, selection (decision) and repetition (iteration).
A named field that appears inside an HTML tag.
Measures what can and cannot be computed.
Allows the CPU to communicate with peripherals.
A high-level programming language based on C++ and developed specifically for Microsoft’s .Net framework.
A number system that uses the digits 0 to 9 and the letters A to F.
Returns True or False.
A set of linked documents associated with a particular person, organisation or topic that is held on a computer system and can be accessed as part of the World Wide Web.
Contains mostly unprintable characters.
A program must be resident in main memory to be executed; it is processed by fetching machine code instructions in sequence from main memory and executing them, one at a time, in t
The number of bits used to represent the colour of a single pixel in a bitmapped image.
A system that does not involve computers.
Data that takes the form of discrete values.
Created when the pixels of an image are mapped to positions in memory that store binary codes representing the colour of each pixel.
The number of digits in a binary word.
A system that is unlikely to malfunction.
An electronic circuit that connects to a systems bus and an I/O device; it provides the correct voltages and currents for the system bus and the I/O device.
A register assigned a specific role by the processor designer. Programmers may use some but not all dedicated registers.
A very fast memory location inside the processor or I/O controller.
The part of the routine that lists the parameters used to pass data into and out of the routine.
A routine that is called as part of an expression and returns a value.
A variable that is part of a record.
A unique numeric code corresponding to a location in memory.
Use digital means to generate audio signals resembling instrument sounds of the human voice.
The output is true if all inputs are true.
A variable declared at the beginning of a program and accessible from anywhere in the program.
Of a vector graphic object, describes things such as the size, direction, thickness, shading, font size or typeface.
A set of system objectives.
The difference between the original amplitude and it’s sampled value.
Used to select any HTNL element that has a class attribute.
The value of the calling code’s variable is copied to the routine’s parameter.
Temporary port numbers used by client processes; they lie in the range 49152 to 65535.
Digital-to-Analogue Converter; converts a digital signal into an equivalent analogue signal.
Musical Information Digital Interface; a way of representing the sounds made by an instrument.
A quantity expressed as the number of pixels per row by the number of pixels per column.
A careful step-by-step simulation on paper of how an algorithm would be executed by a computer.
A combination of a host IP address and a port number.
An indented, numbered list of steps produced by stepwise refinement.
The part of a machine code instruction that denotes the basic machine operation, e.g. ADD.
Protects how something looks.
A body of text, graphics, etc., stored in a machine-readable form and structured so that a reader can cross-refer between related items of information.
Uniform Resource Locator; a URI that identifies a resource by it’s network location.
A given where it is not immediately obvious how to reach the goal.
Data passes both ways at the same time.
An electronic circuit that performs a Boolean function.
A sequence of printable characters, organised line by line; it can be opened and read in a text editor.
The output is true only when all inputs are false.
Software designed to support one specific task.
A value that does not change throughout the program.
A separate addressable area of main memory.
A whole number
DefinitionTerm
The smallest unit of transfer between a computer and a disk; a disk sector.
Something that shows the data entered and the result from the program, e.g. a screenshot.
A machine that consists of a fixed set of possible states with a set of allowable inputs that change the state and a set of possible outputs.
Universal Serial Bus; allows peripherals to be connected using a standard interface socket.
A+B=(A'.B')' and A.B=(A'+B')'
A name that identifies one or more IP addresses, e.g. the domain name Microsoft.com represents several IP addresses.
A number system that uses the digits 0 to 9.
A network of computer networks and computers using unique IP addresses and TCP/IP.
Someone who processes data on behalf of a data controller.
Shows the effect on the current state of an FSM of particular inputs and any corresponding output.
Application of control technologies to limit the use of digital media.
Permanent storage memory not directly connected to the processor; also called backing storage.
A program that runs in a text-based window into which the user types and which displays text output from the computer.
Record geometric and other information about the objects that make up an image.
A program translated into machine code before it is executed on a digital computer.
Heading, paragraphs, line breaks, hypertext links, lists and embedded media.
An individual who is the subject of personal data.
Someone who determines why and how personal data is processed.
A private computer network used to share information or operations within an organisation.
When the program crashes or gets stuck in a loop.
When a program does not compile because of a syntax error or textual errors.
A document on the World Wide Web written in HTML and displayed in a web browser.
A check made by a program to see that the data entered is reasonable.
A data structure that groups a number of variables.
Can be one of two possible values, True or False.
A very restricted subset of the English Language.
Sample at a frequency at least twice the rate of the highest frequency in the sampled signal.
A link from one web page to another; a hypertext link.
Fully Qualified Domain Name; it consists of a host ID and domain name.
Software that displays a web page by rendering the HTML elements.
A whole composed of parts in orderly arrangement.
A variable declared in a program block and accessible only within the program block.
A group of 8 bits.
When the programmer has made a mistake and the program output is incorrect.
A binary code that a machine can understand and execute.
Things that can be used to reach a goal and impose constraints.
The part of machine code instruction that represents a single item of binary data or the address of a single item of binary data.
A group of bytes.
An electrical signal that varies in a continuous manner.
A unique name given to a variable, a procedure, a function, etc.
A self-contained entity that results when a problem is divided into sub problems; each module corresponds to a sub problem.
Software where the owner places restrictions on its use, copying and modification.
Protects material, such as literature, art, music, sound recordings, films and broadcasts.
A binary digit; it can be 0 or 1.
A collection of protocol layers; each layer is responsible for part of the process governed by the stack.
A routine that does not return a value; a procedure call is a statement in it’s own right, not part of an expression.
An address for a software process.
Any letter, numeral or symbol in the given character set, such as the ASCII character set.
NOT, AND, OR.
A high-level programming language that took the language Basic and redefined it to work with Microsoft’s .Net framework.
Universally known port numbers used by servers; they lie in the range 0 to 1023.
The number of signal wires or lines allocated to the bus.
A number system that uses two digits, 0 and 1.
Hypertext Markup Language; the language used to write web pages. It consists of text that defines the content of the page and tags that define how the content should be structured.
Defines an ordered set of values such as integer, character, Boolean and enumerated types; real numbers are not of ordinal type.
The process of breaking a problem down through successive steps into smaller problems.
The output is true if any input is false.
A table that shows the outcome for a given logical condition.
The HTML code to create a web page.
The starting page for a web site; it often has links to other parts of the site.
A register not assigned a specific role by the processor designer. Programmers may use general-purpose registers.
The list of drawing commands that recreate a vector graphic.
A description in a programming language of a process that achieves some useful result.
The act or process of calculating or determining something by mathematical, logical or interactive methods.
A hardware unit that sends or receives data or stores data by communicating with the processor and main memory through an I/O controller.
The study of a complex process in order to improve its efficiency.
Pulsed Amplitude Modulation; a process that samples analogue signals at regular time intervals and produces electrical pulses of height proportional to the original signal’s ampl
DefinitionTerm
Establishing the limits or rules about what can and cannot be done when solving a problem. These limits are a type of constraint.
Data that relates to a living individual who can be identified from it.
A location in memory that contains one or more data values.
A system for representing negative numbers.
Analogue-to-Digital Converter; converts an analogue signal into an equivalent digital signal.
One of the concentric rings on a platter of a hard disk.
Connects networks that use different link layer protocols.
An equation that expresses a Boolean output Q in terms of Boolean inputs X,Y,Z, etc., to which one or more Boolean functions, such as OR, AND and NOT, are applied.
An ordered set of values.
A unique address that identifies a computer or other electronic device on a network.
Code that resembles a programming language but that uses less strict syntax to express an algorithm and s independent of any real programming language.
A software process that requests and uses the service provided by a server.
A quantity expressed as the number of dots/pixels per inch or centimetre.
A protocol stack for TCP/IP; it has an application layer, a transport layer, a network layer and a link layer.
A collection of values of the same ordinal type with no associated order.
A client software process initiates a request for a service from a server software process, and the server responds to that request.
Placeholders for variables supplied at call time.
The main highway connecting the processor, main memory and I/O controllers; it is made up of a data bus, an address bus and a control bus.
The set of a bit patterns or binary codes for the machine operations that a processor has been designed to perform.
A decision-making step.
Translates high level language code into object code. Or. A program that translates source code into executable object code.
The smallest addressable area or smallest solid block of colour in an image.
Connects networks that use the same link layer protocol.
Protects the name or logo used to identify a business or product.
Squeezes data into a smaller number of bytes than the data would occupy if uncompressed.
The output is true if either or both inputs are true.
Consists of sequences of instructions called programs that can be understood and executed by hardware.
A server that translates fully qualified domain names into IP addresses.
A way of describing an FSM graphically. Each state is represented by a circle and each transition by an arrow labelled with the input that causes the transition plus any output res
Written for a customer’s specific need.
Data that takes the form of discrete values.
A sequence of zero or more characters.
A subdivision of a track.
A computer device that is not part of the CPU. It can be external (e.g. mouse, keyboard, printer, monitor, memory stick or scanner) or internal, such as a CD-ROM drive.
Consecutive steps or groups of steps processed one after another in the order that they arise.
Read-Only Memory; non-volatile main memory that cannot be written to once it is set up.
An electrical signal with voltage changes that are abrupt or in discrete steps.
A step or sequence of steps that are repeated until some condition is satisfied or while some condition is satisfied.
Of a processor, the frequency in megahertz or gigahertz at which the processor executes instructions.
Comma-Separated Values files; a text file with one record per line and the fields of each record separated by commas.
A high-level programming language designed to teach students structured programming.
The time from the start of one storage device access to the time when the next access can be started.
A software process that provides a service requested by a client.
Random Access Memory; volatile main memory in which the locations can be accessed directly in any order with the same access time for all writing and reading operations.
May have two discrete possible values, e.g. true or false.
Returns only the whole number part of a division.
Adds source and destination IP addresses to packets on their way from the transport layer to the link layer, and removes source and destination IP addresses from packets on their w
Breaks a problem into smaller problems that are easier to work on.
A selector that is an HTML tag; it targets every instance of an element.
A number with a decimal point and a fractional part.
Updating a program to correct faults or improve features.
Memory that is directly addressable by the processor.
Used to challenge assumptions, establish facts and rules and define the boundaries of problem solving.
The study of natural and artificial information processes.
Pulse Code Modulation; a process for coding sampled analogue signals by recording the height of each sample in a binary electrical equivalent.
A visual effect such as text colour, font size or background colour.
An initial situation.
A list of planned tests with their data or referring to a set of test data.
Handles the details of a particular networking application, e.g. a web browser using HTTP.
Illegally breaking into a computer system; programming in an unstructured way.
The variable inside the routine uses a reference to the source memory location. The reference is the variable passed as a parameter.
A component of a vector graphic, such as a line, a rectangle or a circle.
A description, independent of any programming language, of a process that achieves some task. It is a step-by-step procedure for solving a problem.
An operation that assigns a value to a variable.
Electronic/electrical circuits that a computer is assembled from. The platform in which the software executes.

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Created Dec 7, 2010ReportNominate
Tags:definition, related, revision, term