AS Computing revision

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DefinitionTerm
Allows the CPU to communicate with peripherals.
Updating a program to correct faults or improve features.
A set of system objectives.
A link from one web page to another; a hypertext link.
An initial situation.
Used to challenge assumptions, establish facts and rules and define the boundaries of problem solving.
Returns True or False.
A whole composed of parts in orderly arrangement.
Shows the effect on the current state of an FSM of particular inputs and any corresponding output.
The time from the start of one storage device access to the time when the next access can be started.
The number of digits in a binary word.
A value that does not change throughout the program.
Protects how something looks.
Placeholders for variables supplied at call time.
A description, independent of any programming language, of a process that achieves some task. It is a step-by-step procedure for solving a problem.
Of a processor, the frequency in megahertz or gigahertz at which the processor executes instructions.
Connects networks that use the same link layer protocol.
Universal Serial Bus; allows peripherals to be connected using a standard interface socket.
A sequence of zero or more characters.
A+B=(A'.B')' and A.B=(A'+B')'
When a program does not compile because of a syntax error or textual errors.
Universally known port numbers used by servers; they lie in the range 0 to 1023.
An operation that assigns a value to a variable.
A system that is unlikely to malfunction.
A high-level programming language based on C++ and developed specifically for Microsoft’s .Net framework.
The main highway connecting the processor, main memory and I/O controllers; it is made up of a data bus, an address bus and a control bus.
Contains mostly unprintable characters.
Created when the pixels of an image are mapped to positions in memory that store binary codes representing the colour of each pixel.
A protocol stack for TCP/IP; it has an application layer, a transport layer, a network layer and a link layer.
A network of computer networks and computers using unique IP addresses and TCP/IP.
A program that runs in a text-based window into which the user types and which displays text output from the computer.
The difference between the original amplitude and it’s sampled value.
The part of machine code instruction that represents a single item of binary data or the address of a single item of binary data.
Returns only the whole number part of a division.
The HTML code to create a web page.
A whole number
A computer device that is not part of the CPU. It can be external (e.g. mouse, keyboard, printer, monitor, memory stick or scanner) or internal, such as a CD-ROM drive.
A quantity expressed as the number of pixels per row by the number of pixels per column.
A register assigned a specific role by the processor designer. Programmers may use some but not all dedicated registers.
A self-contained entity that results when a problem is divided into sub problems; each module corresponds to a sub problem.
Consists of sequences of instructions called programs that can be understood and executed by hardware.
The study of a complex process in order to improve its efficiency.
An ordered set of values.
A branch of computing that studies the use f computers to perform computational processes normally associated with the human intellect.
NOT, AND, OR.
A unique numeric code corresponding to a location in memory.
A description in a programming language of a process that achieves some useful result.
A subdivision of a track.
A table that shows the outcome for a given logical condition.
The output is true if any input is false.
The set of a bit patterns or binary codes for the machine operations that a processor has been designed to perform.
A system for representing negative numbers.
A check made by a program to see that the data entered is reasonable.
The variable inside the routine uses a reference to the source memory location. The reference is the variable passed as a parameter.
Establishing the limits or rules about what can and cannot be done when solving a problem. These limits are a type of constraint.
Record geometric and other information about the objects that make up an image.
Protects how an invention works or what it does.
A unique name given to a variable, a procedure, a function, etc.
A high-level programming language that took the language Basic and redefined it to work with Microsoft’s .Net framework.
A register not assigned a specific role by the processor designer. Programmers may use general-purpose registers.
A number system that uses the digits 0 to 9 and the letters A to F.
Illegally breaking into a computer system; programming in an unstructured way.
Adds source and destination IP addresses to packets on their way from the transport layer to the link layer, and removes source and destination IP addresses from packets on their w
Use digital means to generate audio signals resembling instrument sounds of the human voice.
Written for a customer’s specific need.
An electronic circuit that performs a Boolean function.
The output is true if all inputs are true.
DefinitionTerm
Measures what can and cannot be computed.
Data that takes the form of discrete values.
A name that identifies one or more IP addresses, e.g. the domain name Microsoft.com represents several IP addresses.
Breaks a problem into smaller problems that are easier to work on.
A collection of values of the same ordinal type with no associated order.
A software process that provides a service requested by a client.
Of a vector graphic object, describes things such as the size, direction, thickness, shading, font size or typeface.
A data structure that groups a number of variables.
The study of natural and artificial information processes.
A very fast memory location inside the processor or I/O controller.
Squeezes data into a smaller number of bytes than the data would occupy if uncompressed.
A variable declared in a program block and accessible only within the program block.
A client software process initiates a request for a service from a server software process, and the server responds to that request.
A step or sequence of steps that are repeated until some condition is satisfied or while some condition is satisfied.
A desired outcome.
The smallest addressable area or smallest solid block of colour in an image.
A set of linked documents associated with a particular person, organisation or topic that is held on a computer system and can be accessed as part of the World Wide Web.
Connects networks that use different link layer protocols.
The output is true if either or both inputs are true.
One of the concentric rings on a platter of a hard disk.
An individual who is the subject of personal data.
Data that relates to a living individual who can be identified from it.
Pulsed Amplitude Modulation; a process that samples analogue signals at regular time intervals and produces electrical pulses of height proportional to the original signal’s ampl
A language that has English-like keywords and commands to express the basic constructs of sequence, selection (decision) and repetition (iteration).
The smallest unit of transfer between a computer and a disk; a disk sector.
Consecutive steps or groups of steps processed one after another in the order that they arise.
The output is true if either input is true but not if both inputs are true.
The part of the routine that lists the parameters used to pass data into and out of the routine.
When the programmer has made a mistake and the program output is incorrect.
Permanent storage memory not directly connected to the processor; also called backing storage.
An indented, numbered list of steps produced by stepwise refinement.
Application of control technologies to limit the use of digital media.
Translates high level language code into object code. Or. A program that translates source code into executable object code.
Translate assembly language program into machine code.
A table that shows the result of applying the logical function to all possible combinations of inputs.
A server that translates fully qualified domain names into IP addresses.
Memory that is directly addressable by the processor.
Handles all the physical details of interfacing with the cable including the network interface card and a device driver.
An address for a software process.
A component of a vector graphic, such as a line, a rectangle or a circle.
A group of bytes.
An equation that expresses a Boolean output Q in terms of Boolean inputs X,Y,Z, etc., to which one or more Boolean functions, such as OR, AND and NOT, are applied.
Without guessing a solution before confirming it.
The process of breaking a problem down through successive steps into smaller problems.
The list of drawing commands that recreate a vector graphic.
When the program crashes or gets stuck in a loop.
Hypertext Markup Language; the language used to write web pages. It consists of text that defines the content of the page and tags that define how the content should be structured.
A sequence of printable characters, organised line by line; it can be opened and read in a text editor.
Protects the name or logo used to identify a business or product.
An electrical signal that varies in a continuous manner.
A very restricted subset of the English Language.
Software that can be used for many different tasks.
Random Access Memory; volatile main memory in which the locations can be accessed directly in any order with the same access time for all writing and reading operations.
Software designed to support one specific task.
A list of planned tests with their data or referring to a set of test data.
A group of 8 bits.
Electronic/electrical circuits that a computer is assembled from. The platform in which the software executes.
A collection of protocol layers; each layer is responsible for part of the process governed by the stack.
A way of describing an FSM graphically. Each state is represented by a circle and each transition by an arrow labelled with the input that causes the transition plus any output res
Handles the details of a particular networking application, e.g. a web browser using HTTP.
A decision-making step.
Data passes both ways at the same time.
A software process that requests and uses the service provided by a server.
A unique address that identifies a computer or other electronic device on a network.
A system that does not involve computers.
A number system that uses the digits 0 to 9.
Protects material, such as literature, art, music, sound recordings, films and broadcasts.
DefinitionTerm
The number of bits used to represent the colour of a single pixel in a bitmapped image.
An electronic circuit that connects to a systems bus and an I/O device; it provides the correct voltages and currents for the system bus and the I/O device.
A binary digit; it can be 0 or 1.
A routine that is called as part of an expression and returns a value.
A document on the World Wide Web written in HTML and displayed in a web browser.
Software that displays a web page by rendering the HTML elements.
An electrical signal with voltage changes that are abrupt or in discrete steps.
Read-Only Memory; non-volatile main memory that cannot be written to once it is set up.
Things that can be used to reach a goal and impose constraints.
The output is true only when all inputs are false.
A binary code that a machine can understand and execute.
A high-level programming language designed to teach students structured programming.
A hardware unit that sends or receives data or stores data by communicating with the processor and main memory through an I/O controller.
Someone who processes data on behalf of a data controller.
Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory; its contents may be altered but writing is about 100 times slower than reading.
Temporary port numbers used by client processes; they lie in the range 49152 to 65535.
A variable declared at the beginning of a program and accessible from anywhere in the program.
A combination of a host IP address and a port number.
A named field that appears inside an HTML tag.
A number with a decimal point and a fractional part.
A private computer network used to share information or operations within an organisation.
Software where the owner places restrictions on its use, copying and modification.
The value of the calling code’s variable is copied to the routine’s parameter.
A visual effect such as text colour, font size or background colour.
A careful step-by-step simulation on paper of how an algorithm would be executed by a computer.
Comma-Separated Values files; a text file with one record per line and the fields of each record separated by commas.
A routine that does not return a value; a procedure call is a statement in it’s own right, not part of an expression.
A machine that consists of a fixed set of possible states with a set of allowable inputs that change the state and a set of possible outputs.
Uniform Resource Locator; a URI that identifies a resource by it’s network location.
Sample at a frequency at least twice the rate of the highest frequency in the sampled signal.
A program translated into machine code before it is executed on a digital computer.
The part of a machine code instruction that denotes the basic machine operation, e.g. ADD.
The output is the inverse of the input.
The starting page for a web site; it often has links to other parts of the site.
Can be one of two possible values, True or False.
Analyses and executes a high-level program a line at a time.
Digital-to-Analogue Converter; converts a digital signal into an equivalent analogue signal.
A separate addressable area of main memory.
A given where it is not immediately obvious how to reach the goal.
A body of text, graphics, etc., stored in a machine-readable form and structured so that a reader can cross-refer between related items of information.
The number of signal wires or lines allocated to the bus.
A variable that is part of a record.
Fully Qualified Domain Name; it consists of a host ID and domain name.
A set of parallel wires connecting independent components of a computer system.
A selector that is an HTML tag; it targets every instance of an element.
Any letter, numeral or symbol in the given character set, such as the ASCII character set.
Uniform Resource Identifier; specifies how to access a resource on the internet.
Musical Information Digital Interface; a way of representing the sounds made by an instrument.
Pulse Code Modulation; a process for coding sampled analogue signals by recording the height of each sample in a binary electrical equivalent.
The act or process of calculating or determining something by mathematical, logical or interactive methods.
A location in memory that contains one or more data values.
A quantity expressed as the number of dots/pixels per inch or centimetre.
Something that shows the data entered and the result from the program, e.g. a screenshot.
Heading, paragraphs, line breaks, hypertext links, lists and embedded media.
Analogue-to-Digital Converter; converts an analogue signal into an equivalent digital signal.
A number system that uses two digits, 0 and 1.
A set of agreed signals, codes and rules for data exchange between systems.
May have two discrete possible values, e.g. true or false.
Illegally breaking into a computer system.
A program must be resident in main memory to be executed; it is processed by fetching machine code instructions in sequence from main memory and executing them, one at a time, in t
Data that takes the form of discrete values.
Code that resembles a programming language but that uses less strict syntax to express an algorithm and s independent of any real programming language.
Defines an ordered set of values such as integer, character, Boolean and enumerated types; real numbers are not of ordinal type.
Used to select any HTNL element that has a class attribute.
Someone who determines why and how personal data is processed.

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