AS Computing revision

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DefinitionTerm
The study of natural and artificial information processes.
A combination of a host IP address and a port number.
A network of computer networks and computers using unique IP addresses and TCP/IP.
Application of control technologies to limit the use of digital media.
Protects the name or logo used to identify a business or product.
The output is true only when all inputs are false.
An initial situation.
A value that does not change throughout the program.
A quantity expressed as the number of dots/pixels per inch or centimetre.
A variable declared in a program block and accessible only within the program block.
A binary code that a machine can understand and execute.
Translates high level language code into object code. Or. A program that translates source code into executable object code.
An equation that expresses a Boolean output Q in terms of Boolean inputs X,Y,Z, etc., to which one or more Boolean functions, such as OR, AND and NOT, are applied.
Software designed to support one specific task.
NOT, AND, OR.
A set of parallel wires connecting independent components of a computer system.
A set of system objectives.
A description, independent of any programming language, of a process that achieves some task. It is a step-by-step procedure for solving a problem.
A whole composed of parts in orderly arrangement.
A protocol stack for TCP/IP; it has an application layer, a transport layer, a network layer and a link layer.
Someone who processes data on behalf of a data controller.
A sequence of zero or more characters.
Permanent storage memory not directly connected to the processor; also called backing storage.
Data that takes the form of discrete values.
Analogue-to-Digital Converter; converts an analogue signal into an equivalent digital signal.
Sample at a frequency at least twice the rate of the highest frequency in the sampled signal.
Hypertext Markup Language; the language used to write web pages. It consists of text that defines the content of the page and tags that define how the content should be structured.
Any letter, numeral or symbol in the given character set, such as the ASCII character set.
The starting page for a web site; it often has links to other parts of the site.
A system for representing negative numbers.
Breaks a problem into smaller problems that are easier to work on.
Of a vector graphic object, describes things such as the size, direction, thickness, shading, font size or typeface.
The number of signal wires or lines allocated to the bus.
A program that runs in a text-based window into which the user types and which displays text output from the computer.
Consists of sequences of instructions called programs that can be understood and executed by hardware.
The set of a bit patterns or binary codes for the machine operations that a processor has been designed to perform.
A link from one web page to another; a hypertext link.
Illegally breaking into a computer system; programming in an unstructured way.
An individual who is the subject of personal data.
Handles the details of a particular networking application, e.g. a web browser using HTTP.
Translate assembly language program into machine code.
The variable inside the routine uses a reference to the source memory location. The reference is the variable passed as a parameter.
A collection of protocol layers; each layer is responsible for part of the process governed by the stack.
Universal Serial Bus; allows peripherals to be connected using a standard interface socket.
Read-Only Memory; non-volatile main memory that cannot be written to once it is set up.
A self-contained entity that results when a problem is divided into sub problems; each module corresponds to a sub problem.
Data passes both ways at the same time.
A way of describing an FSM graphically. Each state is represented by a circle and each transition by an arrow labelled with the input that causes the transition plus any output res
A machine that consists of a fixed set of possible states with a set of allowable inputs that change the state and a set of possible outputs.
The smallest addressable area or smallest solid block of colour in an image.
Returns only the whole number part of a division.
Electronic/electrical circuits that a computer is assembled from. The platform in which the software executes.
A hardware unit that sends or receives data or stores data by communicating with the processor and main memory through an I/O controller.
Analyses and executes a high-level program a line at a time.
A number system that uses the digits 0 to 9 and the letters A to F.
A separate addressable area of main memory.
A named field that appears inside an HTML tag.
The part of a machine code instruction that denotes the basic machine operation, e.g. ADD.
The number of bits used to represent the colour of a single pixel in a bitmapped image.
The time from the start of one storage device access to the time when the next access can be started.
A decision-making step.
The output is true if all inputs are true.
The study of a complex process in order to improve its efficiency.
When the programmer has made a mistake and the program output is incorrect.
A unique name given to a variable, a procedure, a function, etc.
A quantity expressed as the number of pixels per row by the number of pixels per column.
Things that can be used to reach a goal and impose constraints.
DefinitionTerm
A software process that provides a service requested by a client.
The part of the routine that lists the parameters used to pass data into and out of the routine.
Data that takes the form of discrete values.
Random Access Memory; volatile main memory in which the locations can be accessed directly in any order with the same access time for all writing and reading operations.
Uniform Resource Identifier; specifies how to access a resource on the internet.
A document on the World Wide Web written in HTML and displayed in a web browser.
Heading, paragraphs, line breaks, hypertext links, lists and embedded media.
Pulse Code Modulation; a process for coding sampled analogue signals by recording the height of each sample in a binary electrical equivalent.
Written for a customer’s specific need.
A table that shows the result of applying the logical function to all possible combinations of inputs.
Protects how an invention works or what it does.
A table that shows the outcome for a given logical condition.
A very fast memory location inside the processor or I/O controller.
The list of drawing commands that recreate a vector graphic.
A client software process initiates a request for a service from a server software process, and the server responds to that request.
Updating a program to correct faults or improve features.
The output is true if any input is false.
The HTML code to create a web page.
Defines an ordered set of values such as integer, character, Boolean and enumerated types; real numbers are not of ordinal type.
A register assigned a specific role by the processor designer. Programmers may use some but not all dedicated registers.
A high-level programming language that took the language Basic and redefined it to work with Microsoft’s .Net framework.
A location in memory that contains one or more data values.
Protects material, such as literature, art, music, sound recordings, films and broadcasts.
A check made by a program to see that the data entered is reasonable.
A routine that is called as part of an expression and returns a value.
An electrical signal with voltage changes that are abrupt or in discrete steps.
A high-level programming language designed to teach students structured programming.
Pulsed Amplitude Modulation; a process that samples analogue signals at regular time intervals and produces electrical pulses of height proportional to the original signal’s ampl
Software that can be used for many different tasks.
A desired outcome.
The smallest unit of transfer between a computer and a disk; a disk sector.
A number with a decimal point and a fractional part.
A binary digit; it can be 0 or 1.
Squeezes data into a smaller number of bytes than the data would occupy if uncompressed.
A group of 8 bits.
The output is true if either or both inputs are true.
Software that displays a web page by rendering the HTML elements.
Connects networks that use different link layer protocols.
Connects networks that use the same link layer protocol.
Protects how something looks.
When the program crashes or gets stuck in a loop.
An operation that assigns a value to a variable.
An indented, numbered list of steps produced by stepwise refinement.
A group of bytes.
The main highway connecting the processor, main memory and I/O controllers; it is made up of a data bus, an address bus and a control bus.
Record geometric and other information about the objects that make up an image.
A list of planned tests with their data or referring to a set of test data.
A unique address that identifies a computer or other electronic device on a network.
A body of text, graphics, etc., stored in a machine-readable form and structured so that a reader can cross-refer between related items of information.
Consecutive steps or groups of steps processed one after another in the order that they arise.
Contains mostly unprintable characters.
Measures what can and cannot be computed.
Uniform Resource Locator; a URI that identifies a resource by it’s network location.
Handles all the physical details of interfacing with the cable including the network interface card and a device driver.
A set of agreed signals, codes and rules for data exchange between systems.
A name that identifies one or more IP addresses, e.g. the domain name Microsoft.com represents several IP addresses.
Memory that is directly addressable by the processor.
A system that does not involve computers.
Data that relates to a living individual who can be identified from it.
A+B=(A'.B')' and A.B=(A'+B')'
A language that has English-like keywords and commands to express the basic constructs of sequence, selection (decision) and repetition (iteration).
Returns True or False.
Can be one of two possible values, True or False.
A high-level programming language based on C++ and developed specifically for Microsoft’s .Net framework.
When a program does not compile because of a syntax error or textual errors.
A data structure that groups a number of variables.
A very restricted subset of the English Language.
DefinitionTerm
A private computer network used to share information or operations within an organisation.
A set of linked documents associated with a particular person, organisation or topic that is held on a computer system and can be accessed as part of the World Wide Web.
Use digital means to generate audio signals resembling instrument sounds of the human voice.
A program translated into machine code before it is executed on a digital computer.
A collection of values of the same ordinal type with no associated order.
An electronic circuit that performs a Boolean function.
The part of machine code instruction that represents a single item of binary data or the address of a single item of binary data.
Fully Qualified Domain Name; it consists of a host ID and domain name.
The output is true if either input is true but not if both inputs are true.
An electronic circuit that connects to a systems bus and an I/O device; it provides the correct voltages and currents for the system bus and the I/O device.
The number of digits in a binary word.
A unique numeric code corresponding to a location in memory.
Temporary port numbers used by client processes; they lie in the range 49152 to 65535.
The process of breaking a problem down through successive steps into smaller problems.
Illegally breaking into a computer system.
A number system that uses two digits, 0 and 1.
A subdivision of a track.
A system that is unlikely to malfunction.
A number system that uses the digits 0 to 9.
An address for a software process.
Something that shows the data entered and the result from the program, e.g. a screenshot.
Of a processor, the frequency in megahertz or gigahertz at which the processor executes instructions.
A careful step-by-step simulation on paper of how an algorithm would be executed by a computer.
Digital-to-Analogue Converter; converts a digital signal into an equivalent analogue signal.
Shows the effect on the current state of an FSM of particular inputs and any corresponding output.
A step or sequence of steps that are repeated until some condition is satisfied or while some condition is satisfied.
Allows the CPU to communicate with peripherals.
A program must be resident in main memory to be executed; it is processed by fetching machine code instructions in sequence from main memory and executing them, one at a time, in t
A whole number
A sequence of printable characters, organised line by line; it can be opened and read in a text editor.
A visual effect such as text colour, font size or background colour.
A register not assigned a specific role by the processor designer. Programmers may use general-purpose registers.
One of the concentric rings on a platter of a hard disk.
The difference between the original amplitude and it’s sampled value.
A variable that is part of a record.
An electrical signal that varies in a continuous manner.
Comma-Separated Values files; a text file with one record per line and the fields of each record separated by commas.
A software process that requests and uses the service provided by a server.
A computer device that is not part of the CPU. It can be external (e.g. mouse, keyboard, printer, monitor, memory stick or scanner) or internal, such as a CD-ROM drive.
A given where it is not immediately obvious how to reach the goal.
The act or process of calculating or determining something by mathematical, logical or interactive methods.
Universally known port numbers used by servers; they lie in the range 0 to 1023.
A variable declared at the beginning of a program and accessible from anywhere in the program.
Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory; its contents may be altered but writing is about 100 times slower than reading.
Establishing the limits or rules about what can and cannot be done when solving a problem. These limits are a type of constraint.
Without guessing a solution before confirming it.
A description in a programming language of a process that achieves some useful result.
Musical Information Digital Interface; a way of representing the sounds made by an instrument.
Used to challenge assumptions, establish facts and rules and define the boundaries of problem solving.
The value of the calling code’s variable is copied to the routine’s parameter.
A server that translates fully qualified domain names into IP addresses.
Used to select any HTNL element that has a class attribute.
Code that resembles a programming language but that uses less strict syntax to express an algorithm and s independent of any real programming language.
The output is the inverse of the input.
A routine that does not return a value; a procedure call is a statement in it’s own right, not part of an expression.
A component of a vector graphic, such as a line, a rectangle or a circle.
An ordered set of values.
Someone who determines why and how personal data is processed.
Created when the pixels of an image are mapped to positions in memory that store binary codes representing the colour of each pixel.
May have two discrete possible values, e.g. true or false.
Software where the owner places restrictions on its use, copying and modification.
A selector that is an HTML tag; it targets every instance of an element.
A branch of computing that studies the use f computers to perform computational processes normally associated with the human intellect.
Placeholders for variables supplied at call time.
Adds source and destination IP addresses to packets on their way from the transport layer to the link layer, and removes source and destination IP addresses from packets on their w

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Created Dec 7, 2010ReportNominate
Tags:definition, related, revision, term