Social psyc

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DefinitionName of definition-
an experiemtn which each participant is exposed to only 1 level of the independent variable
a choice in which taking or maximizing one benefit requires either accepting a cost or sacrificing another benefit
branch of psychology that focuses on behavior disorders and other forms of mental illness and how to treat them
e physical world around us, including its laws and processes
a nonexperimental method in which the researcher merely observes whether variables are associated or related
the false belief that it is better not to change one’s first answer on a test even if one starts to think that a different answer is correct
the variable in a study that represents the result of the events and processes
putting obstacles in the way of one’s own performance so that anticipated or possible failure can be blamed on the obstacle instead of on lack of ability
a broader term for mind, encompassing emotions, desires, perceptions, and all other psychological processes
the way a person acts in public, especially in official roles (self related)
a combination of other people’s views that tells you who and what you are
study of human behavior
an experiment that includes more than one independent variable or factor
people avoid making choices and taking action they fear they will regret later
the idea that arousal from one event can transfer to a later event
the extent to which the dependent variable is a valid representation of the theoretical response
study of how people change across their lives from conception to birth to old age and death
the ability to make immediate sacrifices for later rewards
study of what happens in the brain, nervous system, other aspects of the body
the ability to predict one’s emotional reactions to future events
a self-concept that emphasizes what connects the self to other people and groups (self vs culture)
occurs when the effects of two variables cannot be separated
a term used to describe people’s reluctance to do much extra thinking
planting or activating an idea in someone’s mind
theoretical approach that seeks to explain behaviour in terms of lern
the relationship or association between two variables
The study of human culture - the shared, values, beliefs and practices of poeple
the extent to which the fi dings from a study can be generalized to other people, other settings, and other time periods
any behavior that seeks to convey some image of self or some information about the self to other people
the process by which a person examines the contents of his or her mind and mental states
the tendency for observers to attribute other people’s behavior to internal or dispositional causes and to downplay situational causes
a self-concept that emphasizes what makes the self different and sets it apart from others (self vs culture)
trying to avoid loss of esteem
conscious system override the autonmatic system.
the proposition that expressing negative emotions produces a healthy release of those emotions and is therefore good for the psyche
an illusory correlation that occurs after exposure to only one unusual behavior performed by only one member of an unfamiliar group
mental shortcuts that provide quick estimates about the likelihood of uncertain events
Thought suppression does not restrain people form eating but make them think more about food they are trying not to think
the extent to which the setting of an experiment physically resembles the real world
an information-based system that includes shared ideas and praxis and common ways of doing things
the tendency to underestimate the number of other people who share one’s most prized characteristics and abilities
Some people prefer to postpone hard decisions and keep their options open as long as possible
the extent to which the independent variable is a valid representation of the theoretical stimulus
excessive self-love and a selfish orientation
the tendency to overestimate the link between variables that are related only slightly or not at all
person's inner thoughts and feeling (self related)
comparing yourself to people worse off than you
in attribution theory, whether other people would do the same thing in the same situation
the image of self that is currently active in the person’s thoughts
knowledge structures that represent substantial information about a concept, its attributes, and its relationships to other concepts
the tendency to notice and search for information that confirms one’s beliefs and to ignore information that disconfirms one’s beliefs
the statistical tendency for extreme scores or extreme behavior to be followed by others that are less extreme and closer to average
any action by which people bring failure, suffering, or misfortune on themselves
the tendency to see an event as more likely as it becomes more specific because it is joined with elements that seem similar to events that are likely
a type of study in which the researcher can manipulate an independent variable but cannot use random assignment
looking inward on the private aspects of the self, including emotions,thoughts, desires, and traits
a feeling state that is not clearly linked to some event
the tendency to ignore or underuse base rate information and instead to be influenced by the distinctive features of the case being judged
DefinitionName of definition-
'love of wisdom'
mental tricks people use to help them believe things that are false
unpleasant emotion associated with surviving a tragic event involving much loss of life
a moral emotion that, like guilt, involves feeling bad but, unlike guilt, spreads to the whole person
an experiment which each participant is exposed to all lecels of the independent variable
kids that ware 11 months older play with younger ones, giving them an advantage and making the sport more fun
how favorably someone evaluates himself or herself
the finding that information bearing on the self is processed more thoroughly and more deeply, and hence remembered better, than other information
he view that evolution shaped the human psyche so as to enable humans to create and take part in culture
the simple desire to learn the truth about oneself, whatever it is
pursuit of knowledge about fundamental matters such as life, death, meaning, reality and truth
in decision making, the greater weight given to the present over the future
theoretical approach that seeks to explain behavior by looking at the deep unconscious fores inside the person
pple make decisions more based on how they expect to feel rather than on the basis of a logical and rational analysis of what will yield the greatest reward
whether messages stress potential gains (positively framed) or potential losses (negatively framed)
branch of psychlogy that foucses on umportant diference between individuals
the tendency for intrinsic motivation to diminish for activities that have become associated with rewards
refers to the joint eff ects of more than one independent variable on the dependent variable
the idea that both men and women seek to minimize the most costly type of error, but that men’s and women’s goals, and hence worst errors, differ
the automatic response that something is good or bad
an approach that emphasized learning from reward and punishment as the main cause of behaviour and that dominated psychology in the 1950s and 1960s
the proposition that some arousal is better than none, but too much can hurt performance
thinking based on assumptions that don’t hold up to rational scrutiny
practical ways of doing things
the ability to perceive, access and generate, understand, and reflectively regulate emotions
for something to be the cause of a behavior, it must be present when the behavior occurs and absent when the behavior does not occur
a reduction in stress or suffering due to a belief that one has the option of escaping or controlling the situation, even if one doesn’t exercise it
organized packets of information that are stored in memory
the proposition that emotional stimuli activate the thalamus, which then activates both the cortex, producing an experienced emotion, and the hypothalamus and autonomic nervous sys
ideas (concepts) of how things might possibly be
the tendency to judge the frequency or likelihood of an event by using a starting point (called an anchor) and then making adjustments up or down
comparing yourself to people better than you
reflecting on one’s own thought processes
a quantitative literature review that combines the statistical results (e.g., correlation coefficients) from all studies conducted on a topic
a conscious evaluative reaction to some event
the proposition that the bodily processes of emotion come first and the mind’s perception of these bodily reactions then creates the subjective feeling of emotion
study of political organization and institution, especially government
the variable manipulated by the researcher that is assumed to lead to changes in the dependent variable
a theory proposing that people stay at about the same level of happiness regardless of what happens to them ANGER an emotional response to a real or imagined threat or provocation
an unpleasant emotional response that people often experience when someone is trying to restrict their freedom an unpleasant emotional response that people often experience when so
we learn to anticipate how we will feel if sth happens and guide our behavior based on that expected feeling
looking outward on the public aspects of the self that others can see and evaluate
the theory that people need to feel at least some degree of autonomy and internal motivation
in decision making, the greater weight given to definite outcomes than to probabilities
a pattern in which people claim credit for success but deny blame for failure
a standard measure of effortful control over responses, requiring participants to identify the color of a word (which may name a different color)
a set of beliefs about oneself
the preference to keep things the way they are rather than change
Study of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services & the study of money
the self’s capacity to alter its own responses; self-control
the tendency for actors to make external attributions and observers to make internal attributions
those who believe that traits are fixed, stable things (entities) and thus people should not be expected to change
the proposition that positive emotions expand an individual’s attention and mind-set
branch of psychology that seeks an understanding of how people affect and are affected by others
he tendency to believe that a particular chance event is affected by previous events and that chance events will “even out” in the short run
the active phase of self-regulation; willpower
the “what the heck” effect that occurs when people indulge in a behavior they are trying to regulate after an initial regulation failure
wanting to perform an actiivty for its own sake
DefinitionName of definition-
the idea that people rely on emotional processes to evaluate risk, with the result that their judgments may be biased by emotional factors
study of past events
the idea that feedback from the face muscles evokes or magnifies emotions
response by the automatic system that “everything good is me, and everything bad is not me”
performing an activity because of something that results from it
those who believe that traits are subject to change and improvement
animals that seek connections to others and prefer to live, work, and play with other members of their species
focuses on the negative, such as the potential for getting cavities if you do not brush and floss your teeth every day
an unpleasant moral emotion associated with a specific instance in which one has acted badly or wrongly
when the activation of a focal goal the person is working on inhibits the accessibility of alternative goals
an attribution theory that uses three types of information: consensus, consistency, and distinctiveness
the tendency to overestimate the number of other people who share one’s opinions, attitudes, values, and beliefs
the image of the self that is conveyed to others
part of the self involved in control, both control over people and self-control
Focuses on how people interpret the causes of events such as external pressures or internal traits
the tendency to judge the frequency or likelihood of an event by the extent to which it resembles the typical case
imagining alternatives that are better than actuality
the tendency for gamblers who get lucky to think they have a “hot” hand and their luck will continue
in attribution theory, whether the person typically behaves this way in this situation
a desire to get feedback that confi rms what the person already believes about himself or herself
in attribution theory, whether the person would behave differently in a different situation
extent to which study participants get so caught up in the procedure that they forget they are in an experiment
attention directed at the self
the tendency to judge the frequency or likelihood of an event by the ease with which relevant instances come to mind
a measure of how desirable one would be to other people
the tendency to take whatever course of action does not require you to do anything (also called the default option)
a quick response of liking or disliking toward something
the self-regulation feedback loop of Test, Operate, Test, Exit
the desire to learn favorable or fl attering things about the self
different roles a person plays, as in a play or a movie
a powerful and clearly unified feeling state, such as anger or joy
he tendency for observers to make internal attributions (fundamental attribution error) about whole groups of people
the finding that items gain in value to the person who owns them
study of though process such as how memory works and what people notice
the idea that the mind has two different processing systems (conscious and automatic)
belief that one’s actions will not bring about desired outcomes, leading one to give up and quit trying
a movement in social psychology that began in the 1970s that focused on thoughts about people and about social relationships
in decision making, the greater weight given to possible losses than possible gains
imagining alternatives that are worse than actuality
keeping track of behaviors or responses to be regulated
the frequency of positive emotions minus the frequency of negative emotions
a tendency to experience automatic, intrusive thoughts about a goal whose pursuit has been interrupted
the tendency for plans to be overly optimistic because the planner fails to allow for unexpected problems
the theory that people observe their own behavior to infer what they are thinking and how they are feeling
the idea that emotion has two components: a bodily state of arousal and a cognitive label that specifies the emotion
the false belief that one can influence certain events, especially random or chance ones
study of human societies and groups that form those societies
imagining alternatives to past or present events or circumstances
Affect (how poeple feel insdie) Behavior (what people do) Cognition (what people think about)
focuses on the positive, such as how your teeth will be stronger and healthier if you brush and floss them every day
observable operations, procedures, and measurements that are based on the independent and dependent variables
the idea that people judge something as good or bad by asking themselves “How do I feel about it?”
knowledge structures that define situations and guide behavior
the tendency to judge the frequency or likelihood of an event by the ease with which you can imagine (or mentally simulate) it
the process people use to control and change their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
reducing errors and biases by getting people to use controlled processing rather than automatic processing
the extent to which changes in the independent variable caused changes in the dependent variable

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