CNSL 511 Lifespan Final Practice 1

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a period of identity development during which the individual is exploring alternatives
Marcia's term for the status of individuals in the midst of a crisis, but not whose commitments are either absent or vaguely defined
language designed to give information, including public speaking, preferred by men
a direct moral education program in which students are taught moral literacy to prevent them from engaging in immoral behavior
a moral perspective that focuses on the rights of the individual; individuals independently make moral decisions
an unselfish interest in helping another person
the theory that gender-typing emerges as children gradually develop gender schemas of what is gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate in their culture
the enduring personal characteristics of individuals
changes in thoughts, feelings and behaviors regarding standards of right and wrong
stems from Freud's view that preschool children develop sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent, then, at age 5 or 6, renounce the attraction because of anxious feelings, subs
the midlife transition in which fertility decreases
an enduring aspect of the self that includes a sense of membership in an ethnic group, along with the attitudes and feelings related to that membership
a form of education that promotes social responsibility and service to the community
all the characteristics of a person
beliefs and attitudes about the way things should be
the ability to control one's behavior without having to rely on others for help
Erikson's 5th stage of development, which occurs during the adolescent years; adolescents are faced with finding out who they are, what they are all about, and where they are going
focuses on conventional rules established by social consensus and convention, as opposed to moral reasoning, which stresses ethical issues
a personal investment in identity
the global evaluative dimension of the self. also referred to as self-worth or self-image
Piaget's concept that if a rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediately
the highest level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. at this level, the individual recognizes alternative moral courses, explores the options, and then decides on personal
what adolescents hope to become as well as what they dread they will become
the lowest level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. The individual's moral reasoning is controlled primarily by external rewards and punishments
sexual persecution that can take many forms- from sexist remarks and physical contact (patting, brushing against their bodies) to blatant propositions and sexual assaults
stereotyped patterns of expectancies for how people should behave sexually
the complete cessation of a woman's menstruation, which usually occurs in the late forties or early fifties
the view that personality is made up of openness to expereince, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism
the second stage of moral development in Piaget's theory, displayed by older children (about 10 years of age and older). The children become aware that rules and laws are created b
actions taken by an adolescent in breaking the law or engaging in illegal behavior
the transitional period from normal menstrual periods to no menstrual periods at all, which often takes up to 10 years
the first stage of moral development in Piaget's theory, occuring at 4-7 years of age. Justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the
forcible sexual intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex with a person who does not give consent. legal definitions differ from state to state
the individual's cognitive representation of the self, the substance of self-conceptions
general impressions and beliefs about females and males
the component of the superego that rewards the child by conveying a sense of pride and personal value when the child acts according to ideal standards approved by the parents
sex is synonymous with love; if we develop a relationship with someone and fall in love, it is acceptable to have sex with the person whether we are married or not
the idea that children's gender development occurs through observation and imitation of gender behavior, as well as through the rewards and punishment children experience for behav
the 7th stage of Erikson's life-span theory that encompasses adults' desire to leave a legacy of themselves to the next generation
the second, or intermediate level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. At this level, individuals abide by certain standards but they are the standards of others such as pare
the pervasive moral atmosphere that characterizes every school
a moral education program based on the belief that students should learn to value things like democracy and justice as their moral reasoning develops; Kohlberg's theory has been th
domain-specific evaluations of the self
people who have lived exemplary lives- they have a moral personality, identity, character, and set of virtues that reflect moral excellence and committment
reacting to another's feelings with an emotional response that is similar to the other's feelings
a class of sex hormones- an important one of which is testosterone- that primarily promotes the development of male genitals and secondary sex characteristics
the language of conversation; a way to establish connections and negotiate relationships; preferred by women
the aspect of personalty that is present when individuals have moral notions and commitments that are central to their lives
an aspect of prosocial behavior that occurs when the injured person releases the injurer from possible behavioral retaliation
coercive sexual activity directed at someone with whom the victim is at least casually acquainted
the ability to assume another person's perspective and understand his or her thoughts and feelings
a self-centered and self-concerned approach toward others
age-inappropriate actions and attitudes that violate family expectations, society's norms, and the personal or property rights of others
drawing on beliefs values, and goals to change the meaning of a stressful situation, especially in times of chronic stress as when a loved one dies
the component of the superego that punishes the child for behaviors disapproved of by the parents by making the child feel guilty and worthless
characteristics consisting of two dimensions: self-assertion, the ability to have and communicate a point of view, and seperateness, the use of communication patterns to express ho
the characteristics of people as males or females
Marcia's term for status of individuals who have not yet experienced a crisis or made any commitments
Erikson's term for the gap between childhood security and adult autonomy that adolescents experience as part of their identity exploration
the theory that successful aging is related to three main factors: selection, optimization, and compensation
who a person is, representing a synthesis and integration of self-understanding
a class of sex hormones-an important one of which is estradiol- that primarily influences the development of female sex characteristics and helps regulate the menstrual cycle
the moral perspective of Carol Gilligan; views people in terms of their connectedness with others and emphasizes interpersonal communication, relationships with others, and concern
Marcia's term for the status of individuals who have made a commitment but have not experienced a crisis
the theory that distinguishes between moral competence- the ability to produce moral behaviors- and moral performance- performing those behaviors in specific situations
characteristic consisting of two dimensions: mutuality, sensitivity to and respect for others' views; and permeability, openness to others' views
involves a sense of one's own gender, including knowledge, understanding and acceptance of being male or female
acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
a set of expectations that prescribe how females or males should think, act or feel
a moral education program in which students are helped to clarify what their lives are for and what is worth working for. Students are encouraged to define their own values and und
sex is accepted only within marriage; extramarital sex is taboo, especially for women, and sex means reproduction and sometimes affection
Marcia's term for the status of individuals who have undergone a crisis and have made a commitment
approach emphasizing the how a life event influences the individuals's development depends not only on the event but also on mediating factors, the individual's adaptation to the l
the view that psychological and behavioral differences between boys and girls become greater during early adolescence because of increased socialization pressures to conform to tra
Eagly's theory that psychological gender differences are caused by the contrasting social roles of women and men
a sense of connectedness to a sacred other (God, nature, a higher power)
theories emphasizing that personality consist of broad dispositions, called traits, which tend to produce characteristic responses
a feeling of thankfulness and appreciation, especially in response to someone's doing something kind or helpful

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