Science / AP Chemistry Vocabulary

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Can you name the AP Chemistry Terms?

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DefinitionTermHint/Explanation
A rule stating that electrons occupy degenerate orbitals in such a way as to maximize the number of electrons with the same spin. In other words, each orbital has one electron plac
Capable of behaving as either an acid or a base.
The lowest-energy, or most stable, state.The original state of an electron (requires no energy to be in that state).
A unit of energy, it is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1 degree C from 14.5 degrees C to 15.5 degrees C. A related unit is the joule: 1 (ter
A law stating that the partial pressure of a solvent over a solution, P(A), is given by the vapor pressure of the pure solvent, P˚(A), times the mole fraction of a solvent in the The letters in parenthesis are subscripts.
A type of magnetism that causes a substance with no unpaired electrons to be weakly repelled from a magnetic field.Represented with two arrows (one up, one down) in quantum number representations.
A reaction in which a species undergoes simultaneous oxidation and reduction.An example would be N(2)O(3) gas reducing into both NO (gas) and NO(2) (gas).
Compounds whose molecules have the same overall composition but different structures.This is relating to STRUCTURES, not neutrons.
A rule stating that no two electrons in an atom may have the same four quantum numbers (n, l, m(l), and m(s)). As a reflection of this principle, there can be no more than two elec
The smallest increment (a quantum) of radiant energy; a photon of light with frequency v has an energy equal to hv.
The energy change that occurs when an electron is added to a gaseous atom or ion.
A measure of how closely individual measurements agree with the correct value.Think about a dart board: if you consistently hit the bull's eye, you are both accurate and precise. If you consistently hit in one area on the dart board that isn't the bull's eye, you are just precise.
The escape of gas through an orifice or hole.
A property of a system that is determined by the state or condition of the system and not by how it got to that state; its value is fixed when temperature, pressure, composition, a
An acid and a base, such as H(2)O and OHˉ, that differ only in the presence or absence of a proton.
The minimum energy needed for reaction; the height of the energy barrier to formation of products.We often use this in biology; this (term) lowers when a catalyst is used in a reaction.
An electron-pair donor.
A measure of the separation and magnitude of the positive and negative charges in polar molecules.
A chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of certain atoms change.
The spreading of one substance through a space occupied by one or more other substances.
A substance formed in one elementary step of a multistep mechanism and consumed in another; it is neither a reactant nor an ultimate product of the overall reaction.
A substance (molecule or ion) that acts as a proton acceptor.
A molecule with one end having a partial negative charge and the other end having a partial positive charge; a polar molecule.
A solution that undergoes a limited change in pH upon addition of a small amount of acid or base.
The temperature at which solid, liquid, and gas phases coexist in equilibrium.
DefinitionTermHint/Explanation
The energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom when the atom is in its ground state.
A higher energy state than the ground state.When an electron is in a higher energy level (or state) than its regular state; this action requires (takes in) energy.
The energy required to separate completely the ions in an ionic solid.
The time required for the concentration of a reactant substance to decrease to half its initial value; the time required for half of a sample of a particular radioisotope to decay.This decay cannot be sped up in any way, whether it be through incineration, catalysts, pressure, temperature, etc.
The breaking of a molecule into two or more neutral fragments as a result of absorption of light.
The mixing of different types of atomic orbitals to produce a set of equivalent hybrid orbitals.
A situation in which two or more orbitals have the same energy.
Those properties of a solvent (vapor-pressure lowering, freezing-point lowering, boiling-point elevation, osmotic pressure) that depend on the total concentration of solute particl
The number of valence electrons in an isolated atom minus the number of electrons assigned to the atom in the Lewis structure.
An electrode at which oxidation occurs.
A chemical reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a single product.The 'informal' term is 'synthesis reaction.'
A reaction in which two substances react through an exchange of their component ions: AX + BY → AY + BX. Precipitation and acid-base neutralization reactions are examples of thisThe 'informal' term is 'double-replacement reaction.'
An electron-pair acceptor.
An electrode at which reduction occurs.
A measure of the ability of an atom that is bonded to another atom to attract electrons to itself.
Atoms of the same element containing different numbers of neutrons and therefore having different masses.This is relation to NEUTRONS, not structures.
The melting/boiling point at 1 atm pressure.This is a really obvious answer, but a correct one; the answer is practically in the question.
The enthalpy change, ∆H, for melting a solid.
The enthalpy change, ∆H, for vaporization of a liquid.
The highest temperature at which it is possible to convert the gaseous form of a substance to a liquid. This (term) increases with an increase in the magnitude of intermolecular fo
A property that a substance possesses if it contains one or more unpaired electrons. A (term) substance is drawn into a magnetic field.Represented with one arrow (up) in quantum number representations.
A substance (molecule or ion) that acts as a proton donor.
The particular arrangement of atoms found at the top of the potential-energy barrier as a reaction proceeds from reactants to products.
The closeness of agreement among several measurements of the same quantity; the reproducibility of a measurement.Think about a dart board: if you consistently hit the bull's eye, you are both accurate and precise. If you consistently hit in one area on the dart board that isn't the bull's eye, you are just precise.
The ease with which the electron cloud of an atom or a molecule is distorted by an outside influence, thereby inducing a dipole moment.

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