French lawyer and amateur mathematician, his 'theorem' states that there exist no positive integers a, b, c, and n such that a^n + b^n = c^n, where n > 2

Spread Hindu-Arabic numeral system in Europe, through his work, Liber Abaci, also known for watching bunnies reproduce

Best known for initiating the investigation of series named after him, and their applications to problems of heat transfer and vibrations, accompanied Napoleon to Egypt, bringing

back a pressed copy of the Rosetta Stone

American who developed energetic-synergetic geometry, known for patening and popularizing geodesic dome, though it had been invented 30 years earlier by Bauersfeld

20th president of the US, published a proof of the pythagorean theorem while a congressman

German sometimes referred to as the Princeps mathematicorum; used complex numbers to determine which regular polygons could be constructed with a straightedge

and compass, the first to prove the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra; a child prodigy, made several groundbreaking mathematical discoveries as a teenager

As a woman she was barred from attending the École Polytechnique; was able to obtain lecture notes and submit her work to Joseph Louis Lagrange, a faculty member,

using the name M. LeBlanc; “fearing,” as she later explained to Gauss, “the ridicule attached to a female scientist.' Lagrange saw the intelligence of M. LeBlanc, requested a meeting, and fortunately did not care that she was a woman, and became her mentor

First American doctorate in engineering (from Yale), invented modern vector calculus (independently of Oliver Heaviside), introduced the now common notation for the dot product and

the cross product of two vectors, co-founder of statistical mechanics

Austrian-American, best known for his two incompleteness theorems, also showed that neither the axiom of choice nor the continuum hypothesis can be disproved from the

accepted axioms of set theory, assuming these axioms are consistent

German mathematician, tutor to Tsar Peter II, in a letter to Euler, he conjectured that every even integer greater than 2 can be expressed as the sum of two primes

German, one of the founders of proof theory and mathematical logic, among the first to distinguish between mathematics and metamathematics, but probably most noted

for being a clerk in a hotel with an infinite number of rooms, all filled

USN Admiral, developed the first compiler for a computer programming language, her work led to the development of COBOL, popularized term 'debugging' after removing an

actual moth from a computer

Dutch mathematician, inventor of the pendulum clock, first to derive the formula for the period of an ideal mathematical pendulum (with massless rod or cord)

Only known female professor at the famous university in Alexandria, was killed by a mob led by monk Peter (presumably under orders from Pope St. Cyril) her flesh was

ripped from her body by shards of pottery

American who coined the word 'googol' suggested by his nine-year old nephew

Born from poor German parents, frail, and with weak eyesight, invented an improved version of the refracting telescope, best known for his eponymous laws of planetary

motion, codified by later astronomers

Persian poet, first to generalize the binomial theorem, author of one of the most important treatises on algebra written before modern times, the Treatise on Demonstration of nbgre

Problems of Algebra, which includes a geometric method for solving cubic equations by intersecting a hyperbola with a circle

His book, Kitab al-jabr w'al mugabalah, not only established algebra as an independent discipline, but gave us the term algebra

Allowed to audit classes at Heidelberg, pending professor's approval, later Berlin would not even allow her to audit and she was tutored by Weierstrass, earning a doctorate in

mathematics summa cum laude, bypassing the usual required lectures and examinations

German mathematician, relentless critic of Cantor: 'God made integers; all else is the work of man'

French, developed Bayesian interpretation of statistics, contributed to the development of celestial mechanics

First to publish the method of least squares, for two centuries, until discovery of the error in 2009, all side-view portraits of this mathematician, were actually that of an

obscure French politician with the same last name, the only known portrait of him recently unearthed, is found in the 1820 book Album de 73 portraits-charge aquarellés des membres de I’Institut, a book of caricatures of seventy-three famous mathematicians by the French artist Julien-Leopold Boilly

German developer of differential and integral calculus (independent of Newton), one of the most prolific inventors in the field of mechanical calculators

French, whose name is given to the rule for finding the limit of fractions in the indeterminate forms 0/0 and ∞/∞, by taking the limits of their derivatives