Greek playwright (525-456 BC). Father of Tragedy. Introduces multiple characters in a play. Seven Against Thebes, Prometheus Bound, Oresteia, trilogy: Agamemnon, The Libation Bearers, & The Eumenides or Furies.
Greek (620-564 BC). No works exist, and he may not have been historical. Strikingly ugly slave, becomes advisor to kings. Fables in which animals were used to demonstrate character and morality.
Greek comedic writer (446-386 BC). Father of Comedy. Used ridicule and sarcasm. Clouds, Wasps, Birds, Lysistrata, Frogs, Plutus.
Roman orator and statesman (106-43 BC). Introduced Greek and technical terms into Latin. Discovery of his letters, often credited with initiating the 14th-century Renaissance. De Oratore, De Republica, Philippics, 14 speeches attacking Mark Antony.
Greek playwright (480-406 BC). Represents traditional, mythical heroes as ordinary people in extraordinary circumstances. 18 surviving plays, including: Medea, Electra, The Trojan Women, Heracles.
Jewish historian, military leader (AD 37-100). After capture by Romans, he becomes an advisor to Titus. Jewish Antiquities, a history of the Jews, The Jewish War, a history of the war against Rome.
Greek historian (484-425 BC). Father of History. 1st to carefully collect materials, test accuracy to a certain extent, arrange them in a well-constructed & vivid narrative. The Histories, 9 books tracing rise of Persian Empire and Greek resistance to the invasion.
Greek poet (750-650 BC). Father of Greek didactic poetry. 1st European poet to regard himself as part of the poem. Some consider him the 1st economist. Works and Days, contains maxims for farmers, Theogony, a genealogy of Greek gods.
Greek poet (7th or 8th century BC) About 1/2 of all fragments of papyrus found are from him. Illiad, Odyssey, describe Trojan War and subsequent events.
Roman lyric poet (65-8 BC). Fought for the Republic, later spokesman for the Empire. Odes, Epodes, collection of odelike poems, Epistles, and Satires.
Roman poet (late 1st, early 2nd century AD). 16 Satires ridiculing extravagances in Rome. There is still a great debate over how to interpret his satires. 'Who will watch the watchers?'(6.347-48).
Roman historian (59 BC–AD 17). He may have influenced the young future Emperor Claudius to begin recording the events of the Imperial family. History from the Founding of the City, 142 books, 35 survive, gives history of Rome to 9 BC.
Latin poet from Hispania (AD 40–102 ). Developed the epigram into its modern form. Satirizes city life and the scandalous activities of his acquaintances, and romanticises his provincial upbringing. 12 Books of epigrams.
Alexandrian priest, theologian (AD 184–254). Father of Systematic Theology May have castrated himself to avoid thoughts of lust. Wrote over 6000 works, and even though he was posthumously condemned as a heretic, exerted great influence on Christian theology. On First Principles, Hexapla, Against Celsus.
Roman poet (43 BC–AD 18). Exiled possibly for his sexually 'subversive' works. Amores, erotic elegy, subversive and humorous, exaggerating to the point of absurdity, it is about love and the poet's love affair with an unattainable higher class girl, Corinna The Art of Love, love poems, also focusing on the poet's relationship with Corinna. Metamorphoses, describing life and love of gods and heroes.
Alexandrian Jew (20 BC–AD 50) Hellenized Jew whose allegorical exegesis had a great influence on Christian writers. On The Embassy to Gaius, On the Life of Moses, Questions and Answers on Genesis.
Roman author, naturalist, natural philosopher, military commander, (AD 25-79). Served many emperors, but during Nero's reign wrote on innocuous subjects to avoid notice. Natural History, History of the German Wars.
Greek biographer, priest, ambassador, magistrate (AD 46–120). Middle Platonist, taught by Ammonius Saccus. Parallel Lives of Illustrious Greeks and Romans, Paired bios showing common moral virtues & vices, considered more important than the historical details.
Greek lyric poet from island of Lesbos (630-570 BC). Most of her work is lost, only one complete poem remains, along with many fragments. Some of the fragments are homoerotic, and suggestive of a lesbian orientation, but not explicit.
Greek playwright (497–405 BC). Introduced a third actor, reducing importance of chorus. Developed characters more than his predecessors. 7 Surviving tragedies, including Ajax, Antigone, Oedipus Rex, Electra, & Oedipus at Colonus.
Roman historian (AD 69–122). Nero burned Rome, playing a lyre, sanging during fire, blaming it on the Chrestiani, probably meaning 'Christians.' Another reference to Chrestus (Christ?) may be a reference to Christianity, some view it as a later interpolation. The Twelve Caesars, On Famous Men, Greek Games, Greek Terms of Abuse.
Roman historian, senator (AD 56–117). The Annals and the Histories, 2 works cover history of Rome from Augustus to Jewish War. Annals contains a rare, probably authentic pagan reference to crucifixion of Christ, and persecution of Christians.
Greek historian, general (460–395 BC). Father of Scientific History, explained history without referring intervention of the gods. Father of Political Realism, focused on relations between nations based on might, rather than right. History of the Peloponnesian War, covering war between Athens and Sparta from 431-411 (war continued to 404). Melian Dialogue
Roman poet (70–19 BC). Considered Rome's greatest poet. Dante's guide through hell and purgatory. Aeneid, story of the founding of Rome, the Ecologues, or Bucolics, Georgics, a poem of advice to farmers.
Greek historian, soldier, philosopher (430–354 BC) Next to Plato, richest resource for information on Socrates. Anabasis, tells of the 1500-mile march by 10,000 Greeks who chose him as leader after all other leaders had been killed; it is often read by beginning Greek students. Hellenica, continuation of the History of the Peloponnesian War by Thucydides.