Bio 105 Exam I

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definitionvocab word
p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1 , p+q=1
favors individuals with intermediate phenotypes, tends to decrease genetic diversity
'survival of the luckiest', non-darwinian evolution
all members of a species that live in the same area and have the opportunity to interbreed
when an organism has more than 2 sets of chromosomes
a group of related organisms that share a distinctive form
due to different types of genetic changes such as random gene mutations, occurs on individual level, traits are passed from parent to offspring
new species arise from pre-existing species by the accumulation of genetic changes like gene mutations
when 2 or more geographically restricted groups of the same species have one/more traits that are somewhat different, but not different enough to be a new species
the likelihood of an individual contributing fertile offspring to the next generation
the relative likelihood that a genotype will contribute to the gene pool of the next generation as compared to other genotypes
when an organism has at least one set of chromosomes from 2/more different species
when 2 or more genes are derived from the same ancestral gene
anatomical features that currently serve no purpose but resemble structures of presumed ancestors
the splitting of a population into 2 or more species
mechanisms which prevent interbreeding between different species
two morphologically similar species may not be able to breed with each other in nature
homologous genes found in the same species
a gene that commonly exists as 2 or more alleles in a population (most genes are this)
small scale evolution, single gene or allele frequencies
individuals with traits that make them more suited to native environment tend to survive and reproduce whereas others dont
# copies of a specific allele in a population / total # all alleles for that gene in a population
an organism incorporates genetic material from another organism without being its offspring (common for bacterial species)
genetic drift promotes it, does not affect reproductive success
definitionvocab word
favors individuals at one extreme of the phenotypic range
the mating of 2 genetically related individuals
favors individuals at either end of the phenotypic range
changes in allele frequency due to random chance
when allele frequencies of the resulting population change due to genetic drift
an intermediate state between an ancestral form and the form of its descendants
a form of natural selection directed at certain traits of sexually reproducing species that make it more likely to choose a mate
when members of a species within the same range diverge into 2/more different species although there are no physical barriers to interbreeding
large scale evolution, relates to formation of new species, etc
consists of 2 or more paralogous genes with the genome of a single species
structures that are similar to each other because they are derived from a common ancestor
the study of the geographic distribution of extinct and living species
species concept- each species occupies an ecological niche
reproductive isolating mechanism which blocks development of viable and fertile individuals after fertilization
2 or more alleles are kept in balance and therefore are maintained in a population over many generation
a gene that commonly exists as a single gene in a population
# individuals with a particular genotype in a population / total # individuals in a population
phenomenon in which the size of large animals isolated on an island shrinks over generations
rare forms have selective advantage, 'it pays to be unique'
phenomenon that a trait displays variation within a population
species concept- species are defined based on the separate evolution of lineages
a single ancestral species has evolved into a wide array of descendant species which vary in habitat/behavior/form
a similarity that occurs due to descent from a common ancestor
maintains genetic diversity in a population (type of selection)
definitionvocab word
reproductive isolating mechanism which prevents formation of a zygote
the tempo of evolution is more sporadic than suggested by gradualism
a trait that is similar between 2 species of different lineages
similar anatomical features that point to past evolutionary relationships, usually discovered through embryonic development
when balancing selection favors the heterozygote over corresponding homozygote
molecular changes in genetic material that underlie the phenotypic changes associated with evolution
each new species evolves continuously over long spans of time
species concept- a species is a group of individuals who could potentially interbreed to produce viable, fertile offspring but could not interbreed with members of another species
procedures designed to modify traits in domesticated species
members of one sex compete with each other for the opportunity to mate with individuals of the opposite sex
a heritable change in one/more characteristics of a population from one generation to the next
when a smaller group of individuals separates from a larger population and establishes a colony in a new location
formation of a new species
when some members of a species occupy a separate habitat isolated from others, most common way by which cladogenesis occurs
when 2 species from different lineages sometimes become anatomically similar because they occupy similar environments
when inbreeding produces homozygotes that are less fit, reducing reproductive success of the population
sexual selection between members of the opposite sex (male-female competition)
when individuals with similar phenotypes are more likely to mate
molecularly similar characteristics in all living cells (suggests that all living species have a common ancestor)
homologous genes found in different species
the zones where 2 populations can interbreed
the movement of alleles in or out of a population, occurs whenever individuals migrate between populations having different allele frequencies
subdivision of a genetically distinct population adapted to its local environment (for bacterial species)
species which are only found in one specific location

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